JEHOVAH GOD: OUR PLURAL CREATOR AND SUSTAINER

The Holy Scriptures bear witness that the God who created mankind in his image and likeness is in some sense a plural Creator-Maker:

“Then God said, ‘Let US make man in OUR image, according to OUR likeness; let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.’ So God created man in HIS OWN image; in the image of God HE created him; male and female HE created them. Then God blessed them, and God said to them, ‘Be fruitful and multiply; fill the earth and subdue it; have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over every living thing that moves on the earth.’” Genesis 1:26-28 New King James Version (NKJV)

NO SPIRIT CREATURE WAS INVOLVED

The sacred writings emphatically affirm that no spirit creature was consulted or employed in producing or fashioning any part of the creation. The Holy Bible expressly attests that God alone created all things:  

“Who has directed the Spirit of the LORD, Or as His counselor has taught Him? With whom did He take counsel, and who instructed Him, And taught Him in the path of justice? Who taught Him knowledge, And showed Him the way of understanding?” Isaiah 40:13-14 NKJV

“God is wise in heart and mighty in strength. Who has hardened himself against Him and prospered? He removes the mountains, and they do not know When He overturns them in His anger; He shakes the earth out of its place, And its pillars tremble; He commands the sun, and it does not rise; He seals off the stars; He ALONE spreads out the heavens, And treads on the waves of the sea; He made the Bear, Orion, and the Pleiades, And the chambers of the south; He does great things past finding out, Yes, wonders without number.” Job 9:4-10 NKJV

“Thus says the LORD, your Redeemer, And He who formed you from the womb: ‘I am the LORD, who makes all things, Who stretches out the heavens ALL ALONE, Who spreads abroad the earth BY MYSELF;’” Isaiah 44:24 NKJV

The angelic host were merely passive observers who rejoiced when they beheld God creating the earth all by himself:

“Where were you when I laid the foundations of the earth? Tell Me, if you have understanding. Who determined its measurements? Surely you know! Or who stretched the line upon it? To what were its foundations fastened? Or who laid its cornerstone, WHEN the morning stars sang together, And all the sons of God shouted for joy?” Job 38:4-7 NKJV

This is why mankind is said to be created God’s own the image, and after his own likeness,

“This is the book of the genealogy of Adam. In the day that GOD created man, HE made him in the likeness of God. HE created them male and female, and blessed them and called them Mankind in the day they were created.” Genesis 5:1-2 NKJV

Since God alone fashioned the male from the dust of the ground, and then produced the female from the side of the male whom he animated by breathing the breath of life into his nostrils:

“This is the history of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens, before any plant of the field was in the earth and before any herb of the field had grown. For the LORD God had not caused it to rain on the earth, and there was no man to till the ground; but a mist went up from the earth and watered the whole face of the ground. And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being. The LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden, and there He put the man whom He had formed… Then the LORD God took the man and put him in the garden of Eden to tend and keep it. And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, ‘Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die.’ And the LORD God said, ‘It is not good that man should be alone; I will make him a helper comparable to him.’… And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall on Adam, and he slept; and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh in its place. Then the rib which the LORD God had taken from man He made into a woman, and He brought her to the man. And Adam said: ‘This is now bone of my bones And flesh of my flesh; She shall be called Woman, Because she was taken out of Man.’” Genesis 2:4-7, 15-18, 21-23 NKJV

A CASE OF THE PLURAL OF MAJESTY?

A further attempt of getting around the implications of God’s use of the plural, is to appeal to a linguistic feature known as the plural of majesty/royal plural/majestic plural, typically known as a nosism. The majestic plural is employed by monarchs or those in positions of sovereignty. And seeing that God is the ultimate Sovereign he therefore has every right to refer to himself in the plural.

The late reformed apologist and author Dr. Robert A. Morey explained why the appeal to the plural of majesty simply doesn’t work:  

Fourth, some anti-Trinitarians have attempted to dismiss the passage as an example of the plural of majesty (pluralis majestaticus), much like Queen Victoria of England who is reported to have said, “We are not amused.”

