Is Jesus Really Like Adam After All?

Revisiting the problem of the Quran’s likening Jesus to Adam

The Quran seeks to deny the Deity of Christ by arguing that Jesus is like Adam in God’s sight:

To God, Jesus is like Adam, whom He created from dust, then He told him, “Be!” and he was. S. 3:59 Safi Kaskas http://islamawakened.com/quran/3/st64.htm

For God the likeness of Jesus is as that of Adam whom He fashioned out of dust and said “Be” and he was. Ahmed Ali http://islamawakened.com/quran/3/st5.htm

We have already shown elsewhere why this is a blatantly false comparison:

Is Jesus Like Adam? http://answeringislam.net/Quran/Contra/jesus_unlike_adam.html

What was that about Jesus? http://www.answeringislam.net/Responses/Abualrub/twoadams_ss1.htm#2

On Jesus’ Similitude with Adam: Uncovering another Quranic Dilemma Pt. 1 http://www.reformedapologeticsministries.com/2015/11/on-jesus-similitude-with-adam.html

In this article we are going to show how this comparison between Adam and Jesus actually backfires against Islam. We will demonstrate that the Quran’s argument ends up proving that Jesus is a king who is worthy of divine worship.

To start off with, the Muslim scripture states that Allah created Adam to be his vicegerent or vice-regent who would rule the earth on behalf of Allah. It also says that Allah ordered all the angels to worship Adam due to the fact of his having been created by Allah’s own hands and made alive by Allah’s own spirit:

When thy Lord said to the angels, “Verily, I am about to place one in my stead on earth,” they said, “Wilt thou place there one who will do ill therein and shed blood, when we celebrate thy praise and extol thy holiness?” God said, “Verily, I know what ye know not.” And he taught Adam the names of all things, and then set them before the angels, and said, “Tell me the names of these, if ye are endued with wisdom.” They said, “Praise be to Thee! We have no knowledge but what Thou hast given us to know. Thou! Thou art the Knowing, the Wise.” He said, “O Adam, inform them of their names.” And when he had informed them of their names, He said, “Did I not say to you that I know the hidden things of the Heavens and of the Earth, and that I know what ye bring to light, and what ye hide?” And when we said to the angels, “Bow down and worship Adam,” then worshipped they all, save Eblis. He refused and swelled with pride, and became one of the unbelievers. S. 2:30-34 Rodwell

When thy Lord said unto the angels, verily I am about to create man of clay: When I shall have formed him, therefore, and shall have breathed my spirit into him, do ye fall down and worship him. And all the angels worshipped [him], in general; except Eblis, [who] was puffed up with pride, and became an unbeliever. [God] said [unto him], O Eblis, what hindreth thee from worshipping that which I have created with my hands? Art thou elated with vain pride? Or art thou [really] one of exalted merit? He answered, I am more excellent than he: Thou hast created me of fire, and hast created him of clay. S. 38:71-76 Sale

Moreover, the so-called authentic hadiths state that Adam was created in the very image and shape of Allah:

Likewise, we affirm that, Allah created Adam in His image.21 This hadith was collected by Ahmad bin Hanbal and others.

In another narration, […] in the image of ar-Rahman.22

As collected by ad-Daraqutni, Abu Bakr an-Najjad23, Abu ‘Abdullah bin Battah24, and others. (Kitab al-I’tiqad: By Imam Abu al-Husain Muhammad bin al-Qadhi Abu Ya’la al-Farra’ al-Hanbali, verification of the text and commentary by Shaikh Muhammad bin ‘Abd ar-Rahman al-Khumaiyis (Associate Professor at Muhammad bin Sa’ud University), translated by Amr bin Jalal Abualrub [Madinah Publishers and Distributors, First edition 2012], pp. 21-22)

21 Collected by Ahmad in, Musnad Abu Hurairah, 14/45, hadith 8291, by al-Bukhari in, Kitab al-Isti’than, 4/135, hadith number 6227, Abdullah bin Ahmad said, “It was written in the books of my father (Ahmad bin Hanbal), And his height was 60 cubits, but I am not sure if he narrated it to us or not.” This addition is also found in al-Bukhari’s Sahih.

Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Tayimiyyah said, “There was no dispute among the Salaf in the first three generations that the pronoun is referenced to Allah as has been elaborated in many different ways from the Sahabah, and the context of all the ahadith point to that.” (Bayan Talbis al-Jahmiyyah, Ibn Taymiyyah, with verification by Dr. ‘Abd ar-Rahman al-Yahya, 2/356) Ahl as-Sunnah affirm Allah’s attribute of having an Image and believe in it; they profess that it should be accepted as is, without denying, altering or describing it, and without likening it to His creation. Al-Aajurri said, after narrating the hadith of the image, “This is from the traditions that Muslims are obligated to believe in, without saying, how, or why. Rather, it is accepted with submission and belief that it is true, and by refraining from trying to explain it, as has been said by the Muslim Imams who passed.” (Ash-Shari’ah, by al-Aajurri, 2/106)

Imam Ahmad spoke on this topic and said about the hadith of the image, “We accept the hadith as is [without explaining its essence].” Because of that, Imam Ahmad used to rebuke those who interpret the hadith of the Image and who ascribe the pronoun to other than Allah. He said in the narration of Abu Talib, “Whoever says that Allah created Adam in Adam’s shape is a Jahmi, because what shape did Adam have before he was created?” (Ibtal at-Ta’wilat, 1/75). This is a warning from Imam Ahmad, that whoever interprets the pronoun to be other than referring to Allah will have followed the path of the Jahmiyyah. Ibn Qutaibah said, “As I see it, and Allah knows best, is that to have an image is not stranger than having two hands, fingers and eyes, but these attributes are familiar because they were mentioned in the Qur’an, unlike the image which is unfamiliar because it was not mentioned in the Qur’an [but only mentioned in the ahadith]. However, we believe in both [types of report], we do not ascribe any specific essence or resemblance to these attribute[sic].” (Ta’wil Mukhtalif al-Hadith, pg. 261)

22 Also collected by Ibn Abi ‘Asim in, as-Sunnah, 2/229, al-Baihaqi in, al-Asma’ wa as-Sifat, pg. 371, Ibn Khuzaimah, at-Tawhid, hadith number 41, 1/85, al-Ajurri in, ash-Shari’ah, pg. 315.

Ibn Hajar said in, al-Fat-h, 5/183, “Al-Maziri and those who followed him have rejected the authenticity of this addition, meaning, On the image of ar-Rahman; since what has been established in most of the hadith‘s chains of transmission is, Allah created Adam in His shape., Then he said, ‘If it is authentic, then it is taken in a way that befits Allah’s majesty.”

[Ibn Hajar continued by saying], “I say: the addition was collected by Ibn Abi ‘Asim in, as-Sunnah, as well as at-Tabarani, with a chain of narration leading through Ibn ‘Umar, and the narrators are all trustworthy. Ibn Abi ‘Asim also collected it using the chain of narration passing through Abu Yunus from Abu Hurairah, with a wording which refutes al-Maziri’s opinion [that the word, ‘Ar-Rahman’ is not established in the hadith]. It says, Whoever fights should avoid [hitting] the face, because man’s image in ar-Rahman’s image. Is-haq al-Kawsaj said, “I heard Ahmad say, ‘This hadith is authentic.’ [My father said], ‘Such a person has lied, and this is the exact statement that the Jahmiyyah said.’” (al-Fat-h, 5/183)

23 He is the Imam, the hadith scholar, the jurist, the Mufti, the Shaikh of ‘Iraq, Abu Bakr, Ahmad bin Salman bin alHasan bin Isra’il al-Baghdadi al-Hanbali an-Najjad. He was born in 253 Hijri and died in the year 348 Hijri. Refer to, as-Siyar, 15/502, and Mukhtasar as-Siyar, 2/125, number 3158.

24 He is the Imam, the role model, the worshipper of Allah, the hadith scholar, the Shaikh of ‘Iraq, Abu Abdullah, ‘Ubaidullah bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Hamdan al-‘Akbari al-Hanbali, also known as, Ibn Battah. He died the year 387 Hijri. Refer to, Siyaru A’lam an-Nubalaa, 16/529, number 389. (Ibid., pp. 21-23)

It is apparent that this story of Allah commanding his angelic creatures to worship Adam, with Satan refusing to do so, is taken from non-canonical, uninspired Jewish and Christian sources, such as the apocryphal work known as The Life of Adam and Eve:

And with a heavy sigh, the devil spake: ‘O Adam! all my hostility, envy, and sorrow is for thee, since it is for thee that I have been expelled from my glory, which I possessed in the heavens in the midst of the angels and for thee was I cast out in the earth.’ Adam answered, ‘What dost thou tell me? What have I done to thee or what is my fault against thee? Seeing that thou hast received no harm or injury from us, why dost thou pursue us?’ The devil replied, ‘Adam, what dost thou tell me? It is for thy sake that I have been hurled from that place. When thou wast formed. I was hurled out of the presence of God and banished from the company of the angels. When God blew into thee the breath of life and thy face and likeness was made in the image of God, Michael also brought thee and made (us) worship thee in the sight of God; and God the Lord spake: Here is Adam. I have made thee in our image and likeness.’ And Michael went out and called all the angels saying: ‘Worship the image of God as the Lord God hath commanded.’ And Michael himself worshipped first; then he called me and said: ‘Worship the image of God the Lord.’ And I answered, ‘I have no (need) to worship Adam.’ And since Michael kept urging me to worship, I said to him, ‘Why dost thou urge me? I will not worship an inferior and younger being (than I). I am his senior in the Creation, before he was made was I already made. It is his duty to worship me.’ When the angels, who were under me, heard this, they refused to worship him. And Michael saith, ‘Worship the image of God, but if thou wilt not worship him, the Lord God will be wrath with thee.’ And I said, ‘If He be wrath with me, I will set my seat above the stars of heaven and will be like the Highest.’ And God the Lord was wrath with me and banished me and my angels from our glory; and on thy account were we expelled from our abodes into this world and hurled on the earth. And straightway we were overcome with grief, since we had been spoiled of so great glory. And we were grieved when we saw thee in such joy and luxury. And with guile I cheated thy wife and caused thee to be expelled through her (doing) from thy joy and luxury, as I have been driven out of my glory. (The Life of Adam and Eve, Latin Version http://wesley.nnu.edu/sermons-essays-books/noncanonical-literature/noncanonical-literature-ot-pseudepigrapha/the-books-of-adam-and-eve/; bold and italicized emphasis ours)

Note the reason given here for God demanding all of the angels to worship the first man: Adam is the image of God in whom God breathed his breath of life, which is quite similar to what the Islamic sources teach.

