Was Aisha really only Nine? Pt. 4

We come to the final segment of the rebuttal (https://answeringislamblog.wordpress.com/2019/11/16/was-aisha-really-only-nine-pt-3/).

References
[1] Amjad, M. “The Learner” (1998). “What was Ayesha’s (ra) Age at the Time of Her Marriage?” Understanding Islam.
Saleem, R. M. (2008). “Age of Al-Sayyida Aisha When She Married the Prophet Muhammad (peace and mercy of God be upon him).” Discovering Islam.
[2] Saleem, S. (2009). Islam and Women: Misconceptions and Misperceptions. Lahore: Al-Mawrid.
[3] Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir (The Big Book of Categories) vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina, pp. 43-45. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari. Al-Jami al-Musnad al-Sahih al-Mukhtasar min umur Rasul Allah wa Sunnanihi wa Ayyaamihi (The Abridged Collection of Sound Reports with Chains of Narration to Allah’s Messenger on his Lifestyle and his Times) 5:58:234, 5:58:236, 7:62:64, 7:62:65 and 7:62:88.
Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj al-Naysaburi. Jami al-Sahih (The Sound Collection) 8:3309, 8:3310 and 8:3311.
Ahmad ibn Shuwayb al-Nasaï. Al-Sunan al-Sughra (The Lifestyle – Abridged) 4:26:3257, 4:26:3258, 4:26:3259, 4:26:3260, 4:26:3380 and 4:26:3381.
Abu Dawud Sulayman ibn Al-Ashaath al-Azdi al-Sijistani. Sunan Abi Dawud (Abu Dawud’s Lifestyle) 41:4915 and 41:4917.
[4] Abdalmalik ibn Hisham. Notes to Ibn Ishaq’s Life of Allah’s Messenger. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad, p. 792 note 918. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[5] Ali, M. (1923). Muhammad the Prophet. Lahore: Ahamadiyya Anjuman Ishaat Islam.
[6] Ali (1923).
[7] Amjad (1998).
[8] Abu Dawud 11:2098. Abu Dawud 11:2099.
[9] Amjad (1998). The quote is from Ibn Hajar, apparently inspired by Ali’s (1923, p. 183) paraphrase.
[10] Ali (1923) p. 183. Saleem (2008).
[11] Ahmad ibn Hajar al-Asqalani. Al-Isaba fi tamyiz al-Sahaba (The Attempt to Catalogue the Companions) vol. 4 p. 377.
[12] Haddad, G. F. (2004). “Our Mother A’isha’s Age At The Time Of Her Marriage to The Prophet.” Living Islam, Islamic Tradition.
Al-Haj, H. (2010). Yes, He (PBUH) Married Her at Age Nine and there is No Harm.
[13] Ali (1923).
[14] Saleem (2008).
[15] For example, in Guillaume’s translation of Ibn Ishaq, Parts 2 and 3 contain the expression “God sent down,” followed by a verse of the Quraan, 92 times. Each occurrence follows a specific event in Muhammad’s life.
[16] Bukhari 6:60:387. Bukhari 6:60:388. Bukhari 6:60:399. Bukhari 6:61:515.
[17] Haddad (2004). See also:
Maududi, A. A. (1972). Tafhim al-Quraan (The Meaning of the Quraan) on Q54.
[18] Haddad (2004).
[19] Amjad (1998).
[20] Muslim 8:3311 (1).
[21] Ibn Saad vol. 8 (Bewley) pp. 54-55.
[22] Muslim 8:3311 (2).
[23] Nasaï 4:26:3381.
[24] Nasaï 4:26:3259.
[25] Haddad (2004).
[26] See also Ibn Hisham (Guillaume) p. 792 note 918.
[27] Amjad (1998).
[28] Haddad (2004).
[29] Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir (The Big Book of Categories) vol. 5. Translated by Bewley, A. (2000). The Men of Madina Volume II, p. 294. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
[30] Amjad (1998). Saleem (2008).
[31] Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rusul wa’l-Muluk (History of the Prophets and Kings). Translated by Blankinship, K. Y. (1993). Volume 11: The Challenge to the Empires, pp. 140-141. Albany: State University of New York Press.
[32] Tabari (Blankinship) vol. 11 p. 141 f 766. Commentary by Blankinship.
[33] Haddad (2004). Al-Haj (2010).
[34] Amjad (1998). Saleem (2008).
[35] Al-Haj (2010).
[36] Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Dhahabi. Siyar al-Lam al-Nubala (Biographies of Noble Persons) vol. 2 #143.
Literally, “a few years and ten”. The Arabic word translated “a few” means “three to nine”. Ten or more would be “many”.
[37] Dhahabi vol. 2 #143.
[38] Ibn Saad (Bewley) vol. 5 pp. 372-373.
