This is the material that I compiled for Adnan Rashid’s rather desperate attempt of trying to prove that the Quran testifies to the corruption of the Old and New Testaments. You can watch Adnan’s attempt at a reply here:
Did the author of the Quran know the Bible? Responding to David Wood (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NFyjLRgxiFI&t=674s)
FIRST OBJECTION: THE TITLE PHARAOH NOT USED AT THE TIME OF JOSEPH
Adnan has chosen to parrot an objection that has been refuted time and time again. The argument goes something like this. In Genesis, the king of Egypt at Joseph’s time is called Pharaoh. However, the Egyptians did not call their ruler Pharaoh until the 18th Dynasty (c.1552 – 1295 BC). In the language of the hieroglyphs, Pharaoh was first used to refer to the king during the reign of Amenhophis IV (c. 1352-1338 BC). Therefore, We know that such a designation was correct in the time of Moses(P) but the use of the word Pharaoh in the story of Joseph is an anachronism.
In the first place, Genesis does call Pharaoh king:
“And Joseph’s master took him, and put him into the prison, a place where the king’s prisoners were bound: and he was there in the prison.” Genesis 39:20
“And it came to pass after these things, that the butler of the king of Egypt and his baker had offended their lord the king of Egypt… And they dreamed a dream both of them, each man his dream in one night, each man according to the interpretation of his dream, the butler and the baker of the king of Egypt, which were bound in the prison.” Genesis 40:1, 5
“And Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh king of Egypt. And Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh, and went throughout all the land of Egypt.” Genesis 41:46
Secondly, it is not an error for a later inspired writer to refer to the King of Egypt by the common title Pharaoh for his intended readers when that is how they would have referred to him at that time.
Thirdly, Adnan’s objection ends up backfiring against him since he has erroneously assumed that the Exodus of Moses must have taken place during the 13th century BC. The fact is, there is debate among Biblical archaeologists concerning the chronology of Moses and the Exodus, but it can be confidently stated that most scholars place the Exodus prior to the reign of Amenhophis IV.
In Judges 11:26, one of the last judges named Jephthah, says that the period of time from the first settlement in Transjordan, during the Conquest, to his own time, is 300 years. I Kings 6:1, tells us that the time from the Exodus to the building the temple by Solomon in 966 BC is recorded as 480 years, which complements the date in Judges. These two passages place the Exodus around 1450 BC, long before Amenhophis IV (c. 1352-1338 BC).
Here is where the problem lay for Adnan. Since Amenhophis IV (c. 1352-1338 BC) was the first King of Egypt to be referred to as Pharaoh, whereas the Exodus occurred before the reign of Amenhophis IV, Adnan has now condemned Allah and his messenger for not knowing their history.
After all, the Quran (as well as the book of Exodus) applies the moniker Pharaoh to the King of Egypt at a time when such a title was not in usage!
Moses said: O Pharaoh! Lo! I am a messenger from the Lord of the Worlds, S. 7:104 Pickthall
This now brings me to my next section.
THE QURAN’S MANIFOLD ERRORS
Adnan’s woes are just beginning. The Quran exhorts its readers to consult the Israelites, specifically the Jews, when wanting to know of comes their sacred history:
Ask of the Children of Israel how many a clear revelation We gave them! He who altereth the grace of Allah after it hath come unto him (for him), lo! Allah is severe in punishment. S. 2:211 Pickthall
And if thou (Muhammad) art in doubt concerning that which We reveal unto thee, then question those who read the Scripture (that was) before thee. Verily the Truth from thy Lord hath come unto thee. So be not thou of the waverers. S. 10:94
And certainly We gave Musa nine clear signs; so ask the children of Israel. When he came to them, Firon said to him: Most surely I deem you, O Musa, to be a man deprived of reason. S. 17:101 Shakir
Here is a list of some of the many gross errors of the Quran when it comes to the historical record of the patriarchs and the Exodus in the possession of the Jews of Muhammad’s time.
Who in the world is Al-Aziz?