Yet here is where the dilemma lies for the Muslims. Since the Quran likens Jesus to Adam, and since the Islamic sources attest that Jesus is God’s Word and Spirit who became flesh,

O ye people of the Book! do not exceed in your religion, nor say against God aught save the truth. The Messiah, Jesus the son of Mary, is but the apostle of God and His Word, which He cast into Mary and a spirit from Him; believe then in God and His apostles, and say not ‘Three.’ Have done! it were better for you. God is only one God, celebrated be His praise that He should beget a Son! His is what is in the heavens and what is in the earth; and God sufficeth for a guardian. S. 4:171 Palmer

Whose physical body and pure human nature was created by the Spirit of Allah in the blessed womb of Jesus’ virgin mother,

And Mary, daughter of Imran, who guarded her private parts, and we breathed therein of our spirit and she verified the words of her Lord and His books, and was of the devout. S. 66:12 Palmer

And who shall physically descend from heaven to rule the world as a righteous judge,

Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Apostle said, “The Hour will not be established until the son of Mary (i.e. Jesus) descends amongst you as a just ruler, he will break the cross, kill the pigs, and abolish the Jizya tax. Money will be in abundance so that nobody will accept it (as charitable gifts). (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 43, Number 656 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=43&translator=1&start=0&number=656)

(And he shall be a sign for (the coming of) the Hour.) means, sign and “One of the signs of the Hour will be the appearance of `Isa son of Maryam before the Day of Resurrection. ” Something similar was also narrated from Abu Hurayrah, Ibn `Abbas, `Abu Al-`Aliyah, Abu Malik, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and others. Many Mutawatir Hadiths report that the Messenger of Allah said that `Isa will descend before the Day of Resurrection as a just ruler and fair judge. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Q. 43:61 http://www.qtafsir.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2076&Itemid=99; bold and underline emphasis ours)

This means that he is even more deserving of being worshiped and not just by the angels, but by all creation. After all, if a finite, imperfect creature who fell from grace and whose sin brought great pain and misery to all humanity,

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah’s Apostle said, “Adam and Moses met, and Moses said to Adam “You are the one who made people MISERABLE and turned them out of Paradise.” Adam said to him, “You are the one whom Allah selected for His message and whom He selected for Himself and upon whom He revealed the Torah.” Moses said, ‘Yes.’ Adam said, “Did you find that written in my fate before my creation?’ Moses said, ‘Yes.’ So Adam overcame Moses with this argument.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, Number 260 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=60&translator=1&start=0&number=260)

Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet said, “Moses argued with Adam and said to him (Adam), ‘You are the one who got the people out of Paradise by your sin, AND THUS MADE THEM MISERABLE.’ Adam replied, ‘O Moses! You are the one whom Allah selected for His Message and for His direct talk. Yet you blame me for a thing which Allah had ordained for me before He created me?’” Allah’s Apostle further said, “So Adam overcame Moses by this Argument.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, Number 262)

Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu’z-Zinad from al-Araj from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah said, “Adam and Musa argued and Adam got the better of Musa. Musa rebuked Adam, ‘You are Adam WHO LED PEOPLE ASTRAY and brought them out of the Garden.’ Adam said to him, ‘You are Musa to whom Allah gave knowledge of everything and whom he chose above people with His message.’ He said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘Do you then censure me for a matter WHICH WAS DECREED FOR ME BEFORE I WAS CREATED?‘” (Malik’s Muwatta, Book 46, Number 46.1.1 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=46&translator=4&start=0&number=46.1.1)

Could be worthy of the worship of angels then how much more is Jesus Christ worthy of being worshiped when even the Islamic sources describe him as the sinless virgin born Son of Mary, and the eternal Word and Spirit of God that became flesh?

In fact, the inspired Christian Scriptures proclaim that Jesus is the true image of God and divine Son by and for whom all things were created, being the One who reigns over all creation, and whom all creatures are expected (in fact, commanded) to worship:

“The god of this world has blinded the minds of those who do not believe, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine on them. For we do not preach ourselves, but Christ Jesus the Lord, and ourselves your servants for Jesus’ sake. For God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, has shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.” 2 Corinthians 4:4-6

“Therefore God highly exalted Him and gave Him the name which is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.” Philippians 2:9-11

“He has delivered us from the power of darkness and has transferred us into the kingdom of His dear Son, in whom we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of sins. He is the image of the invisible God and the firstborn of every creature. For by Him all things were created that are in heaven and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they are thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers. All things were created by Him and for Him. He is before all things, and in Him all things hold together. He is the head of the body, the church. He is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, so that in all things He may have the preeminence.” Colossians 1:13-18

God, who at various times and in diverse ways spoke long ago to the fathers through the prophets, has in these last days spoken to us by His Son, whom He has appointed heir of all things, and through whom He made the world. He is the brightness of His glory, the express image of Himself, and upholds all things by the word of His power. When He had by Himself purged our sins, He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high. He was made so much better than the angels as He has inherited a more excellent name than they. For to which of the angels did He at any time say: ‘You are My Son; today I have become Your Father’?  Or again,  ‘I will be a Father to Him, and He shall be a Son to Me’? And again, when He brings the firstborn into the world, He says: ‘Let all the angels of God worship Him.’ Of the angels He says: ‘He makes His angels spirits, and His servants a flame of fire.’ But to the Son He says: ‘Your throne, O God, lasts forever and ever; a scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom. You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, Your God, has anointed You with the oil of gladness more than Your companions.’ And, ‘You, Lord, laid the foundation of the earth in the beginning, and the heavens are the works of Your hands. They will perish, but You remain; and they all will wear out like a garment; as a cloak You will fold them up, and they will be changed. But You are the same, and Your years will not end.’ But to which of the angels did He at any time say: ‘Sit at My right hand, until I make Your enemies Your footstool’?” Hebrews 1:1-13

“and from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, the firstborn from the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To Him who loved us and washed us from our sins in His own blood, and has made us kings and priests to His God and Father, to Him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.” Revelation 1:5-6

“When He had taken the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each one having a harp, and golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of saints. And they sang a new song, saying: ‘You are worthy to take the scroll, and to open its seals; for You were slain, and have redeemed us to God by Your blood out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation, and have made us kings and priests unto our God; and we shall reign on the earth.’ Then I looked, and I heard around the throne and the living creatures and the elders the voices of many angels, numbering ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands, saying with a loud voice: ‘Worthy is the Lamb who was slain, to receive power and riches and wisdom and strength and honor and glory and blessing!’ Then I heard EVERY CREATURE which is in heaven and on the earth and under the earth and in the sea, AND ALL THAT ARE IN THEM, saying: ‘To Him who sits on the throne AND TO THE LAMB be blessing and honor and glory and power, forever and ever!’ The four living creatures said, ‘Amen.’ And the twenty-four elders fell down and worshipped Him who lives forever and ever.”

Thus, by claiming that Jesus is like Adam the Quran ends up confirming (albeit inadvertently and unintentionally) that Christians are right in worshiping the risen Christ since he is the Last Adam who undoes all the damage and misery which the first man brought into the world (cf. Romans 5:15-21; 1 Corinthians 15:20-23, 45-49).

 

 

 

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Yahweh Our Sin-Bearer

More Prophetic Hints of the Messiah’s Deity

The Hebrew Bible describes God as bearing the sins of his people:

“And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed, The LORD, The LORD God, merciful and gracious, longsuffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, keeping mercy for thousands, BEARING iniquity and transgression and sin (nose’ awon wapesha wahatta’ah), and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children’s children, unto the third and to the fourth generation.” Exodus 34:6-7

“And now, I beseech thee, let the power of my Lord be great, according as thou hast spoken, saying, The LORD is longsuffering, and of great mercy, BEARING iniquity and transgression (nose’ awon wapasha), and by no means clearing the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation.” Numbers 14:17-18

“Blessed is he whose transgression is lifted up (nasui), whose sin is covered. Blessed is the man unto whom the LORD imputeth not iniquity, and in whose spirit there is no guile… I acknowledged my sin unto thee, and mine iniquity have I not hid. I said, I will confess my transgressions unto the LORD; and thou BEAREST (nasata) the iniquity of my sin. Selah.” Psalm 32:1-2, 5

“Lord, thou hast been favourable unto thy land: thou hast brought back the captivity of Jacob. Thou bearest/hast borne (nasata) the iniquity of thy people, thou hast covered all their sin. Selah.” Psalm 85:1-2

“Thou answeredst them, O Lord our God: thou wast a God that bearest (El nose’) them, though thou tookest vengeance of their inventions.” Psalm 99:8

“Who is a God like You, bearing (nose’) iniquity and passing over transgression for the remnant of His inheritance? He does not remain angry forever, because He delights in benevolence. He will again have compassion upon us. He will tread down our iniquities, and cast all of our sins into the depths of the sea.” Micah 7:18-19 Modern English (MEV)

The Hebrew words nose’ and nasa can mean to lift up, to carry, to bear, to bear away, to convey, to remove to a distance, to forgive. Note, for example, how nasa is used in Leviticus 16:22, which is the chapter dealing with the “Day of Atonement” (Yom Kipporim), the day that the high priest would make atonement for the entire nation of Israel:

“The goat shall bear all their iniquities on itself to a remote area, and he shall let the goat go free in the wilderness.”