The only problem with this argument is that there was no plural of majesty in the Hebrew language during biblical times. Rabbi Tzvi Nassi, a lecturer in Hebrew at Oxford University, explains:

Every one who is acquainted with the rudiments of the Hebrew and Chaldee languages, must know that God, in the holy Writings, very often spoke of Himself in the plural. The passages are numerous, in which, instead of a grammatical agreement between the subject and predicate, we meet with a construction, which some modern grammarians, who possess more of the so-called philosophical than of the real knowledge of the Oriental languages, call a pluralis excellentiae. This helps them out of every apparent difficulty. Such a pluralis excellentiae was, however, a thing unknown to Moses and the prophets. Pharaoh, Nebuchadnezzar, David, and all the other kings, throughout TaNaKh (the Law, the Prophets, and the Hagiographa) speak in the singular, and not as modern kings in the plural. They do not say we, but I, command; as in Gen. xli. 41; Dan. iii. 29; Ezra i. 2, etc.5 (Trinity: Evidence and Issues [Word Publishing; Grand Rapids, MI 1996], pp. 94-95; bold emphasis mine)

5. Tzvi Nassi, The Great Mystery (Jerusalem: Yanetz, 1970), 6. (Ibid., p. 104)

Morey wasn’t the only one to debunk this unitarian appeal to the plural of majesty.

Classical and Biblical scholar Professor Tayler Lewis wrote this in relation to the plural of majesty:

“Of all these views the pluralis majestaticus has the least support. It is foreign to the usus loquendi of the earliest language; it is degrading instead of honoring to Deity, and Aben Ezra shows that the few seeming examples brought from the Hebrew Scriptures, such as Num. xxii. 6; Dan. ii. 36, do not bear it out – the latter, moreover, being an Aramaic mode of speech. If we depart at all from the patristic view of an allusion to a plurality of idea in the Deity [i.e. the Trinity], the next best is that of Maimonides…” (John Peter Lange, Commentary on the Holy Scriptures, Critical, Doctrinal and Homiletical, translated from the German and edited, with additions, by Philip Schaff [Zondervan, Grand Rapids, MI], Volume I. Genesis, p. 173; bold emphasis mine)

Emil Rödiger, a professor of oriental languages at the University of Halle and the student of the well-known German Orientalist and Biblical Critic, H. F. W. Gesenius, stated:

“Jewish grammarians call such plurals… plur. virium or virtutum; later grammarians call them plur. excellentiae, magnitudinis, or plur. maiestaticus. This last name may have been suggested by the “we” used by kings when speaking of themselves (cf. already I Macc. 10:19, 11:31); and the plural used by God in Genesis 1:26, and 11:7, Isaiah 6:8 has been incorrectly explained in this way. It is, however, either communicative… or according to others, an indication of the fullness of power and might… but it is best explained as a plural of self-deliberation. The use of the plural as a form of respectful address is quite foreign to Hebrew.” (Hebrew Grammar, eds. E. Kautzsch and A. E. Cowley, p. 418; bold emphasis mine)

Renowned Old Testament scholar and professor at the University of Heidelberg (ca. 1958-1978), Claus Westermann claimed:

“The plural of majesty does not occur in Hebrew… so this older explanation has been completely abandoned today” (Genesis 1-11: A Commentary [Augsburg Publishing House, Minneapolis, 1994], p. 145; bold emphasis mine)

Gerhard F. Hasel, professor of the Old Testament at Andrews University, is another reputable author that agrees:

“…there are no certain examples of plurals of majesty with either verbs or pronouns… the verb used in Gn 1:26 (‘āśāh) is never used with a plural of majesty. There is no linguistic or grammatical basis upon which the ‘us’ can be considered to be a plural of majesty.” (“The Meaning of ‘Let Us’ in Gn 1:26” [Andrews University Seminary Studies 13, 1975], pp. 63-64; bold emphasis mine)

Another problem with classifying these plurals as a nosism is that monarchs/kings/sovereigns do not speak only for themselves. Rather, they are speaking on behalf of the members of their court/government and/or people whom they represent. Therefore, a nosism actually confirms that the person employing the plural is referred to or addressing to others with whom he deliberates and/or represents.

THE TRIUNE CREATOR AND SUSTAINER

The inspired Scriptures testify that the one true God who created all things is not a singular Person, but a multi-Personal Being since it attributes the work of creation to more than one divine Person.

