Both the Quran and the sunnah of Muhammad attest that the actions of specific individuals can and do impact others, whether for good or bad.

For instance, the Muslim scripture warns from afflictions that will not only affect the wrongdoers, but also the righteous:

And fear the Fitnah (affliction and trial, etc.) which affects not in particular (only) those of you who do wrong (but it may afflict all the good and the bad people), and know that Allah is Severe in punishment. S. 8:25 Hilali-Khan

It further teaches that persons will bear or suffer from the burdens or sins of others:

That they may bear their burdens entirely on the day of resurrection and also of the burdens of those whom they lead astray without knowledge; now surely evil is what they bear. S. 16:25 Shakir

And those who disbelieve say to those who believe: Follow our path and we will bear your wrongs. And never shall they be the bearers of any of their wrongs; most surely they are liars. And most certainly they shall carry their own burdens, AND OTHER BURDENS WITH THEIR OWN BURDENS, and most certainly they shall be questioned on the resurrection day as to what they forged. S. 29:12-13 Shakir

And according to the Quran, the offspring of believers will be joined with their parents in paradise:

And those who believe and whose offspring follow them in Faith, to them shall We join their offspring, and We shall not decrease the reward of their deeds in anything. Every person is a pledge for that which he has earned. S. 52:21 Hilali-Khan

Here’s how the major Muslim expositors interpreted this text:

And those who believed wa’lladhīna āmanū the subject and whom We made to be followed wa-atba‘nāhum a variant reading has wa’ttaba‘athum ‘and there followed them’ as a supplement to āmanū ‘who believed’ by their descendants dhurrīyātihim a variant reading for this plural has dhurrīyatuhum young and old in faith on the part of the older ones and on the part of the parents in their young ones the predicate of the subject above is the following alhaqnā bihim We will make their mentioned descendants join them in Paradise so that they are in the same degree of reward even though they might not have performed the same meritorious deeds as them to deserve this equal status a way of honouring the parents by having their children join them again; and We will not deprive them read alatnāhum or alitnāhum We will not diminish them of anything min shay’in min is extra of their deeds in order to add it to the deeds of their children. Every man is subject to what he has earned of good or evil deeds and will be requited for evil and rewarded for good. (Tafsir al-Jalalayn; bold emphasis mine)

(And they who believe) in Muhammad and the Qur’an and are true in their faith (and whose seed follow them in faith) in the life of the world, (We cause their seed to join them (there)) in the Hereafter, enjoying the same rank as that of their fathers; it is also said that this means: and those who believe in Muhammad and the Qur’an, We will enter them into the Garden along with their young children, thus enjoying the same rank, because these offspring had already believed on the Day of the Primordial Covenant. We made their fathers follow them. It is also said that this means: We make the offspring attain to the same rank as that of the fathers, if the ranks of the fathers are higher, (and We deprive them of naught of their (life’s) work) He says: We do not diminish the reward of the fathers at all upon making their offspring join them. (Every man is a pledge) such that Allah does with him as He will (for that which he hath earned) of sins. (Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs; bold emphasis mine)

This is part of the perfect bliss of the people of paradise: Allah will cause to join them their offspring who followed them in faith. Allah will cause these offspring to reach their parents’ level in paradise, even though their deeds were not sufficient to reach their parents’ level, as an increased reward for their parents. Moreover, that will not detract from the good deeds of the parents in the slightest.

Because some may imagine that the same is applicable to the people of hell, and that Allah will cause their offspring or parents to join them, Allah tells us that the rulings governing the two realms are not the same. Hell is the realm of justice, and part of Allah’s justice is that He does not punish anyone except for his own sin. Hence He says: <Every person is held in pledge for what he earns>. So no soul will bear the burden of another and the sins of one person will not be borne by another. This is adding a further comment in order to remove any misunderstanding. (Tafseer as-Sa’di: Juz’ 25-27, by Abdur-Rahman Nasir as-Sa‘di [International Islamic Publishing House, 2018], translated by Nasiruddin al-Khattab, edited by Huda Khattab, Volume 9, p. 316; bold emphasis mine)

Hence, the righteous deeds of believers will result in their offspring attaining the same status and rank of their parents, even in cases where the children haven’t been as pious or done as many good deeds as they!