Nasa is also employed in respect to the Servant spoken of by the prophet Isaiah, the One appointed to give his life up as a guilt offering in order to atone for the sins of the world:

“Who has believed our report? And to whom has the arm of the LORD been revealed? For he grew up before Him as a tender plant and as a root out of a dry ground. He has no form or majesty that we should look upon him nor appearance that we should desire him. He was despised and rejected of men, a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief. And we hid, as it were, our faces from him; he was despised, and we did not esteem him. Surely he has borne (nasa) our grief and carried our sorrows; Yet we esteemed him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement of our peace was upon him, and by his stripes we are healed. All of us like sheep have gone astray; each of us has turned to his own way, but the Lord has laid on him the iniquity of us all. He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth; he was brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before its shearers is silent, so he opened not his mouth. By oppression and judgment he was taken away, and who shall declare his generation? For he was cut off out of the land of the living; for the transgression of my people he was struck. His grave was assigned with the wicked, yet with the rich in his death, because he had done no violence, nor was any deceit in his mouth. Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise him; He has put him to grief. If he made himself as an offering for sin, he shall see his offspring, he shall prolong his days, and the good pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand. He shall see of the anguish of his soul and be satisfied. By his knowledge My righteous servant shall justify the many, for he shall bear their iniquities. Therefore, I will divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong, because he poured out his soul to death, and he was numbered with the transgressors, thus he bore (nasa) the sin of many and made intercession for the transgressors.” Isaiah 53:1-12 MEV

What makes this particular Servant a rather remarkable individual is that he does what Isaiah says only Yahweh God is capable of doing. For instance, only Yahweh is able to declare or make sinners righteous and save the entire inhabited earth:

“Declare and set forth your case; let them take counsel together. Who has declared this from ancient times? Who has told it from that time? Have not I, the LORD? And there is no God besides Me, a righteous God and Savior; there is no other besides Me. Turn to Me and be saved, all the ends of the earth. For I am God, and there is no other. I have sworn by Myself, the word has gone out of My mouth in righteousness and shall not return, that to Me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall take an oath. Surely, one shall say, ‘ONLY in the LORD are righteousness and strength.’ Men shall come to him, and all who are incensed at Him shall be ashamed. In the LORD shall all the seed of Israel be justified and shall glory.” Isaiah 45:21-25 MEV

This is because there is no one worthy or good enough to intercede or save mankind from their sins. As such, Yahweh was left with no other choice but to personally justify and redeem sinners by his own righteous Arm:

“Then the LORD saw it, and it displeased Him that there was no justice. He saw that there was NO MAN and was astonished that there was NO INTERCESSOR; therefore, HIS OWN ARM brought salvation to Him, and His righteousness sustained Him. For He put on righteousness as a breastplate and a helmet of salvation on His head; He put on the garments of vengeance for clothing and was clad with zeal as a cloak. According to their deeds, accordingly He will repay: fury to His adversaries, recompense to His enemies; to the islands He will make recompense.” Isaiah 59:15b-18

“‘Who is this who comes from Edom with dyed garments from Bozrah? This one who is glorious in His apparel, traveling in the greatness of His strength?’ ‘It is I who speak in righteousness, mighty to save.’ ‘Why is Your apparel red, and Your garments like him who treads in the wine vat?’ ‘I have trodden the winepress ALONE; and from the peoples there was NO ONE with Me. For I will tread them in My anger, and trample them in My fury, and their blood shall be sprinkled upon My garments, and I will stain all My raiment. For the day of vengeance is in My heart, and My year of redemption has come. I looked and there was NO ONE to help, and I was astonished, and there was NO ONE to uphold; therefore, MY OWN ARM brought salvation to Me; and My fury upheld Me. I will tread down the peoples in My anger and make them drunk in My fury, and I will pour out their lifeblood on the earth.’” Isaiah 63:1-6 MEV

This means that Yahweh’s Servant is no mere creature, but must be essentially one with God, which is why he is able to bear the sins of the nations and accomplish the salvation of the whole world. This is further confirmed by the fact that Isaiah describes the exaltation of the Servant,

“Behold, my servant shall act wisely; he shall be high and lifted up, and shall be exalted. As many were astonished at you—his appearance was so marred, beyond human semblance, and his form beyond that of the children of mankind—so shall he sprinkle many nations. Kings shall shut their mouths because of him, for that which has not been told them they see, and that which they have not heard they understand.” Isaiah 52:13-15 New International Version (NIV)

In the same exact language that the prophet uses elsewhere to depict Yahweh’s exalted status over the entire creation,

“In the year that King Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting on a throne, high and lifted up, and His train filled the temple. Above it stood the seraphim. Each one had six wings. With two he covered his face, and with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew. One cried to another and said: ‘Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of Hosts; the whole earth is full of His glory.’ The posts of the door moved at the voice of him who cried, and the house was filled with smoke. And I said: ‘Woe is me! For I am undone because I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips. For my eyes have seen the King, the LORD of Hosts.’” Isaiah 6:1-5

“For thus says the High and Lofty One who inhabits eternity, whose name is Holy: I dwell in the high and holy place and also with him who is of a contrite and humble spirit, to revive the spirit of the humble, and to revive the heart of the contrite ones.” Isaiah 57:15 MEV – cf. 33:5, 10

Which is a position that the true God does not share with anyone:

“The lofty looks of man shall be humbled, and the haughtiness of men shall be bowed down, and the LORD ALONE shall be exalted in that day. For the day of the LORD of Hosts shall be upon everything that is proud and lofty, and upon everything that is lifted up, and it shall be brought low; and it will be upon all the cedars of Lebanon that are high and lifted up, and upon all the oaks of Bashan, and upon all the high mountains, and upon all the hills that are lifted up, and upon all the high towers, and upon every fenced wall, and upon all the ships of Tarshish, and upon all pleasant sloops. The loftiness of man shall be humbled, and the haughtiness of men shall be brought low; the LORD ALONE will be exalted in that day;” Isaiah 2:11-17 MEV

“Let them know that you, whose name is the Lord—that you ALONE are the Most High over all the earth.” Psalm 83:18 NIV

“Who is like the LORD our God, who dwells on high, who looks down on the things that are in heaven and on the earth?” Psalm 113:5-6 MEV

It’s now beginning to make sense. The Servant is Yahweh God incarnate, the God who became man for the express purpose of bearing the sins of the world by offering his human soul/life as a vicarious sacrifice.

And according to the inspired Christian Scriptures, that God-Man is none other than Jesus Christ of Nazareth, being the eternal Son and Word of the Father who became flesh, so as to die a horrendously painful and shameful death on the cross in order to bear the transgressions of the world:

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things came into being through him, and without him not one thing came into being. What has come into being in him was life, and the life was the light of all people… The true light, which enlightens everyone, was coming into the world. He was in the world, and the world came into being through him; yet the world did not know him… And the Word became flesh and lived among us, and we have seen his glory, the glory as of a father’s only son, full of grace and truth. (John testified to him and cried out, ‘This was he of whom I said, “He who comes after me ranks ahead of me because he was before me.”’)… No one has ever seen God. It is God the only Son, who is close to the Father’s heart, who has made him known.” John 1:1-4, 9-10, 14, 18 New Revised Standard Version (NRSV)

“The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him and said, ‘Look, the Lamb of God, who bears (airon) the sin of the world.’” John 1:29

“He has delivered us from the power of darkness and has transferred us into the kingdom of His dear Son, in whom we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of sins. He is the image of the invisible God and the firstborn of every creature. For by Him all things were created that are in heaven and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they are thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers. All things were created by Him and for Him. He is before all things, and in Him all things hold together. He is the head of the body, the church. He is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, so that in all things He may have the preeminence. For it pleased the Father that in Him all fullness should dwell, and to reconcile all things to Himself by Him, having made peace through the blood of His cross, by Him, I say—whether they are things in earth, or things in heaven” Colossians 1:13-20 MEV

“At the same time we wait for the blessed hope and the glorious appearance of our great God and savior Jesus Christ. He gave himself for us in order to rescue us from every kind of lawless behavior, and cleanse a special people for himself who are eager to do good actions.” Common English Bible (CEB)

“Long ago God spoke to our ancestors in many and various ways by the prophets, but in these last days he has spoken to us by a Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom he also created the worlds. He is the reflection of God’s glory and the exact imprint of God’s very being, and he sustains all things by his powerful word. When he had made purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high… And again, when he brings the firstborn into the world, he says, ‘Let all God’s angels worship him.’… But of the Son he says,Your throne, O God, is forever and ever, and the righteous scepter is the scepter of your kingdom. You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness beyond your companions.’ And, ‘In the beginning, Lord [the Son], you founded the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands; they will perish, but you remain; they will all wear out like clothing; like a cloak you will roll them up, and like clothing they will be changed. But you are the same, and your years will never end.’” Hebrews 1:1-3, 6, 8-12

“so Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many, and He will appear a second time, not to bear sin but to save those who eagerly wait for Him.” Hebrews 9:28 MEV

“For to this you were called, because Christ suffered for us, leaving us an example, that you should follow His steps: ‘He committed no sin, nor was deceit found in His mouth.’ When He was reviled, He did not revile back; when He suffered, He did not threaten, but He entrusted Himself to Him who judges righteously. He Himself bore our sins in His own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness. ‘By His wounds you were healed.’ For you were as sheep going astray, but now have been returned to the Shepherd and Guardian of your souls.” 1 Peter 2:21-25 MEV

“And ye know that he was manifested to bear (are’) sins; and in him is no sin.” 1 John 3:5

In other words, Jesus is Yahweh God who became our sin bearer!

