Solomon Was Not David’s Lord! Psalm 110:1 Revisited… Again!

In a vain attempt of disassociating the Lord Jesus from the inspired words of king David in the following Psalm,

“A Psalm of David. The LORD said to my lord (adoni), ‘Sit at My right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool.’” Psalm 110:1

Certain critics and skeptics have made the argument that David was actually referring to Solomon as his lord in light of the latter being the son whom God had chosen to sit enthroned over Israel:

“David said to Solomon, ‘My son, I had it in my heart to build a house for the name of the LORD my God, but the word of the LORD came to me, saying, “You have shed much blood and waged great wars. You shall not build a house for My name because you have shed much blood on the earth before Me. A son shall be born to you who shall be a man of rest. I will give him rest from all his enemies all around. Solomon will be his name, and I will give peace and tranquility to Israel in his days. He will be the one to build a house for My name. He shall be a son to Me, and I will be a father to him, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom over Israel forever.”’” 1 Chronicles 22:7-10

These folks will stop at nothing to discredit the messianic claims of the Lord Jesus and/or the historical veracity, let alone the inspiration, of the NT writings.

The problem with this interpretation is that it contradicts the emphatic witness of the Hebrew Bible itself that Solomon was chosen to rule on David’s throne in behalf of his father:

“Now therefore, you will say to My servant David: Thus says the LORD of Hosts: I took you from the pasture, from following after the sheep, to be ruler over My people Israel. I have been with you wherever you have gone, and I have cut off all of your enemies before you. I will make your name great, like the great ones across the land. Moreover, I will appoint a place for My people Israel. I will plant them, and they will dwell in that very place. They will be restless no longer, and the unjust will no longer oppress them, as in former times, ever since the day in which I appointed judges over My people Israel. I will give you rest from all of your enemies. The LORD declares to you that He will instead bring about a house for you. When your days are complete and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up after you an offspring from your body, and I will establish his rule. He will build a house for My name, and I will establish his royal throne forever. I will be a father to him, and he will be a son to Me. When he goes astray, I will correct him with the rod of men and afflictions of the sons of men. My commitment will not abandon him, as I removed it from Saul, whom I deposed before you. YOUR house and dominion will endure before Me forever, and YOUR throne will be established by the LORD forever.” 2 Samuel 7:8-16

Even David plainly stated that it was his very own throne, and therefore his kingdom, that Solomon was inheriting:

“‘Go to King David and say to him, “Did not you, my lord (adoni), O king, swear to your handmaid, saying: Assuredly Solomon your son shall reign after me, and he shall sit upon MY throne? Why then does Adonijah reign?”’… So Bathsheba went to the king’s chamber. Now the king was very old, and Abishag the Shunammite ministered to him. Bathsheba bowed and prostrated herself before the king. And the king said, ‘What do you want?’ And she said to him, ‘My lord (adoni), you swore by the LORD your God to your handmaid, saying: Assuredly Solomon your son shall reign after me, and he shall sit upon MY throne. But Adonijah reigns, and now, my lord (adoni), O king, you are unaware. He has slain oxen and fat cattle and sheep in abundance and has invited all the sons of the king and Abiathar the priest and Joab the commander of the army, but he has not invited your servant Solomon. And you, my lord (adoni), O king, all the eyes of Israel are upon you that you should tell them who shall sit on the throne OF my lord (adoni) the king after him. Otherwise it shall be that when my lord (adoni) the king sleeps with his fathers, I and my son Solomon shall be considered offenders.’ While she was still talking with the king, Nathan the prophet also came in. The king was told, ‘Nathan the prophet is here,” and when he entered the king’s presence, he bowed himself before the king with his face to the ground. Nathan said, ‘My lord (adoni), O king, have you said, “Adonijah shall reign after me, and he shall sit upon MY throne”? For he has gone down this day and has slain oxen, fat cattle, and sheep in abundance and has invited all the king’s sons, the commanders of the guard, and Abiathar the priest, and they eat and drink with him, saying, “God save King Adonijah!” But he has not invited me, your servant, or Zadok the priest or Benaiah the son of Jehoiada or your servant Solomon. Is this thing done by my lord (adoni) the king, and you have not let your servants know who should sit on the throne OF my lord (adoni) the king after him?’ Then King David answered and said, ‘Call Bathsheba to me.’ And she came into the king’s presence and stood before the king. The king vowed, ‘As the Lord lives, who has redeemed my soul out of all distress, even as I swore to you by the LORD God of Israel, saying, “Assuredly Solomon your son shall reign after me, and he shall sit upon MY throne in my stead,” even so will I certainly do this day.’ Then Bathsheba bowed with her face to the ground in reverence to the king and said, ‘Let my lord (adoni) King David live forever.’ King David said, ‘Call Zadok the priest, Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada for me.’ So they came before the king. And the king said to them, ‘Take with you the servants of your lord, and cause Solomon my son to ride upon my own mule, and bring him down to Gihon. And let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet there anoint him king over Israel, and blow the trumpet and say, “God save King Solomon!” Then you shall come up after him. And he shall come and sit on MY throne, for he will be king IN MY PLACE AS I HAVE APPOINTED HIM TO BE RULER over Israel and over Judah.’ Benaiah the son of Jehoiada answered the king and said, ‘Amen! May the LORD, the God of my lord (adoni) the king, also say so! As the LORD has been with my lord (adoni) the king, may He also be with Solomon and make his throne greater than the throne of my lord (adoni) King David.’… Jonathan answered Adonijah, saying, ‘Surely our lord King David HAS MADE Solomon KING. The king has sent with him Zadok the priest, Nathan the prophet, Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and the Kerethites, and the Pelethites. And they had him ride on the king’s mule. And Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet have anointed him king in Gihon, and they have come up from their rejoicing, so that the city is in an uproar. This is the noise that you heard. Also Solomon sits on the throne of the kingdom. Moreover, the king’s servants came to bless our lord King David, saying, “May God make the name of Solomon better than your name and make his throne greater than your throne.” And the king bowed himself upon the bed. The king also said, “Blessed be the LORD God of Israel, who has given one to sit on MY throne this day so that I could see with my own eyes.”’” 1 Kings 1:13, 16-37, 43-48

Interestingly, David is addressed as adoni all throughout this chapter, the very word that he himself employed in Psalm 110:1 to describe his exalted Lord who is enthroned alongside of Jehovah.

What this shows is that Solomon was David’s heir, and therefore could never be his lord.(1) And as long as David lived, Solomon would always be subject to his royal father.

In fact, David gave specific commands to Solomon before his death:

“Now it was coming close to the day of David’s death, and he gave his son Solomon a charge, saying: ‘I am going the way of all the earth. Be strong, and show yourself to be a man. And keep the charge of the LORD your God, walking in His ways, keeping His statutes, His commandments, His judgments, and His testimonies, as it is written in the Law of Moses, that you may prosper in all that you do and wherever you turn, that the LORD may carry out His word that He spoke concerning me, saying, “If your children take heed to their way, to walk before Me in faithfulness with all their hearts and with all their souls, you shall not fail to have a man on the throne of Israel.” Moreover, you know also what Joab the son of Zeruiah did to me, what he did to the two commanders of the army of Israel, to Abner the son of Ner and to Amasa the son of Jether, whom he killed, shedding the blood of war in a time of peace. He spilled their blood on the belt that was around his waist and on the shoes of his feet. Do the right thing according to your wisdom, and do not let his gray head go down to the grave in peace. But show kindness to the sons of Barzillai the Gileadite, and let them eat at your table, for with such loyalty they supported me when I fled from your brother Absalom. There is also with you Shimei the son of Gera, a Benjamite from Bahurim, who cursed me with a grievous curse in the day when I went to Mahanaim. But when he came down to meet me at the Jordan, I swore to him by the LORD, saying, “I will not put you to death with the sword.” Now therefore do not hold him guiltless, for you are a wise man and know what you ought to do to him. Bring his gray head down to the grave with blood.’ So David slept with his fathers and was buried in the City of David. David reigned over Israel forty years. He reigned seven years in Hebron and thirty-three years in Jerusalem. So Solomon sat upon the throne OF HIS FATHER DAVID, and his kingdom was firmly established.” 1 Kings 2:1-12 

Notice that not only did David continue to command his son up until his death, but also the inspired text plainly states that Solomon had been appointed to sit upon the throne of his father in his place and on his behalf. The foregoing passages even go so far as to say that it was David who personally made and appointed Solomon to be king in his stead.