[39] Al-Haj (2010).
[40] Al-Haj (2010).
[41] Dhahabi vol. 4 #668.
[42] Amjad (1998). Saleem (2008).
[43] Jalal ad-Deen al-Suyuti. Tarikh al-Khulafa. Translated by Jarrett, H. S. (1881). History of the Caliphs, p. 119. Calcutta: The Asiatic Society.
[44] Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Sirat Rasul Allah (The Life of Allah’s Messenger). Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad, pp. 115-116. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[45] Muslim 33:6426.
[46] Bukhari 5:59:423.
[47] Amjad (1998). Saleem (2008).
[48] Muslim 19:4455.
[49] Bukhari 7:62:95. Muslim 23:5033.
[50] Amjad (1998).
[51] “Truther” (2012). “Age of Hazrat Aisha (r.a): logical and critical analysis of age of hazrat Aisha. r.a.” Truth Hazrat Ayesha.
Amjad (1998).
[52] Haddad (2004).
[53] Saleem (2008).
[54] Saleem (2008).
[55] Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rusul wa’l-Muluk (History of the Prophets and Kings). Translated by Landau-Tasseron, E. (1998). Volume 39: Biographies of the Prophet’s Companions and Their Successors, p. 172. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Ibn Ishaq (Guillaume) p. 495. Ibn Saad vol. 8 (Bewley) pp. 44-45. Bukhari 5:59:462. Muslim 37:6673.
[56] Muhammad ibn Yazid ibn Maja al-Qazwini. Sunan Ibn Maja (Ibn Maja’s Lifestyle) 3:1877.
Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rusul wa’l-Muluk (History of the Prophets and Kings). Translated by Poonawala, I. K. (1990). Volume 9: The Last Years of the Prophet, pp. 130-131. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Bukhari 7:62:88. Bukhari 7:62:90. Muslim 8:3309. Muslim 8:3310. Muslim 8:3311. Abu Dawud 28:3894. Abu Dawud 41:4915. Abu Dawud 41:4917.
[57] Suyuti (Jarrett) p. 35.
[58] Ibn Saad vol. 8 (Bewley) p. 177.
[59] Yusuf ibn Abdallah “ibn Abdalbarr” al-Namari. Kitab al-Istiaab fi maarifat al-Ashab (The Comprehensive Book of the Names of the Companions) vol. 3 p. 1876. Cairo, 1960.
Ali Izz al-Deen ibn al-Athir. Usd al-Ghaba fi Maarifat al-Sahaba (The Lions of the Forest and the Knowledge about the Companions) vol. 7 p. 181.
However, Muhammad overruled Abu Bakr, and Abdallah was allowed to reunite with his wife.
[60] Muslim 8:3450.
[61] Ali ibn Ahmad al-Wahidi. Asbab al-Nuzul (The Occasions for Revelation). Translated by Guezzou, M. (2008). Tafsir on Q22:58. Amman, Jordan: Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought.
[62] Muslim 9:3506.
[63] Tabari, M. (2010). “Sayyidah Ayshah”. The Mothers of the Believers: Islamic Role Models for Women. Karachi: Darul Ishaat.
Ibn Saad vol. 8 (Bewley) p. 56. Bukhari 1:7:330. Bukhari 7:62:177. Bukhari 8:82:827. Bukhari 8:82:828. Muslim 9:3506.
[64] Abu Dawud 10 :1814. Ibn Saad vol. 8 (Bewley) p. 145.
[65] Ibn Ishaq (Guillaume) p. 263.
[66] “Truther” (2012).
[67] Quraan 65:1, 4 (Shakir).
[68] Quraan 33:49 (Shakir).
[69] Muslim 3:675.
[70] Bukhari 6:61:515.
[71] Quraan 4:3.
See also Ismail ibn Umar ibn Kathir. Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Ibn Kathir’s Commentary) on Q4:3.
[72] Saleem (2008).
[73] François-Cerrah, M. “The truth about Muhammad and Aisha.” The Guardian, 17 September 2012.
[74] Ibn Maja 3:12:2277.
Bukhari 3:34:344.
[75] E.g., Ibn Ishaq (Guillaume) parts 2 and 3 orients the reader to time by mentioning dates in 35 separate instances. It is unlikely that Ibn Ishaq (writing 150 years later) was inventing these dates since there are other events that he leaves undated. More likely, he knew the dates of these 35 events because the dates had been marked in the time of Muhammad.
[76] Ibn Ishaq (Guillaume) pp. 286-289, 617-618, 620, 642, 651.
[77] Ibn Ishaq (Guillaume) p. 115.
[78] Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir (The Big Book of Categories) vol. 2. Translated by Haq, S. M. (1972). Ibn Sa’d’s Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir Volume II Parts I & II, p. 481. Delhi: Kitab Bhavan.