 

 

Sujood – The Act of Worship Which Allah Shares With His Creatures

Paul Bilal Williams shared a meme depicting a Muslim prostrating to the ground in worship of his deity. Williams’ caption for that meme says:

Sujood is a position where you put the highest part of your body on the lowest part of the ground… Only for Allah! (https://bloggingtheology.net/2017/08/04/sujood-is-a-position-where-you-put-the-highest-part-of-your-body-on-the-lowest-part-of-the-ground-only-for-allah)

Contrary to William’s assertion, the Islamic scripture does not confine this act of worship to the Muslim deity since the Quran in several places has Allah commanding all the angels to prostrate themselves to Adam, with the Muslim god then condemning Satan to hell for refusing to do so:

And when We said unto the angels: Prostrate yourselves (osjudoo) before Adam, they fell prostrate (fa’asjadoo), all save Iblis. He demurred through pride, and so became a disbeliever. S. 2:30 Pickthall

When thy Lord said unto the angels: Lo! I am about to create a mortal out of mire, And when I have fashioned him and breathed into him of My Spirit, then fall down before him prostrate (sajideena), The angels fell down prostrate, every one, Saving Iblis; he was scornful and became one of the disbelievers. He said: O Iblis! What hindereth thee from falling prostrate (tasjuda) before that which I have created with both My hands? Art thou too proud or art thou of the high exalted? He said: I am better than him. Thou createdst me of fire, whilst him Thou didst create of clay. He said: Go forth from hence, for lo! thou art outcast, And lo! My curse is on thee till the Day of Judgment. He said: My Lord! Reprieve me till the day when they are raised. He said: Lo! thou art of those reprieved Until the day of the time appointed. He said: Then, by Thy might, I surely will beguile them every one, Save Thy single-minded slaves among them. He said: The Truth is, and the Truth I speak, That I shall fill hell with thee and with such of them as follow thee, together. S. 38:71-85 Pickthall

The Quran also mentions how Joseph’s brothers and parents were basically made to prostrate to Joseph:

Behold! Joseph said to his father: “O my father! I did see eleven stars and the sun and the moon: I saw them prostrate themselves (sajideena) to me!” Said (the father): “My (dear) little son! relate not thy vision to thy brothers, lest they concoct a plot against thee: for Satan is to man an avowed enemy! S. 12:4-5 Y. Ali

And he raised his parents high on the throne (of dignity), and they fell down in prostration (sujjadan), (all) before him. He said: “O my father! this is the fulfilment of my vision of old! God hath made it come true! He was indeed good to me when He took me out of prison and brought you (all here) out of the desert, (even) after Satan had sown enmity between me and my brothers. Verily my Lord understandeth best the mysteries of all that He planneth to do, for verily He is full of knowledge and wisdom. S. 12:100 Y. Ali

In all these cases, the Islamic deity commanded and even compelled his servants to give to their fellow creatures the same worship that Allah himself receives:

And the wizards fell down prostrate (sajideena), Crying: We believe in the Lord of the Worlds, The Lord of Moses and Aaron. S. 7:120-122 Pickthall

O ye who believe! Bow down and prostrate yourselves (wa’osjudoo), and worship your Lord, and do good, that haply ye may prosper. S. 22:77 Pickthall

And when it is said to them: “Prostrate (osjudoo) to the Most Beneficent (Allah)! They say: “And what is the Most Beneficent? Shall we fall down in prostration (anasjudu) to that which you (O Muhammad) command us?” And it increases in them only aversion. S. 25:60 Hilali-Khan

And from among His Signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Prostrate (tasjudu) not to the sun nor to the moon, but prostrate (wa’osjudoo) to Allah Who created them, if you (really) worship Him. S. 41:37 Hilali-Khan

Rather prostrate yourselves (fa’osjudoo)before Allah and serve Him. S. 53:62 Pickthall

That’s not all. According to certain narrations deemed to be authentic, Muhammad instructed a blind man to supplicate both himself and Allah together in order to have his invocation granted:

3578. ‘Uthman bin Hunaif narrated that a blind man came to the Prophet and said to him: “Supplicate to Allah to heal me.” He said: “If you wish, I will supplicate for you, and if you wish, you can be patient, for that is better for you.” He said: “Then supplicate to him.” He said: “So he ordered him to perform Wudu’ and to make his Wudu’ complete, and to supplicate with this supplication: ‘O Allah, I ask You and turn towards You by Your Prophet Muhammad, the Prophet of Mercy. Indeed, I have turned to my Lord, BY MEANS OF YOU, concerning this need of mine, so that it can be resolved, So Allah so accept HIS INTERCESSION for me (Allahumma Inni As’aluka WA MUHAMMADIN Nabi-Ir-Rahmati Tawajjahtu Bika Ila Rabbi Fi Hajati Hadhihi Lituqda Li, Allahumma FASHAFFI‘HU Fiya).’” (SAHIH)

[He said]: This Hadith is Hasan SAHIH Gharib, we do not know of it except through this route, as a narration of Abu Ja‘far, and he is someone other than Al-Khatmi, [and Uthman bin Hunaif is the brother of Sahl bin Hunaif] (English Translation of Jami‘ At-Tirmidhi: Compiled by Imam Hafiz Abu ‘Eisa Mohammad Ibn ‘Eisa At-Tirmidhi, translated by Abu Khaliyl (USA), ahadith edited and referenced by Hafiz Tahir Zubair ‘Ali Za’i [Darussalam Publishers & Distributors, First Edition: November 2007], Volume 6, From Hadith No. 3291 to 3956, Various Narrations On The Chapters Of Supplications, Chapter 118, p. 283 – Online version https://sunnah.com/tirmidhi/48/209; capital and underline emphasis ours)

Here is a different version of this same hadith:

1385. It was narrated from ‘Uthman bin Hunaif that a blind man came to the Prophet and said to him: “Pray to Allah to heal me.” He said: “If you wish to store your reward for the Hereafter, that is better, or if you wish, I will supplicate for you.” He said: “Supplicate.” He said: “So he told him to perform ablution and do it well, and to pray two Rak’ah, and to say this supplication: “Allahumma inni as’aluka wa atawajjahu ilaika BI-MUHAMMADIN NABIYYIR-RAHMA.YA MUHAMMADU inni qad tawajjahtu bika ila rabbi fi hajati hadhihi Lituqda. Allahumma FASHAFFI‘HU fiya (O Allah, I ask of You and I turn my face towards You BY VIRTUE OF THE INTERCESSION OF MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET OF MERCY. O MUHAMMAD, I have turned to my Lord BY VIRTUE OF YOUR INTERCESSION concerning this need of mine, so that it may be met. O Allah, accept HIS INTERCESSION concerning me)”. (SAHIH) (English Translation of Sunan Ibn Majah: Compiled by Imam Muhammad Bin Yazeed Ibn Majah Al-Qazwini, Ahadith edited and referenced by Hafiz Abu Tahir Zubair ‘Ali Za’i, translated by Nasiruddin al-Khattab (Canada), final review by Abu Khaliyl (USA) [Darussalam Publications and Distributors, First Edition: June 2007], Volume 2, From Hadith no. 803 to 1782, 5. The Chapters Of Establishing The Prayer And The Sunnah Regarding Them, Chapter 189. What Was Narrated Concerning Prayer At Times Of Need, pp. 329-330 – Online Version https://sunnah.com/urn/1287330; capital and underline emphasis ours)

What makes this prayer rather troubling is that Muslims continued to employ this invocation long after Muhammad’s death:

THE HADITH OF THE MAN IN NEED

Moreover, Tabarani, in his “al-Mu’jam al saghir,” reports a hadith from ‘Uthman ibn Hunayf that a man repeatedly visited Uthman ibn Affan concerning something he needed, but Uthman paid no attention to him or his need. The man met Ibn Hunayf and complained to him about the matter – this being after the death (wisal) of the Prophet and after the caliphates of Abu Bakr and Umar – so Uthman ibn Hunayf, who was one of the Companions who collected hadiths and was learned in the religion of Allah, said: “Go to the place of ablution and perform ablution (wudu), then come to the mosque, perform two rak’as of prayer therein, and say:

‘O Allah, I ask You and turn to You through our Prophet Muhammad, the Prophet of mercy; O MUHAMMAD (Ya Muhammad), I turn through you to my Lord, that He may fulfill my need,’ and mention your need. Then come so that I can go with you [to the caliph Uthman].” So the man left and did as he had been told, then went to the door of Uthman ibn Affan, and the doorman came, took him by the hand, brought him to Uthman ibn Affan, and seated him next to him on a cushion. ‘Uthman asked, “What do you need?” and the man mentioned what he wanted, and Uthman accomplished it for him, then he said, “I hadn’t remembered your need until just now,” adding, “Whenever you need something, just mention it.” Then, the man departed, met Uthman ibn Hunayf, and said to him, “May Allah reward you! He didn’t see to my need or pay any attention to me until you spoke with him.” Uthman ibn Hunayf replied, “By Allah, I didn’t speak to him, but I have seen a blind man come to the Messenger of Allah and complain to him of the loss of his eyesight. The Prophet said, “Can you not bear it?’ and the man replied, ‘O Messenger of Allah, I do not have anyone to lead me around, and it is a great hardship for me.’ The Prophet told him, ‘Go to the place of ablution and perform ablution (wudu), then pray two rak’as of prayer and make the supplications.'” Ibn Hunayf went on, “By Allah, we didn’t part company or speak long before the man returned to us as if nothing had ever been wrong with him.”