Since we are on the subject of Joseph, perhaps Adnan can kindly explain why the Quran erroneously gives Potiphar, the man who took Joseph in as his slave, the name al-Aziz:
Ladies said in the City: “The wife of the `Aziz is seeking to seduce her slave from his (true) self: Truly hath he inspired her with violent love: we see she is evidently going astray.” S. 12:30
(The king) said (to the ladies): “What was your affair when ye did seek to seduce Joseph from his (true) self?” The ladies said: “Allah preserve us! no evil know we against him!” Said the `Aziz’s wife: “Now is the truth manifest (to all): it was I who sought to seduce him from his (true) self: He is indeed of those who are (ever) true (and virtuous). S. 12:51
Abram or Abraham?
In Genesis 17:1, 3, 5 we read:
“When Abram was ninety-nine years old, the LORD appeared to him and said, “I am God Almighty, walk before me and be blameless. … Abram fell facedown, and God said to him … No longer will you be called Abram, your name will be Abraham for I have made you father of many nations.”
From then onwards his name is “Abraham”, the name most people know of the Biblical patriarch, even if they have never heard of his original name.
The Quran, on the other hand, refers to him as “Abraham” already in his youth:
They said: “We heard of the youth talked of them: He is called Abraham.” S. 21:60
Calling him “Abraham” about eighty years too early is one example of the Qur’anic errors of historical compression but that might be too big a term for this simple mistake of oversight or rather common ignorance.
Who is your daddy?
The Torah plainly states that Abram’s father’s name was Terah:
“Now these are the generations of Terah. Terah fathered Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran fathered Lot. Haran died in the presence of his father Terah in the land of his kindred, in Ur of the Chaldeans… Terah took Abram his son and Lot the son of Haran, his grandson, and Sarai his daughter-in-law, his son Abram’s wife, and they went forth together from Ur of the Chaldeans to go into the land of Canaan, but when they came to Haran, they settled there. The days of Terah were 205 years, and Terah died in Haran.” Genesis 11:27-28, 31-32
The Quran, on the other hand, claims it was Azar!
(Remember) when Abraham said unto his father Azar: Takest thou idols for gods? Lo! I see thee and thy folk in error manifest. Thus did We show Abraham the kingdom of the heavens and the earth that he might be of those possessing certainty. S. 6:74-75
Pharaoh’s Wife or Daughter?
According to the Holy Bible, when Pharaoh sought to slay all the Hebrew male babies God saved Moses by having Pharaoh’s daughter adopt the baby as her own child:
“Now a man from the house of Levi went and took as his wife a Levite woman. The woman conceived and bore a son, and when she saw that he was a fine child, she hid him three months. When she could hide him no longer, she took for him a basket made of bulrushes and daubed it with bitumen and pitch. She put the child in it and placed it among the reeds by the river bank. And his sister stood at a distance to know what would be done to him. Now the daughter of Pharaoh came down to bathe at the river, while her young women walked beside the river. She saw the basket among the reeds and sent her servant woman, and she took it. When she opened it, she saw the child, and behold, the baby was crying. She took pity on him and said, ‘This is one of the Hebrews’ children.’ Then his sister said to Pharaoh’s daughter, ‘Shall I go and call you a nurse from the Hebrew women to nurse the child for you?’ And Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, ‘Go.’ So the girl went and called the child’s mother. And Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, ‘Take this child away and nurse him for me, and I will give you your wages.’ So the woman took the child and nursed him. When the child grew up, she brought him to Pharaoh’s daughter, and he became her son. She named him Moses, ‘Because,’ she said, ‘I drew him out of the water.’” Exodus 2:1-10
“And after he had been set outside, Pharaoh’s daughter took him away and nurtured him as her own son.” Acts 7:21
The Quran comes over two thousand years later to contradict the earlier, historical accounts:
And We inspired the mother of Moses, saying: Suckle him and, when thou fearest for him, then cast him into the river and fear not nor grieve. Lo! We shall bring him back unto thee and shall make him (one) of Our messengers. And the family of Pharaoh took him up, that he might become for them an enemy and a sorrow, Lo! Pharaoh and Haman and their hosts were ever sinning. And the wife of Pharaoh said: (He will be) a consolation for me and for thee. Kill him not. Peradventure he may be of use to us, or we may choose him for a son. And they perceived not. S. 28:7-9 Pickthall
There is no god but Pharaoh?