Muhammad even taught that both the wicked and/or their offspring who died young will be tortured in hell:

The Offspring of Righteous Believers will be elevated to Their Grades in Paradise

In this Ayah, Allah the Exalted affirms His favor, generosity, graciousness, compassion and beneficence towards His creation. When the offspring of the righteous believers imitate their parents regarding faith, Allah will elevate the latter to the ranks of the former, even though the latter did not perform deeds as goodly as their parents. Allah will comfort the eyes of the parents by seeing their offspring elevated to their grades. Surely, Allah will gather them together in the best manner, and He will not decrease the reward or the grades of those higher in rank for joining them together, hence His statement…

(to them shall We join their offspring, and We shall not decrease the reward of their deeds in anything.) Ath-Thawri reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “Verily, Allah elevates the ranks of the believers’ offspring to rank of their parents, even though the latter have not performed as well as the former, so that the eyes of the parents are comforted.” Ibn `Abbas then recited this Ayah

(And those who believe and whose offspring follow them in faith, — to them shall We join their offspring, and We shall not decrease the reward of their deeds in anything.) Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this statement from Sufyan Ath-Thawri from Ibn `Abbas. Ibn Abi Hatim also recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah’s statement…

(And those who believe and whose offspring follow them in faith, — to them shall We join their offspring.) saying, “They are the offspring of the believers who died on the faith. If the ranks of their parents are higher than their ranks, they will be joined with their parents. No part of the reward their parents received for their good deeds will be reduced for them.” `Abdullah, son of Imam Ahmad, recorded that `Ali said, “Khadijah asked the Prophet about two of her children who died during the time of Jahiliyyah, and the Messenger of Allah said…

<<They are both IN THE FIRE.>> When he saw sadness on her face, he said…

<<If you saw their dwelling place, you would hate them.>> She said, `O Allah’s Messenger! What about my children with you.’ He said…

<<They are in Paradise.>> The Messenger of Allah said…

<<Verily, the believers AND THEIR OFFSPRING will dwell in Paradise, while the idolators AND THEIR OFFSPRING will dwell IN THE HELLFIRE.>> The Prophet then recited the Ayah

(And those who believe and whose offspring follow them in faith…)”

Certainly, it is Allah’s grace and favor that He grants the children this blessing BECAUSE of the good deeds of their parents. He also grants His favor to parents ON ACCOUNT of their offspring invoking Allah for them. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah said…

<<Verily, Allah shall elevate the grade of a righteous servant in Paradise, who will ask, “O Lord! How did I earn this?” Allah will reply, “Through your son’s invoking Me to forgive you.”>>

This Hadith has an authentic chain of narration, but it was not recorded in the Sahih this way. However, there is a witnessing narration for it in Sahih Muslim, from the Hadith of Abu Hurayrah, who said that the Messenger of Allah said…

<<When the Son of Adam dies, his record of deeds will cease except in three cases: an ongoing charity, knowledge that people are benefiting from and a righteous son who invokes Allah for him.>> (Tafsir Ibn Kathir; emphasis mine)

Muhammad further stated that Allah will even torture Jews, Christians, and unbelievers in general, not only for their own sins but also for the evil deeds committed by Muslims:

Superiority of the believers in the Oneness of Allah and the punishment of the Jews and Christians

8) Narrated Abu Musa: Allah’s Messenger said: On the Day of Resurrection, my Ummah (nation) will be gathered into three groups. One sort will enter Paradise without rendering an account (of their deeds). Another sort will be reckoned an easy account and admitted into Paradise. Yet another sort will come bearing on their backs heaps of sins like great mountains. Allah will ask the angels though He knows best about them: Who are these people? They will reply: They are humble slaves of yours. He will say: UNLOAD the sins from them AND PUT THE SAME OVER the Jews and Christians: then let the humble slaves get into Paradise by virtue of My Mercy.

(This Hadith IS SOUND and mentioned in Mustadrak of Hakim). (110 Hadith Qudsi (Sacred Hadith), translated by Syed Masood-ul-Hasan, revision and commentaries by Ibrahim m. Kunna [Darussalam Publishers and Distributors], pp. 19-20 – see also; emphasis mine)

Allah offers up these disbelievers as a vicarious/substitutionary/atoning sacrifice in hell, since this is how he plans to redeem/ransom Muslims from Allah’s everlasting punishment and humiliation, which would otherwise have befallen them:  

432. Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari reported: Messenger of Allah said, “On the Day of Resurrection, Allah will deliver to every Muslim, a Jew or a Christian and say: ‘This is YOUR RANSOM from Hell-fire.”‘

Another narration is: Messenger of Allah said, “There would come people amongst the Muslims on the Day of Resurrection with sins as heavy as a mountain, and Allah would forgive them”.