This is an explicit, unequivocal text from a prophetic Companion proving the legal validity of tawassul through the dead. The account has been classified as rigously authenticated (SAHIH) by Baihaqi, Mundhiri, and Haythami. (Nuh Ha Mim Keller, Tawassul: Supplicating Allah through an Intermediary (From Reliance of the Traveller) http://seekershub.org/ans-blog/2011/07/02/tawassul-supplicating-allah-through-an-intermediary/; bold and capital emphasis ours)

Here we have an individual at the time of the caliphate of Uthman ibn Affan, over 20 twenty years after Muhammad’s death, offering up the same invocation that the blind man did, a prayer where the man had to speak directly to his deceased prophet and his god.

This means that the Muslim in question was guilty of contacting the dead,

Verily, you (O Muhammad) will die and verily, they (too) will die. S. 39:30 Hilali-Khan

3467. It is related from ‘A’isha, the wife of the Prophet, that the Messenger of Allah died while Abu Bakr was at as-Sunh. (Isma’il says that it means at al-‘Aliyya). ‘Umar stood up saying, ‘By Allah, the Messenger of Allah has not died!'” She said, ”Umar said [later], ‘By Allah, nothing occurred to me but that.” [He said], ‘Allah will raise him and he will cut off the hands and feet of some men!’ Abu Bakr came and uncovered the Messenger of Allah and kissed him. He said, ‘May my mother and my father be sacrificed! You were good both alive and dead! By the One who has my soul in His hand, Allah will not ever make you taste two deaths. ‘ Then he went out and said, ‘O oath-taker, take it easy!’ When Abu Bakr spoke, ‘Umar sat down. Abu Bakr praised Allah and glorified Him and then said, ‘Whoever worshipped Muhammad, Muhammad is dead. Whoever worshipped Allah, Allah is alive and does not die.’ He said, ‘You will die and they too will die.’ (39:30) He said, ‘Muhammad is only a Messenger and he has been preceded by other Messengers. If he was to die or be killed, would you turn on your heels? Those who turn on their heels do not harm Allah in any way. Allah will recompense the thankful.’ (3:144) The people sobbed and wept.” (Aisha Bewley, The Sahih Collection of al-Bukhari, Chapter 66. Book of the Virtues of the Companions http://bewley.virtualave.net/bukhari28.html#companions; bold and underline emphasis ours)

Something expressly condemned in God’s Word, the Holy Bible:

“When you enter into the land which the Lord your God gives you, you must not learn to practice the abominations of those nations. There must not be found among you anyone who makes his son or his daughter pass through the fire, or who uses divination, or uses witchcraft, or an interpreter of omens, or a sorcerer, or one who casts spells, or a spiritualist, or an occultist, or a necromancer. For all that do these things are an abomination to the Lord, and because of these abominations the Lord your God will drive them out from before you. You must be blameless before the Lord your God. For these nations, which you shall possess, listened to soothsayers and to diviners, but as for you, the Lord your God has not permitted you to do so.” Deuteronomy 18:9-14

“When they say to you, ‘Seek after the mediums and the wizards, who whisper and mutter,’ should not a people seek after their God? Should they consult the dead for the living? To the law and to the testimony; if they do not speak according to this word, it is because there is no light in them.” Isaiah 8:19-20

That’s not the only problem facing Williams since the Islamic sources expressly teach that invocation is the very heart of worship,

296. The excellence of supplication

712. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet said, “Nothing is dearer to Allah than supplication.”

713. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet said, “The noblest act of worship IS SUPPLICATION.”

714. An-Nu’man ibn Bashir reported that the Prophet said, “Supplication IS WORSHIP.” Then he recited, “Call on Me and I will answer you.” (Al-Adab al-Mufrad al-Bukhari, translated by Aisha Bewley, XXX. Supplication http://bewley.virtualave.net/adab4.html#supplicate; capital emphasis ours)

3828. It was narrated from Nu‘man bin Bashir that the Messenger of Allah said: “Indeed the supplication IS THE WORSHIP.” Then he recited: “And your Lord said: Invoke Me, I will respond to you.”[1] (SAHIH) (English Translation of Sunan Ibn Majah, Volume 5. From Hadith No. 3657 to 4341, 34. The Chapter On Supplication, Chapter 1. The Virtue of Supplication, p. 95 – cf. Online Version https://sunnah.com/ibnmajah/34/2; capital and underline emphasis ours)

[1] Ghafir 40:60. (Ibid.)

And therefore must be rendered to God alone:

You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything). S. 1:5 Hilali-Khan

Say. Surely my prayer and my sacrifice and my life and my death are (all) for Allah, the Lord of the worlds; S. 6:162 Shakir

Say (O Muhammad): “I invoke only my Lord (Allah Alone), and I associate none as partners along with Him.” S. 72:20 Hilali-Khan

Thus, by teaching his followers to pray to him directly Muhammad turned himself into a god alongside the Muslim deity. Muhammad essentially made himself a partner with his deity by receiving the very worship, which is supposed to be for God alone. And in so doing, Muhammad is responsible for causing his followers to become idolaters and blasphemers for worshiping a creature alongside their supposed creator.

Postscript

Williams’ woes are far from over. The Quran’s story of Allah ordering his angelic creatures to worship Adam, with Satan refusing to do so, is taken from non-canonical, uninspired Jewish and Christian sources, such as the apocryphal work known as The Life of Adam and Eve:

And with a heavy sigh, the devil spake: ‘O Adam! all my hostility, envy, and sorrow is for thee, since it is for thee that I have been expelled from my glory, which I possessed in the heavens in the midst of the angels and for thee was I cast out in the earth.’ Adam answered, ‘What dost thou tell me? What have I done to thee or what is my fault against thee? Seeing that thou hast received no harm or injury from us, why dost thou pursue us?’ The devil replied, ‘Adam, what dost thou tell me? It is for thy sake that I have been hurled from that place. When thou wast formed. I was hurled out of the presence of God and banished from the company of the angels. When God blew into thee the breath of life and thy face and likeness was made in the image of God, Michael also brought thee and made (us) worship thee in the sight of God; and God the Lord spake: Here is Adam. I have made thee in our image and likeness.’ And Michael went out and called all the angels saying: ‘Worship the image of God as the Lord God hath commanded.’ And Michael himself worshipped first; then he called me and said: ‘Worship the image of God the Lord.’ And I answered, ‘I have no (need) to worship Adam.’ And since Michael kept urging me to worship, I said to him, ‘Why dost thou urge me? I will not worship an inferior and younger being (than I). I am his senior in the Creation, before he was made was I already made. It is his duty to worship me.’ When the angels, who were under me, heard this, they refused to worship him. And Michael saith, ‘Worship the image of God, but if thou wilt not worship him, the Lord God will be wrath with thee.’ And I said, ‘If He be wrath with me, I will set my seat above the stars of heaven and will be like the Highest.’ And God the Lord was wrath with me and banished me and my angels from our glory; and on thy account were we expelled from our abodes into this world and hurled on the earth. And straightway we were overcome with grief, since we had been spoiled of so great glory. And we were grieved when we saw thee in such joy and luxury. And with guile I cheated thy wife and caused thee to be expelled through her (doing) from thy joy and luxury, as I have been driven out of my glory. (The Life of Adam and Eve, Latin Version http://wesley.nnu.edu/sermons-essays-books/noncanonical-literature/noncanonical-literature-ot-pseudepigrapha/the-books-of-adam-and-eve/; bold and italicized emphasis ours)

Williams is fully aware of this fact since he was so greatly troubled by it that he sought out a Muslim “scholar” to explain to him why the Quran would include this fairy tale:

Wa-alaykum as-salam.

Well, I imagine that since some of the Quran’s truths appear in earlier literature, including the Bible, whose sources are in most cases lost, it is reasonable to suppose that this kind of apocryphal writing contains material that was handed down from some earlier genuinely prophetic document, which otherwise is no longer extant. Perhaps the original Torah contained it? It can be no more than speculation.

Best wishes, Abdal Hakim…

Salam I’m reading J. R. Daniel Kirk’s A Man Attested by God and he discusses (on p. 73) the Life of Adam and Eve (a Jewish pseudepigraphical writing). It tells of how God commanded the angels to bow down and worship Adam and the devil’s resistance to this on the grounds that he is prior and superior to the human.

There are some similarities with the Quranic account in Qur’an 7:11-18 and elsewhere.

Would you have any thoughts?

best regards

Paul (The Life of Adam and Eve https://bloggingtheology.net/2017/03/07/the-life-of-adam-and-eve/)

To say that Murad’s response is desperate would be putting it mildly.