Ibn Saad vol. 8 (Bewley), p. 47.
[79] Ibn Saad vol. 8 (Bewley) p. 55.
[80] Muslim 8:3311. Nasaï 4:26:3260. Ibn Maja 3:9:1877.
[81] Saleem (2008).
[82] Zaatari, S. “A Detailed analysis of the Prophet’s Marriage to Aïsha.” Muslim Responses.
[83] Bukhari 8:73:151. See also Bukhari 3:48:829. Muslim 4:1940.
[84] Ibn Ishaq (Guillaume) p. 490.
[85] Bukhari 3:48:829. Bukhari 5:59:462. Muslim 37:6673.
[86] Ibn Ishaq (Guillaume) pp. 494-495. Bukhari 3:48:829. Bukhari 5:59:462. Muslim 37:6673.
[87] Muslim 4:1940. See also Bukhari 2:15:70.
[88] Muhammad ibn Umar al-Waqidi. Kitab al-Maghazi (The Book of Battles). Translated by Faizer, R., Ismail, A., & Tayob, A. K. (2011). The Life of Muhammad, p. 244. Oxford and New York: Routledge.
Ibn Ishaq (Guillaume) p. 457.
[89] Waqidi (Faizer) pp. 251-252.
[90] Ibn Saad vol. 8 (Bewley) p. 76.
[91] Nasaï 2:19:1598. The Mina days of relaxation and celebration after the solemn pilgrimage days were 11-13 Zu’l-Hijja.
[92] Waqidi (Faizer) p. 312.
[93] Ibn Ishaq (Guillaume) pp. 493-499. Waqidi (Faizer) pp. 208-216.
[94] Ibn Saad vol. 8 (Bewley) p. 193.
[95] Ibn Ishaq (Guillaume) p. 530. Waqidi (Faizer) p. 365.
[96] Ibn Ishaq (Guillaume) p. 531.
[97] Muhammad was also in Medina for the Mina Days of the subsequent year (4–6 April 630) (Ibn Ishaq (Guillaume) p. 597). But we are reluctant to believe that Aïsha was still prepubescent at age 16. The following year, 24–26 March 631, is absolutely ruled out, since Abu Bakr was in Mecca at that date (Ibn Ishaq (Guillaume) p. 617), but Aïsha specifically states that he was in Medina on the day of the Abyssinian display (Bukhari 2:15:70; Muslim 4:1940). In the final year of Aïsha’s marriage, the whole family was in Mecca for the Mina Days (Ibn Ishaq (Guillaume) pp. 649-652).
[98] Ibn Ishaq (Guillaume) p. 530.
[99] Abu Dawud 42:4914.
[100] Bukhari 8:73:151.
[101] Bukhari 3:34:318. Abu Dawud 32:4146.
[102] See Finley, H. (2003). “Average age at menarche in various cultures.” The Museum of Menstruation and Women’s Health.
See also Terry, M. B., Ferris, J. S., & Tehranifar, P., Wei, Y., & Flom, J. D. (2009). Birth Weight, Postnatal Growth, and Age at Menarche. American Journal of Epidemiology, 170, 72-79.
In the Middle Ages in the Middle East, the mean age of menarche was 12½ years. This is quite similar to today, when the standard deviation is about 18 months. So it was probably quite rare for any of Aïsha’s contemporaries to hit menarche before age 10 or after age 15. While it is not impossible for a well-nourished girl of only just nine to reach menarche (even under the natural circumstances before the era of environmental chemicals), the records clearly indicate that this is not what happened to Aïsha.
[103] Saleem (2008).
[104] Auerbach, L. (1944). The Babylonian Talmud in Selection, p. 192. Santa Cruz, USA: Evinity Publishing.
[105] Muhammad ibn Isa al-Tirmidhi. Al-Jami al-Sahih (The Collection of the Sound) 2:6:1109.
[106] Ezekiel 16:7-8.
See also Rich, T. R. (1996–2011). “Prohibited Marriages and Illegitimate Children.” Judaism 101. http://www.jewfaq.org/marriage.htm
[107] Rich (1996–2011).
[108] François-Cerrah (2012).
[109] Ibn Ishaq (Guillaume) pp. 367, 495-496, 550-551, 675, 676.
[110] Bukhari 5:58:169.
[111] Quraan 81:8-9.
[112] Gairdner, W. H. T. (1919). Mohammed without Camouflage: Ecce Homo … Arabicus. The Moslem World, 9, 25-57..
[113] Al-Haj (2010).
[114] François-Cerrah (2012).
[115] American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
[116] APA (2013).
[117] Macarthur, T. (2014). Unveiled – The Nineteen Wives of Muhammad.. https://www.amazon.com/Tara-MacArthur/e/B00QG84RO0

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