[Muslim]. (Al-Imam Abu Zakariya Yahya bin Sharaf An-Nawawi Ad-Dimashqi, Riyad as-Salihin (The Meadows of the Righteous), The Book of Miscellany, 51. Chapter: On Hope; bold and capital emphasis mine)

(20) CHAPTER. Disbelievers are sent to Hell as SACRIFICE to the Muslims

1937. Abu Musa narrated that the Messenger of Allah said: “When it is the Day of Resurrection, Allah will deliver every Muslim a Jew or Christian and say: ‘THAT IS YOUR SACRIFICE FROM HELL-FIRE.’” (The Translation of the Meanings of Summarized Sahih Muslim (Arabic–English), Compiled by Al-Hafiz Zakiuddin Abdul-Azim Al-Mundhiri [Darussalam Publishers & Distributors, First Edition: February 2000], Volume 2, 62– The Book Of Repentance And Allah’s Great Mercy, pp. 1033-1034; capital emphasis mine)

Here is a different rendering of the above hadith, along with a couple of others from Sahih Muslim:


Abu Musa’ reported that Allah’s Messenger said: When it will be the Day of Resurrection Allah would deliver to every Muslim a Jew or a Christian and say: That is your RESCUE from Hell-Fire. (Sahih Muslim, Book 037, Number 6665

Abu Burda reported on the authority of his father that Allah’s Apostle said: No Muslim would die but Allah would admit IN HIS STEAD a Jew or a Christian in Hell-Fire. ‘Umar b. Abd al-‘Aziz took an oath: By One besides Whom there is no god but He, thrice that his father had narrated that to him from Allah’s Messenger. (Sahih Muslim, Book 037, Number 6666)

Abu Burda reported Allah’s Messenger as saying: There would come people amongst the Muslims on the Day of Resurrection with AS HEAVY SINS AS A MOUNTAIN, and Allah would FORGIVE THEM and He would PLACE IN THEIR STEAD the Jews and the Christians. (As far as I think), Abu Raub said: I do not know as to who is in doubt. Abu Burda said: I narrated it to ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Aziz, whereupon he said: Was it your father who narrated it to you from Allah’s Apostle? I said: Yes. (Sahih Muslim, Book 037, Number 6668)

It gets even worse.

The following version of this report exposes the heinous and sadistic nature of Muhammad’s god since it depicts the Islamic deity as actually being elated over the fact that Jews and Christians will be tortured in hell in the place of Muhammadans:

In a slightly more detailed version, Abu Musa leads us to an explanation of the reason for God’s laughter:

The Prophet said: “On the Day of Resurrection our Lord, to Him belong glory and greatness, shall be revealed to us, laughing (yataglla dahikan). And He will say: ‘Rejoice, you Muslims! For I have REPLACED each one of you destined to go to Hell with a Jew or a Christian’.”17 (Livnat Holtzman, “‘Does God Really Laugh?” – Appropriate and Inappropriate Descriptions of God in Islamic Traditionalist Theology,’” Laughter in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times (Fundamentals of Medieval and Early Modern Culture), ed. Albrecht Classen [De Gruyter, Berlin/New York; 1st edition, 2010], Chapter 2, p. 172; bold and capital emphasis mine)

17 Al‐Agurri, Kitab alsariah, 295, hadith no. 641; Al‐Agurri, Kitab altasdiq, 76. (Ibid.)

The aforementioned Islamic scholar cites a lengthier version of this abominable narration:

The Messenger of God said: When the Day of Resurrection comes God will bring all the nations together in the same plateau. And when He sees fit to separate between His creatures, He will present to each nation [the idol] that they used to worship. The people will follow their idols until they will be pushed into the fire. Then our Lord the Blessed and Exalted will come to us as we stand in a high place, and say: ‘Who are you?’ and we will say: ‘We are the Muslims.’ He will say: ‘What are you waiting for you? They (i.e. the Muslims) will say: ‘We are waiting for our Lord the Blessed and Exalted.’ He will say: ‘How will you recognize Him when you have never seen Him?’ And they will say: ‘He has no equal.’ Then, He will be revealed to them LAUGHING, and say: ‘Rejoice, oh you Muslims! For I have already replaced each one of you destined to go to Hell with a Jew or a Christian.’59 (Holtzman, Anthropomorphism in Islam: The Challenge of Traditionalism (700-1350) [Edinburgh University Press LTD, 2019], 1. The Narrator and the Narrative: A Literary Analysis of Ahadith al-Sifat, pp. 33-34; bold and capital emphasis mine)

Talk about evil and sadistic!

Allah is depicted as being absolutely giddy as he tells Muhammadans to rejoice that the Islamic god has ransomed them from their evil deeds by placing in their steads Jews and Christians in hell, whom he will torture and humiliate forever and ever!

Holtzman has more narrations:

When the Day of Resurrection arrives, [the idols] that each nation used to worship in this world will be presented before them. Each nation will approach [the idol] that they used to worship in this world, and only the monotheists (ahl al-tawhid) will remain. Someone will then say to them: ‘What are you waiting for, when everyone else has already gone?’65 And they we will answer: ‘We have a lord whom we used to worship in the material world, but we have never seen him.’ They will be asked: ‘Will you know him when you see him?’ They will say: ‘Yes.’ They will be asked: ‘So, how will you recognize him, when you have never seen him?’ They will answer: ‘Because there is nothing similar to him.’ Suddenly, the curtain will be drawn in front of them, and they will see God, the mighty and powerful. Immediately they will prostrate themselves on the ground – all, but a group of people who will want to prostrate themselves but will be unable to do so, because their backs will be stuck and erect like cattle’s horns. This [scene] will be exactly as described in the Quranic verse: ‘On the day when the dread event unfolds and they are told to prostrate themselves, they will be unable.66 So God will say to them: ‘Raise your heads up, because for each and every one of you I marked A SUBSTITUTE who is either a Jew or a Christian, to be sent INSTEAD OF YOU to Hell.’67 (Ibid., p. 36; bold and capital emphasis mine)

According to his avowal, Sa’id ibn Abi Burda accompanied his father in the delegation to the caliph al-Walid. As Ahmad ibn Hanbal remarked, Sa’id never denied that ‘Umar asked his father to swear on the authenticity of the hadith that he recounted to him. Following the material in Ahmad ibn Habnbal’s Musnad and Muslim’s Sahih, Ibn ‘Asakir added that Sa’id never denied nor affirmed this incident.98 According to Sa’id, after completing his business with ‘Umar, Abu Burda awakened Sa’id in the middle of the night and led him through the streets of Damascus. They arrived at ‘Umar’s house, which was situated between the vegetable market and the cheese market, and knocked on the gate of the house. The gatekeeper informed Abu Burda that ‘Umar had already retired to bed, but Abu Burda insisted on informing ‘Umar that he was waiting for him at the gate. Soon after, permission was granted for Abu Burda and his son to enter the house. ‘Is something wrong, Abu Burda?’ – asked ‘Umar whose sleep was interrupted. ‘Everything is fine’ – answered Abu Burda. ‘What is that you want?’  – asked ‘Umar. Abu Burda explained: ‘I finished my business, but I remembered a hadith that my father had told me. And here it is: The Messenger of God said: When the people will be gathered for Judgment Day, a Jew or a Christian will be brought, and [a voice] will say:  Oh Believer! This is the SACRIFICE that will REDEEM YOU from Hell!’99 ‘Umar asked: ‘Did you hear it from your father?’ Abu Burda confirmed this… (Ibid., pp. 43-44; bold and capital emphasis mine)


I [Qudama ibn Hamata al-Dabbi] was sitting at ‘Umar ‘Abd al-‘Aziz’s when suddenly Abu Burda, the son of Abu Musa came in, and told ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz that he once heard his father tell the following hadith on the authority of the Prophet, who said, ‘In the Day of Resurrection, the Jew and the Christian will be brought and a voice will say: “Oh Muslim, this is THE SACRIFICE that will REDEEM YOU from Hell”.’ ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz said to Abu Burda: ‘Allah, there is no god but Him! Did you hear your father tell this hadith on the authority of the Messenger of God?’ [Abu Burda] said: ‘Allah, there is no god but Him! My father indeed told me this hadith, and he in his turn heard it from the Messenger of God.’ [Qudama said]: I then saw ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz prostrate himself in adoration three times.107 (Ibid., p. 45; bold and capital emphasis mine)