The Quran erroneously has the Pharaoh claimed to be the only god worshiped by the Egyptians:
Fir’aun (Pharaoh) said: “O chiefs! I know not that you have an ilah (a god) other than me, so kindle for me (a fire), O Haman, to bake (bricks out of) clay, and set up for me a Sarhan (a lofty tower, or palace, etc.) in order that I may look at (or look for) the Ilah (God) of Musa (Moses); and verily, I think that he [Musa (Moses)] is one of the liars.” S. 28:38 Al-Hilali & Khan
And Pharaoh said, ‘Council, I know not that you have any god but me. Kindle me, Haman, a fire upon the clay, and make me a tower, that I may mount up to Moses’ god; for I think that he is one of the liars.’ S. 28:38 Arberry
Not only does this contradict secular history, but it even contradicts the Quran itself!
The chiefs of Fir’aun’s (Pharaoh) people said: “Will you leave Musa (Moses) and his people to spread mischief in the land, and to abandon you and your gods?” He said: “We will kill their sons, and let live their women, and we have indeed irresistible power over them.” S. 7:127 Al-Hilali & Khan
Haman: Pharaoh’s Master Builder!
The Quran posits a person named Haman at the time of Moses:
Pharaoh and Haman, and their hosts were sinners… And Pharaoh said, “Council, I know not that you have any god but me. Kindle me, Haman, a fire upon the clay, and make me a tower, that I may mount up to Moses’ god; for I think that he is one of the liars.” S. 28:8 38
Pharaoh said, “Haman, build for me a tower, that haply so I may reach the cords, the cords of the heavens, and look upon Moses’ God; for I think that he is a liar.” S. 40:36-37
This is another possible example of two historical compressions in the same story and the same confusion in both texts that recount the event.
According to Surah 28:35-42 and 40:36-37, Haman was a minister or official of the Pharaoh. And yet according to biblical history Haman served as the minister of Ahasuerus (king of Persia, Xerxes I is his name in Greek). Apart from the error in location, this is placing Pharaoh (Moses) and Haman in the same story even though they lived 1,000 years apart. See Esther 3:1.
Furthermore, this story of building a tower reaching into heaven (“the Tower of Babel”) is an event that took place long before Abraham, who lived at least 400 years before Moses. See Genesis 11:1-9, especially the verses 3-4:
“Let us build make bricks and bake them thoroughly… and build a… tower that reaches to the heavens.”
Where is the blood and are you sure about those plagues?
Most astonishingly, the Quran not only makes the mistake of claiming that Moses was sent with 9 signs, as opposed to 10,
To Moses We did give Nine Clear Signs: As the Children of Israel: when he came to them, Pharaoh said to him: “O Moses! I consider thee, indeed, to have been worked upon by sorcery! Moses said, “Thou knowest well that these things have been sent down by none but the Lord of the heavens and the earth as eye-opening evidence: and I consider thee indeed, O Pharaoh, to be one doomed to destruction!” S. 17:101-102 Y. Ali
It never bothers to mention the last and most important sign, the one which resulted in Pharaoh setting Israel free, namely, the Passover and the deaths of the firstborn (Cf. Exodus 12)!
The Samaritan made them do it!
The Quran erroneously posits a Samaritan at the time of Moses and blames him for fashioning the golden calf!
Said He: “Then [know that], verily, in thy absence We have put thy people to a test, and the Samaritan (al-samiriyyu) has led them astray.”… They answered: “We did not break our promise to thee of our own free will, but [this is what happened:] we were loaded with the [sinful] burdens of the [Egyptian] people’s ornaments, and so we threw them [into the fire], and likewise did this Samaritan (al-samiriyyu) cast [his into it].”… Said [Moses]: “What, then, didst thou have in view, O Samaritan (ya samiriyyu)?” S. 20:85, 87, 95 Muhammad Asad
The question that Adnan needs to answer is, how can a Samaritan have led the Israelites astray at the time of Moses [about 1400 BC.] when the city of Samaria was founded by King Omri in about 870 BC. (see 1 Kings 16:24), while the Samaritans as a distinct people only emerged after the exile of the Northern kingdom of Israel and the resettlement of the area under king Sargon II in after 722 BC. with non-Israelites which then adopt a syncretism [mixture] between the religion of the Jews and their own polytheistic background?
It is historically impossible that a Samaritan could have led the Israelites into idolatry in the time of Moses. This is another time compression of at least 500, but rather 700 years.
I am not through with Adnan since I will have more problems for him to address in the next part of my rebuttal: REFUTING ADNAN RASHID PT. 2.