In the first place, both the Quran and ahadith confirm that the previous Scriptures such as the Torah remain in their true, pristine form since they have never been lost or corrupted beyond restoration. The Muslim scripture further testifies that an important aspect of Muhammad’s mission was to affirm the authority, reliability and inspiration of the very sacred writings, which the Jews and Christians possessed at his time:

Children of Israel, remember My blessing wherewith I blessed you, and fulfil My covenant and I shall fulfil your covenant; and have awe of Me. And believe in that I have sent down, confirming that which is WITH YOU, and be not the first to disbelieve in it. And sell not My signs for a little price; and fear you Me. And do not confound the truth with vanity, and do not conceal the truth wittingly. And perform the prayer, and pay the alms, and bow with those that bow. Will you bid others to piety, and forget yourselves while you recite the Book? Do you not understand? S. 2:40-44 Arberry

And when there cometh unto them a scripture from Allah, confirming that IN THEIR POSSESSION – though before that they were asking for a signal triumph over those who disbelieved – and when there cometh unto them that which they know (to be the truth) they disbelieve therein. The curse of Allah is on disbelievers. S. 2:89 Pickthall

And when they were told, ‘Believe in that God has sent down,’ they said, ‘We believe in what was sent down on us’; and they disbelieve in what is beyond that, yet it is the truth confirming what is WITH THEM. Say: ‘Why then were you slaying the Prophets of God in former time, if you were believers?’ S. 2:91 Arberry

Say: ‘Whosoever is an enemy to Gabriel — he it was that brought it down upon thy heart by the leave of God, confirming what was before it, and for a guidance and good tidings to the believers. S. 2:97 Arberry

And when there cometh unto them a messenger from Allah, confirming that which THEY POSSESS, a party of those who have received the Scripture fling the Scripture of Allah behind their backs as if they knew not, S. 2:101 Pickthall

He has sent down upon thee the Book with the truth, confirming what was before it, and He sent down the Torah and the Gospel aforetime, as guidance to the people, and He sent down the Salvation. As for those who disbelieve in God’s signs, for them awaits a terrible chastisement; God is All-mighty, Vengeful. S. 3:3-4 Arberry

And He will teach him the Book, the Wisdom, the Torah… confirming the truth of the Torah that is before me, and to make lawful to you certain things that before were forbidden unto you. I have come to you with a sign from your Lord; so fear you God, and obey you me. S. 3:48, 50 Arberry

You who have been given the Book, believe in what We have sent down, confirming what is WITH YOU, before We obliterate faces, and turn them upon their backs, or curse them as We cursed the Sabbath-men, and God’s command is done. S. 4:47 Arberry

Yet how will they make thee their judge seeing THEY HAVE the Torah, wherein is God’s judgment, then thereafter turn their backs? They are not believers. Surely We sent down the Torah, wherein is guidance and light; thereby the Prophets who had surrendered themselves gave judgment for those of Jewry, as did the masters and the rabbis, following such portion of God’s Book as they were given to keep and were witnesses to. So fear not men, but fear you Me; and sell not My signs for a little price. Whoso judges not according to what God has sent down – they are the unbelievers. And therein We prescribed for them: ‘A life for a life, an eye for an eye, a nose for a nose, an ear for an ear, a tooth for a tooth, and for wounds retaliation’; but whosoever forgoes it as a freewill offering, that shall be for him an expiation. Whoso judges not according to what God has sent down — they are the evildoers. And We sent, following in their footsteps, Jesus son of Mary, confirming the Torah before him and We gave to him the Gospel, wherein is guidance and light, and confirming the Torah before it, as a guidance and an admonition unto the godfearing. So let the People of the Gospel judge according to what God has sent down therein. Whosoever judges not according to what God has sent down — they are the ungodly. And We have sent down to thee the Book with the truth, confirming the Book that was before it, and assuring it. So judge between them according to what God has sent down, and do not follow their caprices, to forsake the truth that has come to thee. To every one of you We have appointed a right way and an open road. If God had willed, He would have made you one nation; but that He may try you in what has come to you. So be you forward in good works; unto God shall you return, all together; and He will tell you of that whereon you were at variance. S. 5:43-48 Arberry

Those who follow the messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write, whom they will find described in the Torah and the Gospel (which are) WITH THEM… S. 7:157 Pickthall

This Koran could not have been forged apart from God; but it is a confirmation of what IS before it, and a distinguishing of the Book, wherein is no doubt, from the Lord of all Being. S. 10:37 Arberry

In their history verily there is a lesson for men of understanding. It is no invented story but a confirmation of the existing (Scripture) and a detailed explanation of everything, and a guidance and a mercy for folk who believe. S. 12:111 Pickthall

We verily gave Moses the Scripture; so be not ye in doubt of his receiving it; and We appointed it a guidance for the Children of Israel. S. 32:23 Pickthall

They addressed (their nation thus): “O our nation! Verily we, we have listened to the Book, made to descend after Musa, being one that is a confirmation to that what is between its two hands (i.e., what had been already there as Allah’s Scripture). It guides towards the truth and towards the permanent Path. S. 46:30 Dr. Kamal Omar

The Quran further sees itself as an Arabic version of the Torah for Arabic-speaking peoples who could not read the former revelations for themselves in their original languages:

And this is a blessed Scripture which We have revealed. So follow it and ward off (evil), that ye may find mercy. Lest ye should say: The Scripture was revealed only to two sects before us, and we in sooth were unaware of what they read; Or lest ye should say: If the Scripture had been revealed unto us, we surely had been better guided than are they. Now hath there come unto you a clear proof from your Lord, a guidance and mercy; and who doeth greater wrong than he who denieth the revelations of Allah, and turneth away from them? We award unto those who turn away from Our revelations an evil doom because of their aversion. S. 6:155-157 Pickthall

Prior to this, the book of Musa was the guide and mercy. This book, (the Qur´an) is in the Arabic language and it confirms and validates (the book of Musa). It warns those committing evil, and gives the good news to the righteous. S. 46:12 Dr. Munir Mushey

Muhammad even warned that Allah would torture a person in a very sadistic and a cruel manner if s/he had the audacity to reject the scriptures given through the previous messengers:

Those who cry lies to the Book and that wherewith We sent Our Messengers — soon they will know! When the fetters and chains are on their necks, and they dragged into the boiling water, then into the Fire they are poured; S. 40:70-72 Arberry

The above data help explain the respect that Muhammad showed to a copy of the Torah that the Jews presented to him, which he then employed to decide a matter for them:

Narrated Abdullah Ibn Umar:

A group of Jews came and invited the Messenger of Allah to Quff. So he visited them in their school. They said: AbulQasim, one of our men has committed fornication with a woman; so pronounce judgment upon them. They placed a cushion for the Messenger of Allah who sat on it and said: Bring the Torah. It was then brought. He then withdrew the cushion from beneath him and placed the Torah on it saying: I believed in thee and in Him Who revealed thee.

He then said: Bring me one who is learned among you. Then a young man was brought. The transmitter then mentioned the rest of the tradition of stoning similar to the one transmitted by Malik from Nafi'(No. 4431).

Grade: Hasan (Al-Albani)

Reference: Sunan Abi Dawud 4449

In-book reference: Book 40, Hadith 99

English translation: Book 39, Hadith 4434 (Sunnah.com https://sunnah.com/abudawud/40/99; italicized and underline emphasis ours)

Now does this sound like a man who believed that the Scriptures of the Jews and Christians were corrupted or that some of their contents had been lost?

This now brings me to my next point. Muhammad believed that the Torah, or the book given to Moses, is a perfect guidance that provides a clear explanation for all the things that it covers:

Again, We gave the Scripture unto Moses, COMPLETE for him who would do good, AN EXPLANATION OF ALL THINGS, a guidance and a mercy, that they might believe in the meeting with their Lord. S. 6:154-157 Pickthall

He said: O Moses! I have preferred thee above mankind by My messages and by My speaking (unto thee). So hold that which I have given thee, and be among the thankful. And We wrote for him, upon the tablets, the lesson to be drawn from all things AND THE EXPLANATION OF ALL THINGS, then (bade him): Hold it fast; and command thy people (saying): Take the better (course made clear) therein. I shall show thee the abode of evil-livers. S. 7:144-145 Pickthall

Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: There was an argument between Adam and Moses (peace be upon both of them) in the presence of their Lord. Adam came the better of Moses. Moses said: Are you that Adam whom Allah created with His Hand and breathed into him His spirit, and commanded angels to fall in prostration before him and He made you live in Paradise with comfort and ease. Then you caused the people to get down to the earth because of your lapse. Adam said: Are you that Moses whom Allah selected for His Messengership and for His conversation with him and conferred upon you THE TABLETS, IN WHICH EVERYTHING WAS CLEARLY EXPLAINED and granted you the audience in order to have confidential talk with you. What is your opinion, how long Torah would have been written before I was created? Moses said: Forty years before. Adam said: Did you not see these words: Adam committed an error and he was enticed to (do so). He (Moses) said: Yes. Whereupon, he (Adam) said: Do you then blame me for an act which Allah had ordained for me forty years before He created me? Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: This is how Adam came the better of Moses. (Sahih Muslim, Book 033, Number 6411 http://searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=033&translator=2&start=0&number=6411)

As such, we would expect to find this story of God commanding the angels to worship Adam, with Satan refusing to do so, in the Torah, specifically in Genesis, since that is where the story of Adam’s creation is found. The fact that the Torah does not mention this event confirms that this is nothing more than a fable, a fairy tale, which Muhammad “borrowed” and passed off as historical fact.