The Holy Spirit as Creator

For instance, according to God’s Word the Spirit of God was hovering over the earth in its prebiotic state, obviously for the purpose of animating it in order to make it a habitable place for life to flourish and exist:

“In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was without form, and void; and darkness was on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters.” Genesis 1:1-2 NKJV

God’s Spirit is also said to have made man and fashioned the heavens along with all their constellations:

The Spirit of God has made me, And the breath of the Almighty gives me life.” Job 33:4 NKJV

By His Spirit He adorned the heavens; His hand pierced the fleeing serpent.” Job 26:13 NKJV

“You hide Your face, they are troubled; You take away their breath, they die and return to their dust. You send forth Your Spirit, they are created; And You renew the face of the earth.” Psalm 104:29-30 NKJV

The Word of God as Creator

Not only did God use his Spirit to create all things he also employed his eternal Word:

By the word of Yahweh, the heavens were made, and, by the spirit of his mouth, all their host:” Psalm 33:6 Joseph Bryant Rotherham Translation

According to the Christian Scriptures, this all-powerful creative Word took on human flesh and became the Man Christ Jesus. This explains why these inspired writings affirm that Jesus is the One who in his prehuman existence created and gives life to all creation:  

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men… He was in the world, and the world was made through Him, and the world did not know Him… And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth.” John 1:1-4, 10, 14 NKJV

“yet for us there is one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we for Him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and through whom we live.” 1 Corinthians 8:6 NKJV

“He has delivered us from the power of darkness and conveyed us into the kingdom of the Son of His love, in whom we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of sins. He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. For by Him all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers. All things were created through Him and FOR HIM. And He IS before all things, and IN HIM all things consist. And He is the head of the body, the church, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, that in all things He may have the preeminence.” Colossians 1:13-18 NKJV

“God, who at various times and in various ways spoke in time past to the fathers by the prophets, has in these last days spoken to us by His Son, whom He has appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the worlds; who being the brightness of His glory and the express image of His person, and upholding all things by the word of His power, when He had by Himself purged our sins, sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high… But to the Son He says: ‘Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom.’… And: ‘You, Lord [the Son], IN THE BEGINNING laid the foundation of the earth, And the heavens are the work of YOUR hands. They will perish, but You remain; And they will all grow old like a garment; Like a cloak You will fold them up, And they will be changed. But You are the same, And Your years will not fail.’” Hebrews 1:1-3, 8, 10-12 NKJV

Hence, the God who brought the entire creation into being from nothing, the God who made humanity in his very own image, is the Triune God of Father, Son/Word and Holy Spirit. As such, the plural of Genesis 1:26 is an obvious reference to the Triune God deliberating with himself in expressing his desire to create mankind in the image of the Trinity.

OTHER CASES OF DIVINE PLURALS

The following is another example of Jehovah referring to himself in the plural:

Now the whole earth had one language and one speech.And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar, and they dwelt there.Then they said to one another, ‘Come, let us make bricks and bake them thoroughly.’ They had brick for stone, and they had asphalt for mortar. And they said, ‘Come, let us build ourselves a city, and a tower whose top is in the heavens; let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be scattered abroad over the face of the whole earth.’ But the Lord CAME DOWN to see the city and the tower which the sons of men had built.And the Lord said, “Indeed the people are one and they all have one language, and this is what they begin to do; now nothing that they propose to do will be withheld from them.COME, LET US GO DOWN (neradah) and there CONFUSE (wa’nabalah) their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech.’ So the Lord scattered them abroad from there over the face of all the earth, and they ceased building the city.Therefore its name is called Babel, because there the Lord confused the language of all the earth; and from there the Lord scattered them abroad over the face of all the earth.” Genesis 11:1-9 NKJV

The words employed by Jehovah, neradah and nabalah,are first person plural verbs.

It is clearthatthe terms “come, let us male/build” are meant to highlight the fact that the nations which settled in Shinar consisted of a multiplicity of distinct individuals. It is equally clear that Jehovah’s employment of plural verbs is intended to mimic the speech of these people who refused to spread throughout the earth.  

