The following was authored by the late Christian theologian and apologist Dr. Labib Mikhail. I post it here for the benefit of the readers.
The Third Test is the Test of Internal Consistency
If a book is truly inspired by the true God, it should not contradict itself. WE see an example of this in the four Gospels in the New Testament as we mentioned before.
In contrast to the Bible, the Quran is full of discrepancies and many Muslim scholars firmly believe that is has also been altered. There is no doubt that Calipah Uthman tampered with it. Aisha, Muhammed’s wife said:
Surat Al-Ahzab was 200 verses during the prophet’s life; when uthman wrote the Quran it became what is now (72 verses) (Alostora Wa-Altorath- The Legend and the Heritage, page 274).
The Bible was written over a period of 1500 years, by almost forty writers, among them a shepherd like Amos, a fisherman like Peter, a King like Solomon, a priest like Ezra, a statesman like Daniel, and a tax collector like Matthew. But the unity of sixty-six books of the Bible is amazing. We cannot interpret the book of Hebrews without reading the book of Leviticus; we cannot explain the book of Revelation without reading the book of Genesis. This proves that the Holy Spirit is the inspirer of all the books as the apostle Peter says:
Knowing this first, that no prophecy of Scripture is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit (II Peter 1:20, 21 NKJ)
More importantly, we noticed that every book of the Bible has a special message, Genesis is the book of beginnings, exodus is the book of redemption, Proverbs is the book of practical daily life, Ecclesiastes shows that all the things under the sun are vanity of vanities and Psalms is the book of experience of joy and sadness of desperation and trust.
On the other hand, we find that the Quran, which was given to one man Muhammad in a period of less than twenty-three years, is full of contradictions and inconsistencies.
The Quran declares that Allah caused some of his revelations to be abrogated, and some to be forgotten and in that case Allah gave Muhammad better or similar revelations. Here are the words of the Quran:
None of Our revelations do we abrogate or cause to be forgotten, but we substitute something better or similar: knowest thou not that Allah hat power over all things? (Surat Al-Baqarah 2:106)
That verse shows that Allah is not immutable, it shows that he is competing with himself. He abrogates a verse to give a better or similar one. The questions here is: If Allah will give a similar verse why does he cancel the first verse?
Abdallah Abd Al-Fadi said:
Abrogation in God’s words goes against His wisdom, truthfulness and foreknowledge. It is the short-sighted man that issues laws and replaces them according to situations and circumstances. The omniscient God, however, knows about all things before they come to pass. How then could it possibly be said about God that He changes, exchanges, abrogates and blots out? (Is the Quran Infallible?, page 331).
The Quran also declares that satan caused Muhammad to say words contrary to Allah’s words, and made suggestions to him that wee contrary to Allah’s plans. That happened when Muhammad praised the pagan deities Lat, Uzza, and Manat. He said to a gathering of Quaraysh that Lat, Uzza, and Manat could intercede with Allah. When Muhammad was rebuked by some of his friends, the following revelation came to him.
Never did we send a messenger or a prophet before thee, but, when he framed a desire, satan threw some [vanity] into his desire, but Allah will cancel anything [vain] that satan throws in, and Allah will confirm [and establish] his signs: for Allah is full of knowledge and wisdom (Surat Al-hajj 22:52).
The fact is it never happened to any true prophet that satan inspired him with false revelations. Furthermore, if satan could throw in the prophet’s mind words opposite to Allah’s words, how could we know which words that prophet are from Allah, and which are from satan?
The Quran suggests a test for itself in the following verse:
Do they not ponder the Quran? had it been from other than Allah, they would surely have found therein much discrepancy (Surat Al-Nisa 4:82).
The fact is there are many discrepancies in the Quran. The following are some of the many clear contradictions in the Quran.
|The Verses||Their Contradictions|
|Those who believe [in the Quran] and those who follow the Jewish [Scriptures] and the Christians and the Sabians, any who believe in Allah and the last days, and work righteousness, shall have their reward with their Lord, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. |
(Surat Al-Baqarah 2:62)
|The Jews call Uzair a son of Allah and the Christians call Christ the Son of Allah. That is a saying from their mouth; [in this] they but imitate what the infidels (literal translation) of old used to say. Allah’s curse be on them: how they are deluded away from the truth. |
(Surat Al-TawBah 9:30).
|Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from error. (Surat Al-Baqarah 2:56). Unto you your religion and unto me my religion (Surat Al-Kafirun 109:6).||Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the last day, nor hold that which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger [Muhammad], nor acknowledge the religion of truth [Islam], from among the people of the book [Jews and Christians] until they paid the Jezia [special taxes paid by the Jews and Christians who do not want to denounce their religion] with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued (Surat Al-Tawbah 9:29). And fight them on until there is no more sedition (literal translation) and religion [Islam] becomes Allah’s in its entirety (Surat Al-Anfal 8:39).|
|To Allah belong the East and the West: whithersoever ye turn, there is Allah’s face, for Allah is all-Embracing, All Knowing (Surat Al-Baqarah 2:115).||So from whencesoever thou startest forth, turn thy face in the direction of the sacred mosque [the Kaaba]; and wheresoever ye are, turn thy face thither |
(Surat Al-Baqarah 2:150).
|O Prophet rouse the Believers [Muslim] to fight, if there are twenty amongst you, patient and persevering, they will vanquish two hundred: if a hundred, they will vanquish a thousand of the unbelievers: for these are a people without under-understanding. (Surat Al-Anal 8:65).||Now hath Allah lightened your burden, for He knoweth that there is weakness in you. So if there be of you a steadfast hundred they shall overcome two hundred, and if there be of you a thousand they shall overcome two thousand by permission of Allah. Allah is with the steadfast (Surat Al-Anfal 8:66).|
|Thy duty is to make [the message] reach them. It is our part to call them to account (Surat Al-Rad 13:40). |
If it had been Allah’s will, they would not have taken false gods but We made thee not one to watch over their doings, nor art thou set over them to dispose of their affairs.
(Surat Al-Anam 6:107).
|…I will instill terror into the hearts of the unbelievers: smite ye above their necks and smite all of their finger-tips of them this because they contended against Allah and His Messenger: If any contend against Allah and His Messenger. Allah is strict in punishment (Surat Al-Anfal 8:12).|
|O Prophet! We have made lawful to thee thy wives to whom thou has paid their dowers; and those whom they right hand possesses out of the captives of war whom Allah has assigned to thee; and daughters of thy paternal uncles and aunts, who migrated with thee; and any believing woman who gives herself to the prophet if the Prophet wishes to wed to her-this only for thee, and not for the believers [at large]; We know what We have appointed for them as to their wives and the captives whom their rights hands posses-in order that there be no difficulty for thee. And Allah is Oft Forgiving, Most Merciful (Surat Al-Ahzab 33:50).||It is not lawful for thee [to marry more] women after this, nor to change them for [other] wives even though their beauty attract thee, except any thy right hand should possess [as handmaidens]: and Allah doth watch over all (Surat Al-Ahzab 33:52)|
|And nearest among them in love to the believers [the Muslims] wilt thou find those who say “we are Christians because amongst these are men devoted to learning and men who have renounced the world, and they are not arrogant” (Surat Al-Maidah 5:82)|
We sent after them Jesus the son of Mary, and bestowed on him the Gospel; and we ordained in the hearts of those who followed him compassion and mercy
(Surat Al-hadid 57:27).
We did aforetime grant to the children of
Israel the Book, the power of command, and
prophethood; We gave them, for sustenance,
things good and pure; and We favoured them above all nations
(Surat Al-Jathiyah 45:16)
|O ye who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians for your friends and protectors: they are but friends and protectors to each other. And he amongst you that turns to them [for friendship] is of them. Verify Allah guideth not a people unjust (Surat Al-Maidah 5:51).|
|To Moses We did give Nine Clear Signs: Ask the Children of Israel: When he came to them, Pharaoh said to him: “O Moses! I consider thee, indeed, to have been worked upon by sorcery.” Moses said, “Thou knowest well that these things have been sent down by none but the Lord of the heavens and the earth as eye opening evidence: and I consider thee indeed, O Pharaoh, to be one doomed to destruction!” Soon he resolved to remove them from the face of the earth: but We did drown him and all who were with him (Surat Al-Isra 17:101-103 MPT)||We took the children of Israel across the sea: Pharaoh and his hosts followed them in insolence and spite. At length when overwhelmed with the flood, he said: “I believe that there is no god except Him Whom the children of Israel believe in: I am of those submit [to Allah in Islam].” [It was said to him]: “Ah now!-But a little while before, wast thou in rebellion! -And thou didst mischief [and violence]! “This day shall We save thee in thy body, that thou mayest be a sign to those, who come after thee! But verily, many among mankind are heedless of Our signs!” (Surat yunus 10:90-92).|
Adam and Jesus
|The similitude of Jesus before Allah is as that of Adam; He created him from dust, then said to him: “Be”: and he was |
(Surat Al-Imran 3:59).