 

Islam Affirms Jesus’ Physical Descent from King David

According to the Quran, Jesus is the physical seed of Noah and Abraham even though he had no physical father:

That is Our argument, which We bestowed upon Abraham as against his people. We raise up in degrees whom We will; surely thy Lord is All-wise, All-knowing. And We gave to him Isaac and Jacob — each one We guided, And Noah We guided before; and of HIS seed David and Solomon, Job and Joseph, Moses and Aaron — even so We recompense the good-doers — Zachariah and John, JESUS and Elias; each was of the righteous; Ishmael and Elisha, Jonah and Lot-each one We preferred above all beings; and of their fathers, and of their seed, and of their brethren; and We elected them, and We guided them to a straight path. S. 6:83-87 Arberry

This means that the Islamic scripture accepts that a person’s physical lineage can be traced through the female side. In fact, the Muslim scholars themselves readily acknowledged that Jesus was a descendant of David via his blessed mother, and hence of the tribe of Judah.

For instance, noted Muslim scholar and historian Al-Tabari linked Jesus’ mother to David, going as far as to “borrow” the genealogy of Joseph found in Matthew’s Gospel to do so!

“The Persians assert that sixty-five years after Alexander seized Babylonia, and fifty-one years after Arsacid rule began, Mary the daughter of ‘Imran gave birth to Jesus. But the Christians assert that Jesus was born to her 303 years after Alexander conquered Babylonia, and that John the Baptist was born six months before Jesus. They report that Mary was pregnant with Jesus when she was thirteen years old. They also report that Jesus lived thirty-two years and a few days before his ascension, and that Mary lived six more years after his ascension, altogether over fifty years. They assert that John and Jesus met in the Jordan River when Jesus was thirty years of age, and that John was slain before the ascension of Jesus. Zechariah b. Berechiah, the father of Yahya b. Zechariah, and ‘Imran b. Matthan, the father of Mary, were married to two sisters. One was married to Zechariah- she was the mother of John, the other was with ‘Imran b. Matthan, and she was the mother of Mary. ‘Imran b. Matthan died when the mother of Mary was pregnant with her. When Mary was born, Zechariah provided for her after her mother’s death, because her aunt, the sister of her mother, was with him. The name of Mary’s mother was Hanna bt. Faqud b. Qabil; the name of the sister of Mary’s mother, that is, the name of John’s mother was Elizabeth bt. Faqud. Zechariah provided for Mary, and she was engaged to Joseph b. Jacob b. Mathan b. Eleazar b. Eliud b. Achim b. Zadok b. Azor b. Eliakim b. Abiud b. Zerubbabel, b. Shealtiel b. Jechonia b. Josiah b. Amon b. Manasseh b. Hezekiah b. Ahaziah b. Jotham b. Uzziah b. Joram b. Jehosaphat b. Asa b. Abijah b. Rehoboam b. SOLOMON B. DAVID.

According to Ibn Humayd – Salamah – Ibn Ishaq: As far as I could learn from her lineage, Mary was the daughter of ‘Imran b. Josiah b. Amon b. Manasse b. Hezekiah b. Ahaziah b. Jotham b. Azariah b. Amaziah b. Joash b. Ahaziah b. Joram b. Jehosaphat b. Asa b. Abijah b. Rehoboam b. SOLOMON. (The History of al-Tabari Volume IV – The Ancient Kingdom, Moshe Perlman trans. [The State University of New York Press; Albany, 1987], pp. 103-104; bold emphasis ours)

Notice al-Tabari’s use of specific traditions, which affirm that both Joseph AND Mary were descendants of King David.

The other classical Muslim scholars also held to this view:

“The Qur’an informs us that the father of Mary was named ‘Imran and the classical Muslim scholars UNANIMOUSLY ACCEPT that she was from the line of the prophet David… Differences of opinion emerge, however, over the intervening genealogy, most probably due to a lack of familiarity with such foreign names and consequent error in recording them in the Arabic orthography. According to the Spanish exegete al-Qurtubi, ‘All these differences are mentioned because the Prophets and Messengers are all descendants one of the other.’ The following genealogy (taking into account orthographic variations), which is attributed to Ibn Ishaq or directly to the Prophet’s companion Ibn ‘Abbas, is the most generally accepted: Mary bint ‘Imran ibn Yashim ibn Misha ibn Hazqiya ibn Yawish (ibn Isha ibn Yahushafat) IBN SULAYMAN IBN DAWUD… Although the name of her mother is not supplied in the Qur’an, it is universally accepted as Hanna bint Faqudh.” (Aliah Schleifer, Mary The Blessed Virgin of Islam, Fons Vitae; ISBN: 1887752021; July 1, 1998, pp. 22-23; bold and capital emphasis ours)

One such scholar was Ibn Kathir who had this to say in regards to Q. 19:16:

<And mention in the Book, Maryam,> She was Maryam bint `Imran from the family lineage of Dawud. She was from a good and wholesome family of the Children of Israel. Allah mentioned the story of her mother’s pregnancy with her in Surah Al `Imran, and that she (Maryam’s mother) dedicated her freely for the service of Allah. This meant that she dedicated the child (Maryam) to the service of the Masjid of the Sacred House (in Jerusalem). Thus, they (Zakariyya, Maryam’s mother and Maryam) were similar in that aspect. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir: http://www.qtafsir.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2687&Itemid=75; bold emphasis ours)

And here is what he wrote concerning Q. 3:33:

Allah states that He has chosen these households over the people of the earth. For instance, Allah chose Adam, created him with His Hand and blew life into him. Allah commanded the angels to prostrate before Adam, taught him the names of everything and allowed him to dwell in Paradise, but then sent him down from it out of His wisdom. Allah chose Nuh and made him the first Messenger to the people of the earth, when the people worshipped idols and associated others with Allah in worship. Allah avenged the way Nuh was treated, for he kept calling his people day and night, in public and in secret, for a very long time. However, his calling them only made them shun him more, and this is when Nuh supplicated against them. So Allah caused them to drown, and none among them was saved, except those who followed the religion that Allah sent to Nuh. Allah also chose the household of Ibrahim, including the master of all mankind, and the Final Prophet, Muhammad. Allah also chose the household of `Imran, the father of Marym bint `Imran, the mother of `Isa, peace be upon them. SO `ISA IS FROM THE OFFSPRING OF IBRAHIM, as we will mention in the Tafsir of Surat Al-An`am, Allah willing, and our trust is in Him… (Ibid.: http://www.qtafsir.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=547&Itemid=46; bold and capital emphasis ours)

Ironically, Ibn Kathir mentions specific Muslims that used the example of Jesus to prove that a man can trace his lineage through his mother!

“… Mentioning `Isa in the offspring of Ibrahim, or Nuh as we stated above, is proof that the grandchildren from a man’s daughter’s side are included among his offspring. `Isa is included among Ibrahim’s progeny through his mother, although `Isa did not have a father. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Harb bin Abi Al-Aswad said, ‘Al-Hajjaj sent to Yahya bin Ya`mar, saying, “I was told that you claim that Al-Hasan and Al-Hussein are from the offspring of the Prophet, did you find it in the Book of Allah? I read the Qur’an from beginning to end and did not find it.” Yahya said, “Do you not read in Surah Al-An`am…

(and among his progeny Dawud, Sulayman…) until, (and Yahya and `Isa…).

Al-Hajjaj said, “Yes.” Yahya said, “Is not `Isa from the offspring of Ibrahim, although he did not have a father!” Al-Hajjaj said, “You have said the truth.”’ For example, when a man leaves behind a legacy, a trust, or gift to his ‘offspring’ then the children of his daughters are included. But if a man gives something to his ‘sons’, or he leaves a trust behind for them, then that would be particular to his male children and their male children…” (Ibid., Q. 6:84-90: http://www.qtafsir.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=991&Itemid=61; bold emphasis ours)

The following Muslim scholars all concur that physical lineage can be traced through one’s mother:

And Zachariah and, his son, John, and Jesus, son of Mary — THIS SHOWS THAT [the term] ‘SEED’ (dhurriyya) CAN INCLUDE OFFSPRING FROM THE FEMALE [side] — and Elias, the paternal nephew of Aaron, brother of Moses; all, of them, were of the righteous. (Tafsir al-Jalalayn: http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=74&tSoraNo=6&tAyahNo=85&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=2; bold and capital emphasis ours)

(And Zachariah and John and Jesus and Elias. Each one (of them)) We guided by bestowing upon them prophethood and Islam; and all of them were of the seed of Abraham (was of the righteous) i.e. they were messengers. (Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs: http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=73&tSoraNo=6&tAyahNo=85&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=2; bold emphasis ours)

Out of these seventeen prophets identified in the cited verses, Sayyidna Nuh is the patriarch of Sayyidna Ibrahim. The rest have been called their progeny: (and, of his progeny, to Dawud and Sulayman … ). This poses two difficulties. The first could be about Sayyidna ‘Isa who, because of his father-less birth, is a progeny of Sayyidna Ibrahim from the daughter’s side, that is, not a paternal grandson, instead, is a grand-son from the maternal side.

If so, how would calling him his progeny would be correct? Most learned Muslim scholars and jurists have answered it by saying that progeny is inclusive of both paternal and maternal grandsons. It is from here that they prove that Sayyidna Hasan and Sayyidna Husain stand included under the progeny of the Holy Prophet. (Ma’ariful-Qur’an, by Maulana Mufti Muhammad Shafi’, translated by Muhammad Shamim, revised by Taqi ‘Usmani, Volume 3, p. 406: https://ia802707.us.archive.org/2/items/maarifulquran-english-pdf/MaarifulquranEnglishPdf-Vol3-Page399-453ByMuftiShafiUsmaniRah.pdf; bold emphasis ours)

With the foregoing in perspective, a Muslim has no grounds to call into question Jesus’ physical descent from king David when even their own sources and Muslim scholars accept that he is.