This means that the plural is intended to show that Jehovah also exists as a multiplicity of divine Persons who work together as a perfect unity. It cannot be Jehovah speaking to the angelic host since the context makes it clear that Jehovah came down all alone, by himself.  

And here’s the other case of a plural usage that is rather remarkable:

“In the year that King Uzziah died, I saw the Lord sitting on a throne, high and lifted up, and the train of His robe filled the temple. Above it stood seraphim; each one had six wings: with two he covered his face, with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew. And one cried to another and said: ‘Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory!’ And the posts of the door were shaken by the voice of him who cried out, and the house was filled with smoke. So I said: “Woe is me, for I am undone! Because I am a man of unclean lips, And I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips; For MY EYES HAVE SEEN the King, The Lord of hosts.’ Then one of the seraphim flew to me, having in his hand a live coal which he had taken with the tongs from the altar. And he touched my mouth with it, and said: ‘Behold, this has touched your lips; Your iniquity is taken away, And your sin purged.’ Also I heard the voice of the Lord, saying: ‘Whom shall I SEND, And who will go FOR US?’ Then I said, ‘Here am I! Send me.’ And He said, ‘Go, and tell this people: “Keep on hearing, but do not understand; Keep on seeing, but do not perceive.” Make the heart of this people dull, And their ears heavy, And shut their eyes; Lest they see with their eyes, And hear with their ears, And understand with their heart, And return and be healed.’” Isaiah 6:1-10 NKJV

The prophet not only physically beheld Jehovah in visible form, he even heard the Voice of Jehovah employing the plural preposition lanu (“for Us”) in commissioning him to be his envoy.

There can be no doubt that the plural here is also intended to demonstrate a plurality within the Godhead since elsewhere Isaiah mentions Jehovah sending forth his inspired agents with the Holy Spirit:

“Behold! My Servant whom I uphold, My Elect One in whom My soul delights! I have put My Spirit upon Him; He will bring forth justice to the Gentiles.” Isaiah 42:1 NKJV

“Come near to Me, hear this: I have not spoken in secret from the beginning; From the time that it was, I was there. And now the Lord God and His Spirit Have sent Me.” Isaiah 48:16 NKJV

The Spirit of the Lord God is upon Me, Because the Lord has anointed Me To preach good tidings to the poor; He has sent Me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the prison to those who are bound;” Isaiah 61:1 NKJV

Moreover, the NT writers claim that it was the preincarnate Son and the Holy Spirit whom Isaiah saw and heard from:

“Jesus had done many miraculous signs before the people, but they didn’t believe in him. This was to fulfill the word of the prophet Isaiah: Lord, who has believed through our message? To whom is the arm of the Lord fully revealed? Isaiah explains why they couldn’t believe: He made their eyes blind and closed their minds so that they might not see with their eyes, understand with their minds, and turn their lives around—and I would heal them. Isaiah said these things because he saw Jesus’ glory; he spoke about Jesus. Even so, many leaders believed in him, but they wouldn’t acknowledge their faith because they feared that the Pharisees would expel them from the synagogue.” John 12:37-42 Common English Bible (CEB)

“So when they did not agree among themselves, they departed after Paul had said one word: ‘The Holy Spirit spoke rightly through Isaiah the prophet to our fathers, saying, “Go to this people and say: ‘Hearing you will hear, and shall not understand; And seeing you will see, and not perceive; For the hearts of this people have grown dull. Their ears are hard of hearing, And their eyes they have closed, Lest they should see with their eyes and hear with their ears, Lest they should understand with their hearts and turn, So that I should heal them.’”’” Acts 28:25-27 NKJV

CASES WHERE THE SINGULAR ENCOMPASSES PLURALITY

In the following examples, singular pronouns, verbs, participles etc., are employed in reference to whole nations such as Israel and Babylon, whom no one would argue are made up of a single individual. I will highlight all the cases of the singulars within these texts by placing them in bold, capital letters:

“But THOU, Israel, art my servant, Jacob WHOM I have chosen, the seed of Abraham my friend. THOU WHOM I have taken from the ends of the earth, and called THEE from the chief men thereof, and said unto THEE, THOU art my servant; I have chosen THEE, and not cast THEE away. Fear THOU not; for I am with THEE: be not dismayed; for I am THY God: I will strengthen THEE; yea, I will help THEE; yea, I will uphold THEE with the right hand of my righteousness. Behold, all they that were incensed against THEE shall be ashamed and confounded: they shall be as nothing; and they that strive with THEE shall perish. THOU shalt seek them, and shalt not find them, even them that contended with THEE: they that war against THEE shall be as nothing, and as a thing of nought. For I the Lord THY God will hold THY right hand, saying unto THEE, Fear not; I will help THEE. Fear not, THOU worm Jacob, and ye men of Israel; I will help THEE, saith the Lord, and THY redeemer, the Holy One of Israel. Behold, I will make THEE a new sharp threshing instrument having teeth: THOU shalt thresh the mountains, and beat them small, and shalt make the hills as chaff. THOU shalt fan them, and the wind shall carry them away, and the whirlwind shall scatter them: and THOU shalt rejoice in the Lord, and shalt glory in the Holy One of Israel.” Isaiah 41:8-16 Authorized King James Version (AV)

“But now thus saith the Lord that created THEE, O Jacob, and he that formed THEE, O Israel, Fear not: for I have redeemed THEE, I have called THEE by THY name; THOU art mine. When THOU passest through the waters, I will be with THEE; and through the rivers, they shall not overflow THEE: when THOU walkest through the fire, THOU shalt not be burned; neither shall the flame kindle upon THEE. For I am the Lord THY God, the Holy One of Israel, THY Saviour: I gave Egypt for THY ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for THEE. Since THOU wast precious in my sight, THOU hast been honourable, and I have loved THEE: therefore will I give men for THEE, and people for THY life. Fear not: for I am with THEE: I will bring THY seed from the east, and gather THEE from the west; I will say to the north, Give up; and to the south, Keep not back: bring my sons from far, and my daughters from the ends of the earth; even every one that is called by my name: for I have created HIM for my glory, I have formed HIM; yea, I have made HIM… But THOU hast not called upon me, O Jacob; but THOU hast been weary of me, O Israel. THOU hast not brought me the small cattle of THY burnt offerings; neither hast THOU honoured me with THY sacrifices. I have not caused THEE to serve with an offering, nor wearied THEE with incense. THOU hast bought me no sweet cane with money, neither hast THOU filled me with the fat of thy sacrifices: but THOU hast made me to serve with THY sins, THOU hast wearied me with THINE iniquities. I, even I, am he that blotteth out THY transgressions for mine own sake, and will not remember THYsins. Put me in remembrance: let us plead together: declare THOU, that THOU mayest be justified. THY first father hath sinned, and THY teachers have transgressed against me. Therefore I have profaned the princes of the sanctuary, and have given Jacob to the curse, and Israel to reproaches.” Isaiah 43:1-7, 22-28 AV

“Yet now hear, O Jacob my servant; and Israel, whom I have chosen: thus saith the Lord that made THEE, and formed THEE from the womb, which will help THEE; Fear not, O Jacob, my servant; and THOU, Jesurun, WHOM I have chosen… Remember these, O Jacob and Israel; for THOU art my servant: I have formed THEE; THOU art my servant: O Israel, THOU shalt not be forgotten of me. I have blotted out, as a thick cloud, THY transgressions, and, as a cloud, THY sins: return unto me; for I have redeemed THEE.” Isaiah 44:1-2, 21-22 AV