59. Al-Ajurri, Kitab al-Shari’a, p. 279, hadith 608; Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 32, pp. 422-4, hadith 19654; Ibn Khuzayma, Kitab al-Tawhid, pp. 577-8, hadith 340; al-Darimi, Radd, p. 92, hadith 180; Gimaret, Dieu a l’image de l’homme, p. 268…

67. Al-Ajurri, Kitab al-Shari’a, p. 278, hadith 607. For a different version, see al-Ajurri, Kitab al-tasdiq, p. 80; al-Tabarani, Al-Mu’jam al-Kabir, vol. 9, p. 418…

98. Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 21, p. 166.

99. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 32, pp. 375-6, hadith 196000.

100. Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 26, p. 47 (the biography of Abu Burda).

101. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 32, pp. 375-6, hadith 196000.    

102. Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 25, pp. 134-5 (the biography of Talha ibn Yahya Talha ibn ‘Ubayd Allah)…

104. Ibn Abi Hatim, al-Jarh wa’l-ta’dil, vol. 7, pp. 127-8; Ibn Habban, al-Thiqat, vol. 7, p. 341 …

107. Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 49, pp. 301-2. (Ibid., pp. 61-64)

Here’s where the problem lay for Muslims.

The aforementioned statements are contradicted by the following verses and reports:

And every man’s work have WE fasten to his neck; and on the Day of Resurrection WE shall bring out for him a book which he will find wide open. It will be said to him, ‘Read thy book. Sufficient is thy own soul as a reckoner against thee this day.’ He who follows the right way follows it only for the good of his own soul; and he who goes astray, goes astray only to his own loss. And no bearer of burden shall bear the burden of another. And WE shall never punish until WE have sent a Messenger. S. 17:13-15 Sher Ali

That no burdened person (with sins) shall bear the burden (sins) of another, And that man can have nothing but what he does (good or bad), And that his deeds will be seen, Then he will be recompensed with a full and the best recompense S. 53:38-41 Hilali-Khan

Here, the Muslim scripture clearly attests that no sinner will bear the punishment of another’s sins, and that a person will only be recompensed for his/her own individual deeds.

Note how the Muslim commentators explain these texts:

and that wa-an to be understood as wa-annahu man shall have only what he himself strives for of good deeds and so he shall not have anything of the reward for good deeds striven for by another; (Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Q. 53:39; bold emphasis mine)

(That no laden one shall bear another’s load) that no bearer shall bear the sins of another; it is also said that this means: no soul shall be tormented for the sins of another soul, (Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs, Q. 53:38; bold emphasis mine)

Now pay close attention to the struggle of the next two Muslim scholars as they attempt to make sense out of these blatant contradictions:

<that no bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another; that man will have nothing but what he strives for> that is, each person who strives will have his own deeds, both good and bad, and no one will have a share of the deeds and efforts of any other person, nor will anyone carry another person’s burden of sin.

<that his deeds will be examined> in the hereafter, and his good deeds will be distinguished from his bad deeds.

<then he will be requited in full> that is, purely good deeds will be requited with that which is the best (paradise); purely bad deeds will be requited with that which is the worst (hell); and deeds that are mixed will be requited accordingly. All of creation will acknowledge the justice and kindness of Allah, and will praise Allah for that, to the extent that even when the people of hell enter hell, their hearts will be filled with praise of their Lord and acknowledgement of His perfect wisdom and their own loathsomeness; they will acknowledge that it is they who brought it upon themselves and caused themselves to meet this bad fate.

The verse  <that man will have nothing but what he strives for> is quoted as evidence by those who think that the reward for acts of worship cannot be given to anyone else, whether alive or dead. They say: that is because Allah says  <that man will have nothing but what he strives for> (53:39), so the idea that the efforts of others for his sake may benefit him is contrary to that. But this view is subject to further discussion. In fact the verse indicates that each person will have only what he strives for himself. This is true, and there is no disagreement concerning that, but there is nothing in this verse to indicate that he cannot benefit from the effort of another person, if that person gives the reward to him. By the same token, a man has no wealth but what he owns, but that does not mean that he cannot take possession of what another person gives him of the latter’s own wealth. (Tafseer as -S a’di: Juz’ 25-27, Volume 9, pp. 344-345; bold emphasis mine)

Contrary to the above Muhammadan’s assertion, everything in the verse plainly and emphatically teaches that a person’s deeds will not benefit someone else, whether good or bad.