Solomon himself affirmed this very point:

“Then King Solomon swore by the LORD, saying, ‘May God do so to me and more also if this word does not cost Adonijah his life. Now therefore as the LORD lives, who has established me and set me on the throne of David my father and who has made me a house as He promised, Adonijah shall be put to death this day… Therefore their blood shall return upon the head of Joab and upon the head of his seed forever, but upon David and upon his seed and upon his house and upon HIS throne shall the peace of the LORD rest forever.’… The king also said to Shimei, ‘You know all the wickedness in your heart and what you did to David my father. Therefore the LORD shall return your wickedness on your own head. But King Solomon shall be blessed, and THE THRONE OF DAVID shall be established before the LORD forever.’” 1 Kings 2:23-24, 33, 44-45

“Solomon answered, ‘You have shown great mercy to your servant David my father, because he walked before You in faithfulness, righteousness, and uprightness of heart toward You. And You have shown him great kindness in giving him a son to sit on HIS throne this day. Now, O LORD, my God, You have made Your servant king in place of my father David, and I am still a little child and do not know how to go out or come in.’” 1 Kings 3:6-7

“And Solomon sent word to Hiram, saying, ‘You know how David my father was unable to build a house for the name of the LORD his God because of the wars all around him, until the LORD put his enemies under his feet. But now the LORD my God has given me peace on every side, so that there is neither adversary nor misfortune. So know that I plan to build a house to honor the name of the LORD my God, just as the LORD spoke to my father David, saying, “Your son, whom I will set on YOUR throne after you, shall build a house to honor My name.”’” 1 Kings 5:2-5

In fact, the repeated assertion of Scripture is that all the Davidic kings were essentially inheriting the throne of their physical ancestor, which God had graciously bestowed upon David in his love for him:

“You have said, ‘I have made a covenant with my chosen one; I have sworn to David my servant: “Your offspring I will establish forever, and build up YOUR throne for all generations.”’ Selah… For the LORD is our shield of defense, and the Holy One of Israel is our king. Long ago You spoke in a vision to Your godly one and said: I have given help to one who is mighty; I have exalted one chosen from the people. I have found David, My servant; with My holy oil I have anointed him: By whom My hand shall be established; My arm also shall strengthen him. The enemy shall not take tribute from him, nor the wicked humiliate him. I will beat down his foes before him and strike down those who hate him. My faithfulness and My mercy shall be with him, and in My name his horn shall be exalted. I will set his hand on the sea and his right hand on the rivers. He shall cry unto Me, “You are my Father, my God, and the Rock of my salvation.” Also I will make him my firstborn, the highest of the kings of the earth. In My mercy I will keep him forever, and My covenant shall stand firm with him. His offspring also I will establish forever and HIS throne as the days of heaven. If his children forsake My law and do not walk in My judgments, if they break My statutes and do not keep My commandments, then I will punish their transgression with the rod and their iniquity with lashes. Nevertheless My lovingkindness I will not remove from him nor be false in My faithfulness. My covenant I will not violate nor alter the word that has gone out from My lips. Once and for all I have sworn by My holiness that I will not lie to David: His offspring shall endure forever, and HIS throne as the sun before Me; it shall be established forever as the moon and as a faithful witness in the heavens.’ Selah… You have made his glory cease and cast HIS throne down to the ground.” Psalm 89:3-4, 18-37, 44

“The LORD has sworn with a sure oath to David that He will not turn from it: ‘From the fruit of your body I will set a son on YOUR throne. If your children will keep My covenant and My testimonies that I shall teach them, then their children shall also sit upon YOUR throne forever.’ For the LORD has chosen Zion; He has desired it for His dwelling: ‘This is My resting place forever; here I will dwell, for I have chosen it. I will abundantly bless her provisions; I will satisfy her poor with bread. I will also clothe her priests with salvation, and her godly ones shall shout for joy. There I will make a horn sprout for David; I have prepared a lamp for My anointed one. His enemies I will clothe with shame, but on him his crown will shine.’” Psalm 132:11-18