“Come down, and sit in the dust, O virgin daughter of Babylon, sit on the ground: there is no throne, O daughter of the Chaldeans: for THOU shalt no more be called tender and delicate. Take the millstones, and grind meal: uncover THY locks, make bare the leg, uncover the thigh, pass over the rivers. THY nakedness shall be uncovered, yea, THY shame shall be seen: I will take vengeance, and I will not meet THEE as a man. As for our redeemer, the Lord of hosts is his name, the Holy One of Israel. Sit thou silent, and get thee into darkness, O daughter of the Chaldeans: for THOU shalt no more be called, The lady of kingdoms. I was wroth with my people, I have polluted mine inheritance, and given them into THINE hand: THOU didst shew them no mercy; upon the ancient hast thou very heavily laid THY yoke. And THOU saidst, I shall be a lady for ever: so that THOU didst not lay these things to THY heart, neither didst remember the latter end of it. Therefore hear now this, THOU that art given to pleasures, that dwellest carelessly, that sayest in THINE heart, I am, and none else beside ME; I shall not sit as a widow, neither shall I know the loss of children: but these two things shall come to THEE in a moment in one day, the loss of children, and widowhood: they shall come upon THEE in their perfection for the multitude of THY sorceries, and for the great abundance of THINE enchantments. For THOU hast trusted in THY wickedness: THOU hast said, None seeth me. THY wisdom and THY knowledge, it hath perverted THEE; and THOU hast said in THINE heart, I am, and none else beside me. Therefore shall evil come upon THEE; THOU shalt not know from whence it riseth: and mischief shall fall upon THEE; THOU shalt not be able to put it off: and desolation shall come upon THEE suddenly, which THOU shalt not know. Stand now with THINE enchantments, and with the multitude of THY sorceries, wherein THOU hast laboured from THY youth; if so be THOU shalt be able to profit, if so be THOU mayest prevail. THOU art wearied in the multitude of THY counsels. Let now the astrologers, the stargazers, the monthly prognosticators, stand up, and save THEE from these things that shall come upon THEE. Behold, they shall be as stubble; the fire shall burn them; they shall not deliver themselves from the power of the flame: there shall not be a coal to warm at, nor fire to sit before it. Thus shall they be unto THEE with whom THOU hast laboured, even THY merchants, from THY youth: they shall wander every one to his quarter; none shall save THEE.” Isaiah 47:1-15 AV

“Hear ye this, O house of Jacob, which are called by the name of Israel, and are come forth out of the waters of Judah, which swear by the name of the Lord, and make mention of the God of Israel, but not in truth, nor in righteousness. For they call themselves of the holy city, and stay themselves upon the God of Israel; the Lord of hosts is his name. I have declared the former things from the beginning; and they went forth out of my mouth, and I shewed them; I did them suddenly, and they came to pass. Because I knew that THOU art obstinate, and THY neck is an iron sinew, and THY brow brass; I have even from the beginning declared it to THEE; before it came to pass I shewed it THEE: lest THOU shouldest say, MINE idol hath done them, and MY graven image, and MY molten image, hath commanded them. THOU hast heard, see all this; and will not ye declare it? I have shewed THEE new things from this time, even hidden things, and THOU didst not know them. They are created now, and not from the beginning; even before the day when THOU heardest them not; lest THOU shouldest say, Behold, I knew them. Yea, THOU heardest not; yea, THOU knewest not; yea, from that time that THINE ear was not opened: for I knew that THOU wouldest deal very treacherously, and wast called a transgressor from the womb. For my name’s sake will I defer mine anger, and for my praise will I refrain for THEE, that I cut THEE not off. Behold, I have refined THEE, but not with silver; I have chosen THEE in the furnace of affliction. For mine own sake, even for mine own sake, will I do it: for how should my name be polluted? and I will not give my glory unto another. HEARKEN UNTO me, O Jacob and Israel, my called; I am he; I am the first, I also am the last.” Isaiah 48:1-12

The foregoing sufficiently refutes the oft-repeated assertion that the use of the singular in reference to Jehovah proves that the one true God is a singular Person. On the contrary, all that the employment of the singular proves is that Jehovah is a singular Being., in fact, one eternal, infinite, uncaused Triune Being who alone is worthy of unconditional love, adoration and worship.

FURTHER READING

The Trinity: The Old Testament Evidence: A Multi-Personal God

The OT Evidence for God’s Uni-Plurality

Does the word Elohim in Genesis 1 point to God’s Triunity?

Anti-Trinitarians agree that the reason why God in the OT referred to Himself in the plural is because He was speaking with his Divine Son!

Evangelical Scholarship’s Struggle With OT Proofs For the Trinity

GOD THE SON IN THE OLD TESTAMENT

JEWISHNESS AND THE TRINITY

A Look at the Trinity From a Messianic Jewish Perspective

Don’t Christians Believe in Three Gods?

Jesus and the Mysteries of Kabbalah

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