Allah is Just with the Sinners

Allah the Exalted said…

(Every person is a pledge for that which he has earned.) After Allah mentioned His favor of elevating the offspring to the ranks of their parents, even though the deeds of the former did not qualify them, He affirmed His fairness in that, He does not punish anyone for the mistakes of others

(Every person is a pledge for that which he has earned.) Therefore, every person will be responsible for his actions. No sin committed by others shall ever be added to one’s load, even if committed by his or her parents or offspring. Allah the Exalted said…

(Every person is a pledge for what he has earned, except those on the Right. In Gardens, they will ask one another about the criminals.) (74:38-41) (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Q. 52:21; emphasis mine)

None shall carry the Burden of Any Other on the Day of Resurrection

Allah the Exalted explained what He has revealed in the Scripture of Ibrahim and Musa…

(That no burdened person shall bear the burden of another.) Meaning, every soul shall carry its own injustices, whether disbelief or sin, and NONE else shall carry its burden of sin, as Allah states…

(And if one heavily laden calls another to (bear) his load, nothing of it will be lifted even though he be near of kin.) (35:18) Allah said…

(And that man can have nothing but what he does.) So just as no soul shall carry the burden of any other, the soul shall ONLY benefit from the good that one earns for himself. As for the Hadith recorded by Muslim in the Sahih, that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said…

<<When a person dies, his deeds will cease except in three cases: from a righteous son who invokes Allah for him, or an ongoing charity after his death, or knowledge that people benefit from.>> These three things are, in reality, a result of one’s own deeds, efforts and actions. For example, a Hadith states…

<<Verily, the best type of provision that one consumes is from what he himself has earned, and one’s offspring are among what he has earned.>> The ongoing charity that one leaves behind, like an endowment, for example, are among the traces of his own actions and deeds. Allah the Exalted said…

(Verily, We give life to the dead, and We record that which they send before (them) and their traces.) (36:12) The knowledge that one spreads among people which they are guided by is among his actions and deeds. A Hadith collected in the Sahih states…

<<Whoever invites to guidance, he will earn as much reward as those who follow him, without decreasing anything out of their own rewards.>> Allah said…

(And that his deeds will be seen.) meaning, on the Day of Resurrection…

(And say: “Do deeds! Allah will see your deeds, and (so will) His Messenger and the believers. And you will be brought back to the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. Then He will inform you of what you used to do.”) (9:105)

Then Allah will remind you of your actions and recompense you for them in the best manner, good for good and evil for evil. Allah’s statement here…

(Then he will be recompensed with a full and the best recompense.) (Ibid., Q. 53:38; emphasis mine)

Ibn Kathir thinks that quoting a narration of Muhammad, who claimed that the deeds of a person will continue to benefit others even after s/he dies, somehow solves the problem, when in reality this merely reinforces the contradiction inherent in the Islamic tradition.

Besides, nothing stated by Muhammad alleviates the dilemma of the Islamic sources expressly teaching that a person’s deeds will only benefit him AT THE LAST DAY, ON THE DAY OF JUDGEMENT. It is, therefore, irrelevant whether the person’s deeds will affect those on earth long after s/he is dead since these acts will still be ascribed to him/her on the day of judgment, not to someone else.

The issue at hand is the emphatic teaching of the Quran and sunnah that persons will be punished or elevated in the hereafter as a result of the deeds of others. And yet these teachings contradict other explicitly clear and unambiguous statements from these very same sources that, in the hereafter, Allah will not exalt or humiliate individuals because of what others have said or done.     

Therefore, the contradiction remains.



Islam’s Doctrine of Substitutionary Atonement and the Ransoming of Sinners

Who Suffers the Consequence of Sins according to the Qur’an?

Islam and the Punishment of the Innocent

Who suffers loss if Muhammad was wrong?

The (In)Justice of Allah Examined


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