“For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given, and the government shall be upon his shoulder. And his name shall be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David and over HIS kingdom, to order it and to establish it with justice and with righteousness, from now until forever. The zeal of the LORD of Hosts will perform this.” Isaiah 9:6-7

“In mercy the throne shall be established; and one who judges and seeks justice and is diligent in righteousness shall sit on it in truth in the tabernacle of David, judging.” Isaiah 16:5

“Surely, the days are coming, says the LORD, when I will perform that good word which I have promised to the house of Israel and to the house of Judah: In those days and at that time, I will cause a righteous Branch to spring up for David; and he shall execute justice and righteousness in the earth. In those days Judah will be saved, and Jerusalem will dwell safely. And this is the name by which she will be called: THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS. For thus says the LORD: David shall never lack a man to sit on the throne of the house of Israel; nor shall the Levitical priests lack a man before Me to offer burnt offerings, to kindle grain offerings, and to sacrifice continually. The word of the LORD came to Jeremiah, saying: Thus says the LORD: If you can break My covenant of the day and My covenant of the night so that there should not be day and night in their season, then also My covenant may be broken with David My servant, that he should not have a son to reign on HIS throne, and with the Levitical priests, My ministers. As the host of heaven cannot be numbered nor the sand of the sea measured, so I will multiply the seed of David My servant and the Levites that minister to Me.” Jeremiah 33:14-22

This also explains why the coming King is even called David, e.g., the anointed Ruler is thus called because he stands in the place of David as his representative:

“Incline your ear, and come to Me. Listen, so that your soul may live, and I will make an everlasting covenant with you, even the sure mercies of David. See, I have given him as a witness to the people, a leader and commander to the people.” Isaiah 55:3-4

“For it shall come to pass in that day, says the LORD of Hosts, that I shall break his yoke from off their neck and tear away their bonds, and strangers shall no longer make them their slaves. But they shall serve the LORD their God and David their king, whom I will raise up for them… Their leader shall be one of them, and their ruler shall proceed from their midst; and I will cause him to draw near and he will approach Me; for who is this that dares to approach Me? says the LORD.” Jeremiah 30:8-9, 21

“I will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even My servant David. He shall feed them himself and be their shepherd. I the LORD will be their God, and My servant David shall be prince among them. I the LORD have spoken.” Ezekiel 34:23-24

“And I will make them one nation in the land upon the mountains of Israel. And one king shall be king over them all. And they shall be two nations no more, nor shall they be divided into two kingdoms anymore… David My servant shall be king over them. And they all shall have one shepherd. They shall also walk in My judgments, and observe My statutes and do them. They shall dwell in the land that I have given to Jacob My servant, in which your fathers lived. And they shall dwell in it, they and their sons and their son’s sons forever. And My servant David shall be their prince forever.” Ezekiel 37:22, 24-25

“For the children of Israel will remain many days without a king and without a prince, without a sacrifice and without a standing stone, and without an ephod and teraphim. Afterward the children of Israel will return and seek the LORD their God and David their king. They will come in fear to the LORD and to His goodness in the latter days.” Hosea 3:4-5

The NT itself concurs since it describes Jesus as the Messiah who was appointed to sit upon David’s throne in order fulfill all the promises God made to Christ’s physical ancestor:

“He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Highest. And the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David, and He will reign over the house of Jacob forever. And of His kingdom there will be no end.” Luke 1:32-33

“Brothers, I may speak confidently to you concerning the patriarch David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. But being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him, that of his seed according to the flesh, He would raise up the Christ to sit on HIS throne, he foresaw this and spoke concerning the resurrection of the Christ, that His soul was not abandoned to Hades, nor did His flesh see corruption. God raised up this Jesus, of which we all are witnesses. Therefore being exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, He has poured out this which you now see and hear. For David has not ascended to the heavens, yet he says: ‘The Lord said to my Lord, “Sit at My right hand, Until I make Your enemies Your footstool.”’” Acts 2:29-35