|Adam was not created by the word “Be” but by the breath of Allah Behold, thy Lord said to the angels: “I am about to create man from clay: when I have fashioned him and breathed into him of My Spirit, fall ye down in prostration unto him” (Surat Sad 38:70,71) Jesus was not conceived by the word “Be” And Mary [mother of Jesus] the daughter of Imran, who guarded her virginity (literal translation); and we breathed into [her body] of our spirit; and she testified to the truth of the words of her Lord and of his revelations, and was one of the devout [servants] (Surat Al-Tahrim 66:12).|
|Say: O disbelievers! I worship not that which ye worship; nor worship ye that which I worship. And I shall not worship that which ye worship. Unto you your religion, and unto me my religion. |
(Surat Al-Kafirun 109:1-6 MPT).
|Say: “If The Most Gracious Had a son, I would be the first to worship.”(Surat Al-Zukhruf 43:81).|
|We have made it a Quran in Arabic, that ye may be able to understand (Surat Az-Zukhruf 43:3). This verse indicates that the Quran is exclusively for the Arabic speaking people. It could not be a miracle, because people of other tongues cannot even read it.||He it is Who has sent down to thee the book [the Quran]…no one knows its true meaning except Allah (Surat Al-Imran 3:7).|
According to the Quran, Jesus Christ is a word from Allah:
Behold: the angels said: “O Mary! Allah giveth thee glad tidings of a Word from Him: his name will be Christ Jesus, the son of Mary, held in honour in this world, and the hereafter and of [the company of] those nearest to Allah (Surat Al-Imran 3:45).
It is of great importance to deal with two verses of the Quran at the close of this selection. The first verse is:
Those who follow the Messenger, the unlettered Prophet, whom they find mentioned in their own [scriptures]. In the Torah and the Gospel for he commands them what is just and forbids them what is evil… (Surat Al-Araf 7:157).
The second verse is:
And remember, Jesus, the son of Mary, said: “O children of Israel: I am the messenger of Allah [sent] to you confirming the Torah [which came] before me, and giving glad tidings of a messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad…
(Surat Al-Saff 61:6).
We are confident that there is no mention of Muhammad and no prophecy concerning him in the Torah and the Gospel. Muhammad is not the prophet like Moses, as Muslim scholars claim. He is not the comforter, for the comforter is the Holy Spirit. Muhammad is not a spirit. He is not the servant mentioned in Isaiah 42:1, and he is not the stone cut out without hands mentioned in Daniel 2:34.
All these prophecies were fulfilled to the letter in Jesus Christ and in the Holy Spirit who descended from heaven in the Day of Pentecost. Jesus is the prophet like Moses (Deuteronomy 18:15-19 and Acts 3:19-23), He is the servant chosen by God (Isaiah 42:1-4 and Matthew 12:17-21), He is the stone cut out without human hands (I Peter 2:6-8 and His kingdom will fill the earth at His second coming (revelation 11:15).
In short there are no prophecies concerning Muhammad in the sixty-six books of the Bible. When the Quran says that Muhammad was mentioned in the Torah and the Gospel, and was mentioned by Jesus, the Quran is in error.
One more verse should be dealt with:
Allah hath purchases of the Believers their persons and their goods; for theirs [in return] is the garden [of paradise]: they fight in his cause, and slay and are slain: a promise binding on Him, in truth throughout the Torah, the Gospel, and the Quran. And who is more faithful to his covenant than Allah? Then rejoice in the bargain which ye have concluded: that is the achievement supreme (Surat Al-Tawbah 9:111).
Contrary to what the Quran said here, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob did not command the children of Israel to fight so that Judaism would be the only religion. But Allah of Islam commanded them to force people to be Muslims. More importantly, we find no command in the Gospel for Christians to fight. We read that God purchases of the Christians their persons by the blood of Jesus (Revelation 5:9). God does not exchange eternal life in paradise with fighting in his cause, or with goods works, or any human merits.
In fact, in the New Testament God commanded his people:
Beloved, do not avenge yourselves, but rather give place to wrath; for it is written “Vengeance is mine, I will repay,” says the Lord. “Therefore if your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him a drink; for in so doing you will heap coals of fire on his head. Do not be overcome by evil, but over come evil with good (Romans 12:19-21 NKJ)
We repeat, God does not command Christians to fight for His cause. The questions is: if the Muslims believe that Islam is Allah’s religion, why do they leave Allah to protect and defend his religion?
When God called Gideon to save Israel from the hand of the Midianties, he ordered him to tear down the altar of Baal which his father had, and to cut down the wooden image that was beside it. When the people discovered what Gideon did, they said to his father, “bring out your son that he may die, because he has torn down the altar of Baal.” Joash, Gideon’s father, answered them:
Would you plead for Baal? If he is a god, let him plead for himself, because his altar has been torn down… (Judges 6:31 NKJ)
Certainly, the True and Almighty God does not need anyone to fight for Him.