“When He had removed him, He raised up David to be their king, of whom He testified, saying, ‘I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after My own heart, who will fulfill My entire will.’ From this man’s descendants God has raised a Savior for Israel, Jesus, according to His promise… We preach to you good news: The promise which was made to the fathers, God has fulfilled to us, their children, raising Jesus. As it is written in the second Psalm: ‘You are My Son; today I have become Your Father.’ That He raised Him from the dead, no more to return to corruption, He has spoken in this way: ‘I will give You the holy and sure blessings of David.’ So He says in another Psalm: ‘You will not let Your Holy One see decay.’” Acts 13:22-23, 32-35

All of these factors make it abundantly clear that Solomon could never have been David’s lord since Solomon was inheriting the throne of David, being one of the sons whom God had appointed to insure that his promises to David would never fail. And as long as David remained alive Solomon would always be subordinate to his father’s authority.

This brings me to my next point. David’s throne in reality belonged to Jehovah since David’s kingdom represented Jehovah’s earthly rule, his reign over his people Israel. As such, the throne in Jerusalem was actually Jehovah’s earthly throne,

“It shall come to pass when you are multiplied and increased in the land in those days, says the LORD, they will say no more, ‘The ark of the covenant of the LORD.’ And it will not come to mind, nor will they remember it, nor will they call for it, nor will it be made any more. At that time they will call Jerusalem, the Throne of the LORD, and all the nations will be gathered to it, to Jerusalem, for the name of the Lord; nor will they walk any more after the stubbornness of their evil hearts.” Jeremiah 3:16-17

“Listen! The cry of the daughter of my people from a far country: ‘Is not the LORD in Zion? Is not her king in her? Why have they provoked Me to anger with their graven images, with foreign vanities?’” Jeremiah 8:19

“Afterward he brought me to the gate, the gate facing east. And the glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the east. And His voice was like a noise of many waters. And the earth shone with His glory. It was according to the appearance of the vision which I saw, even according to the vision that I saw, when He came to destroy the city. And the visions were like the vision that I saw by the River Kebar. And I fell upon my face. The glory of the LORD came into the temple by the way of the gate facing east. So the Spirit took me up and brought me into the inner court. And the glory of the LORD filled the temple. Then I heard one speaking to me out of the temple. And a man stood by me. He said to me: Son of man, this is the place of My throne and the place of the soles of My feet, where I will dwell in the midst of the sons of Israel forever. And My holy name shall the house of Israel defile no more, nor they nor their kings by their harlotry, nor by the corpses of their kings when they die. By setting their threshold by My threshold and their post by My posts and the wall between Me and them, they have even defiled My holy name by their abominations that they have committed. Therefore I have consumed them in My anger. Now let them put away their harlotry and the corpses of their kings far from Me, and I will dwell in their midst forever.” Ezekiel 43:1-9

“The circumference shall be eighteen thousand cubits. And the name of the city from that day shall be, The LORD Is There.” Ezekiel 48:35

Which he had graciously given to David and his heirs to occupy, as Jehovah personally ruled from his own throne in heaven:

“He who sits in the heavens laughs; the LORD ridicules them.” Psalm 2:4

“The LORD is in His holy temple, His throne is in heaven; His eyes see, His eyes examine mankind.” Psalm 11:4

“The LORD has established His throne in the heavens, and His kingdom rules over all.” Psalm 103:19

“There is no one like the LORD our God. He sits on his throne high in heaven. He is so high above us that he must look down to see the sky and the earth.” Psalm 113:5-6 Easy-to-Read Version (ERV)

This is precisely why the Scriptures describe the Davidic kings as ruling on/from the throne of Jehovah’s earthly kingdom:

“Of all my sons (for the LORD has given me many sons), He has chosen my son Solomon to sit on the throne of the kingdom of the LORD over Israel. For He said to me, ‘Solomon your son is the one who shall build My house and My courts, for I have chosen him to be My son, and I will be his Father. I will establish his kingdom forever if he is fully committed to keep My commandments and My judgments as it is this day.’” 1 Chronicles 28:5-7

“Then Solomon sat on the throne of the LORD as king instead of David his father, and he prospered, and all Israel obeyed him. All the leaders and the mighty men, and also the sons of King David, pledged their allegiance to King Solomon.” 1 Chronicles 29:23-24

“May the LORD your God be blessed, who has delighted in you, to set you as king on the throne of the LORD your God. Your God has loved Israel to establish them continually and has set you as king over them to perform justice and righteousness.” 2 Chronicles 9:8

“And now you think that you can withstand before the kingdom of the LORD by the hand of the sons of David. And you all are a great multitude, and with you are the golden calves that Jeroboam has made for you to be gods.” 2 Chronicles 13:8

And this also explains why God became a physical descendant of David in the Person of Jesus Christ (cf. Isaiah 9:6-7; Jeremiah 23:5-6; Micah 5:2-4; Matthew 1:1, 18-23; 2:1-6; Luke 1:26-35; 2:1-11; John 1:1-4, 9-10, 14, 18; 5:17-29; 8:56-59; 10:30-33; 20:28-29; Romans 1:3-4; 9:5; 2 Timothy 2:5-8; Titus 2:13; Hebrews 1:1-14; 2:5-16; 7:14-16; 2 Peter 1:1; 1 John 1:1-2; 5:20; Revelation 5:5; 22:12-16).

Christ is the God who became man for the express purpose of reigning on David’s throne in order to reclaim the Davidic kingdom to God, while keeping true to his promise to the Jewish monarch that he would never fail to have a physical offspring ruling on his behalf.

In other words, since David’s throne is actually Jehovah’s, God therefore chose to personally reign upon that throne instead of someone else. And yet since God swore to David that Jehovah’s earthly throne was to be the Jewish king’s everlasting inheritance, and since God cannot lie and does not change his mind,

“God is not a man, that He should lie, nor a son of man, that He should repent. Has He spoken, and will He not do it? Or has He spoken, and will He not make it good?” Numbers 23:19

“The LORD has sworn and will not change, ‘You are a priest forever after the order of Melchizedek.’” Psalm 110:4

“in hope of eternal life which God, who cannot lie, promised before the world began,” Titus 1:2

“So God, wanting to show more abundantly the immutability of His counsel to the heirs of promise, confirmed it by an oath. So that by two immutable things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we who have fled for refuge might have strong encouragement to hold fast to the hope set before us.” Hebrews 6:17-18

Jehovah humbled himself to become an actual physical descendant of David in order to keep his oath that David would always have a human heir ruling on the throne.

Hence, the Davidic throne now has someone who is both God and human seated upon it, being both the Son of God and the Son of David!

With the foregoing in view it is time now to proceed to the addendum


(1) The Quran and Islamic tradition even agree that Solomon was the heir of David’s kingdom:

We gave (in the past) knowledge to David and Solomon: And they both said: “Praise be to God, Who has favoured us above many of his servants who believe!” And Solomon was David’s heir. He said: “O ye people! We have been taught the speech of birds, and on us has been bestowed (a little) of all things: this is indeed Grace manifest (from God.)” S. 27:15-16 Y. Ali

And Solomon was David’s heir) as king instead of all the other sons of David who were 19 in number. (And he said) Solomon said: (O mankind! Lo! we have been taught) we were given the understanding of (the language of birds, and have been given (abundance) of all things) and we were given the knowledge of everything in my kingdom. (This surely is evident favour) this is surely a great blessing from Allah. (Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs; bold emphasis ours)

(And Sulayman inherited from Dawud.) means, in kingship and prophethood. What is meant here is not wealth, because if that were the case, Sulayman would not have been singled out from among the sons of Dawud, as Dawud had one hundred wives. Rather what is meant is the inheritance of kingship and prophethood, for the wealth of the Prophets cannot be inherited, as the Messenger of Allah said…

<<We Prophets cannot be inherited from; whatever we leave behind is charity.>> …(Tafsir Ibn Kathir; bold emphasis ours)


2 thoughts on “Solomon Was Not David’s Lord! Psalm 110:1 Revisited… Again!

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