The Quran Agrees: Jesus is the Chosen Seed of Abraham http://answeringislam.net/authors/shamoun/abrahams_seed.html

The Rise and Fall of Another Taqiyyist Pt. 3 http://answeringislam.net/authors/shamoun/rebuttals/hussein/rise_fall3.html

 

 

What type of Messiah does the Quran say Jesus Happens to Be? Pt. 3

Exposing more of Shabir Ally’s misinformation

We continue with our rebuttal https://answeringislamblog.wordpress.com/2017/08/25/what-type-of-messiah-does-the-quran-say-jesus-happens-to-be-pt-2/.

The Return of Christ: More Islamic Proof for Jesus’ Davidic Messiahship

In the video, after stating that some of the Muslim scholars believed that Mary was of Levitical descent, from the priestly line of Aaron, Ally went on to say that this would be interesting,

“Because in the New Testament Jesus is shown to be the Son of David, he’s of the Davidic line, which would mean that he’s of that kingly descent. And when people hail him as the Messiah they thought that that means that he is the Davidic Messiah. But a problem occurs in that if he’s the Messiah he should have ruled, and he didn’t rule; of course, Christian generally believe that when he comes back he will rule. But our Jewish friends say, ‘Well okay, in that case when he comes back we’ll believe that he’s the Messiah. But so far he hasn’t proven himself to be the Messiah. When he comes back and he rules, he will prove himself to be the Messiah and then we’ll believe he’s the Messiah. But so far it doesn’t look like he is.’”

Ally went on to say that,

“In the Islamic view, on the other hand, there is no mention that he is of Davidic descent. And Margaret Barker in her book, “Christmas: The Original Story,” actually remarked on this fact that in the Quran, and neither Mary nor Jesus are shown to be of Davidic descent. And that would probably explain why Mary is called sister of Aaron, in order to show that she’s actually not of Davidic descent, but actually Levitical. And in that case Jesus would qualify still as Messiah, but as a priestly Messiah. And in that case the idea of his crucifixion does not present a problem. See, if he was to be the Davidic Messiah and then he was crucified it would mean that somehow the crucifixion disproves his claim to Messiahship. But if he was a priestly Messiah then all he has to do is be a priest, a religious teacher, and in that case the fact that they crucified him would not count against his authenticity as God’s priestly Messiah.”

This is a rather bizarre and strange objection coming from a Muslim whose tradition makes it obligatory for Muslims to believe that Jesus Christ will physically descend from the heavens in order to rule as a just ruler and righteous judge:

… Allah’s saying…

(And he (`Isa) shall be a known sign for (the coming of) the Hour.) The correct view concerning this phrase is that it refers to his descent before the Day of Resurrection, as Allah says…

(And there is none of the People of the Scripture but must believe in him before his death) (4:159). — meaning before the death of `Isa…

(And on the Day of Resurrection, he will be a witness against them) (4:159). This meaning has the support from an alternate recitation of the Ayat… (And he shall be a known sign for (the coming of) the Hour.) means, evidence that the Hour will surely come. Mujahid said…

(And he shall be a sign for (the coming of) the Hour.) means, sign and “One of the signs of the Hour will be the appearance of `Isa son of Maryam before the Day of Resurrection.” Something similar was also narrated from Abu Hurayrah, Ibn `Abbas, `Abu Al-`Aliyah, Abu Malik, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and others. MANY MUTAWATIR HADITHS report that the Messenger of Allah said that `Isa will descend before the Day of Resurrection as A JUST RULER AND FAIR JUDGE

(Therefore have no doubt concerning it.) means, do not doubt that it will surely come to pass. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Q. 43:61 http://www.qtafsir.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2076&Itemid=99)

Another Muslim source concurs and goes so far as to say that this is a multiply attested tradition (mutawatir), which means that no true Muslim can reject it:

The Hadiths on Jesus Are “Tawatur”

The hadiths relating Jesus’ second coming are reliable [tawatur]. Research shows that scholars share this view. Tawatur is defined as “a tradition which has been handed down by a number of different channels of transmitters or authorities, hence supposedly ruling out the possibility of its having been forged.”8

Sayyid Sharif al-Jurjani, an Islamic scholar, explains the concept of tawatur hadith as follows:

News of mutawatir, are the news upon which so many transmitters agree; to such an extent that, according to the tradition, it is unlikely for so many transmitters to reach to a consensus on a lie. This being the situation, if statements and meanings agree with one another, then this is called mutawatir lafzi [verbal mutawatir]. If there is common meaning yet contradiction between statements [words], then it is called mutewatir-i manawi [mutawatir by meaning].9

In his Al-Tasrih fi ma Tawatara fi Nuzul al-Masih, the great hadith scholar Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri writes that the hadiths about Jesus’ second coming are all reliable, AND QUOTES 75 HADITHS AND 25 WORKS by companions of the Prophet and their disciples (tabi’un).

In the Sunni school of Islam, Imam Abu Hanifa is the greatest collector of hadiths on Jesus’ second coming. In the final part of his Al-Fiqh al-Akbar, he states that:

The emergence of the Dajjal and of Gog and Magog is a reality; the rising of the sun in the West is a reality; the descent of Jesus, upon whom be peace, from the heavens is a reality; and all the other signs of the Day of Resurrection, as contained in authentic traditions, are also established realities.10

Jesus’ second coming is one of the ten great signs of the Last Day, and many Islamic scholars have dealt with the subject in great detail. When all of these views are considered together, it becomes apparent that there is a consensus on this event.

For instance, in his work Lawaqi Al-Anwar Al-Bahiyah, Imam al-Safarini expresses that Islamic scholars agree upon this issue:

THE ENTIRE UMMAH (Muslim community) has agreed on the issue that Prophet Jesus, the son of Maryam, will return. There is NO ONE from the people who follow Muslim laws who oppose this issue.11

In his commentary Ruh al-Ma`ani, the great Islamic scholar Sayyid Mahmud Alusi gives examples from the views of other Islamic scholars and explains that the Islamic community has reached to a consensus regarding Prophet Jesus’ second coming12, that information regarding this issue is well-known to the extent of being mutawatir by meaning, and that it is essential to believe in Prophet Jesus’ return to Earth.

Imam Kawthari also stated his views regarding Prophet Jesus’ coming as follows:

The tawatur in the hadiths regarding Prophet Jesus’ second coming is mutawatir-i manawi. Aside from the fact that each one of the sahih and hasan hadiths may indicate different meanings, they all agree upon Prophet Jesus’ second coming. This is actually a fact which is IMPOSSIBLE TO DENY for a person who is well acquainted with the knowledge of hadith… The hadiths related to the appearance of Mahdi and Dajjal and Prophet Jesus’ second coming are tawatur; it is certainly not an issue that is considered doubtful by experts on the hadith literature. The reason why some who deal with Ilm al-Kalam (science of theology) agree that it is essential to have faith in the hadiths related to the signs of Doomsday yet have doubts about whether some of these hadiths are mutawatir or not, is their inadequate knowledge about hadiths.13

The great Islamic scholar Ibn Kathir states his views after commenting on the related verses and explaining the related hadiths:

These are narrated from the Messenger of God as mutawatir and in these hadiths, there are explanations regarding how and where Prophet Jesus will appear…The authentic and mutawatir hadiths about Prophet Jesus’ return to Earth IN HIS NOBLE BODY is immune to any opposing interpretations. Consequently, everyone with the smallest speck of faith and fairness HAS TO BELIEVE in Prophet Jesus’ second coming; only those WHO OPPOSE to God’s Book, His Messenger and Ahl al-Sunnah may deny Prophet Jesus’ second coming to Earth.14

Another explanation about the hadiths’ reaching the level of tawatur is as follows:

Muhammad al-Shawkani said that he had collected 29 hadiths and, when he had recorded them all, he said: “Our hadiths have reached the level of tawatur (reliable), as you can see. With this, we reach the conclusion that the hadiths on the anticipated Mahdi, the Dajjal, and Jesus’ second coming are mutawatir (genuine).”15

At-Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, al-Bazzaz, Ibn Majah, al-Hakim, al-Tabarani, and al-Musuli recorded many hadiths narrated by the Companions, such as `Ali, Ibn `Abbas, Ibn `Umar, Talha, Abu Hurayra, Anas, Abu Sa`id al-Khudri, Umm Habiba, Umm Salama, `Ali al-Hilali, and `Abd Allah ibn al-Harith ibn Jaz, upon whose narrations they based their collection on.16 For instance, Ibn Hajr Al-Haythami in the book Al-Sawa’iq Al-Muhriqa, al-Shablanji in his book Nur al-Absar, Ibn Sabbagh in his book Al-Fusul Al-Muhimma, Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Sabban in his book Is`af ar-Raghibin fi Sirat al-Mustafa wa Fada’il Ahl Baytihi at-Tahirin, and Muhammad Amin Suwaidi in his book Saba’ik az-Zahab, wrote that the hadiths about Jesus’ second coming are reliable.17

These hadiths are recorded by the Ahl as-Sunnah scholars and hadith experts in their own works. For instance, Abu Dawud, Ibn Ahmad Hanbal, at-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, al-Hakim, an-Nasa’i, al-Tabarani, al-Rawajini, Abu Nu`aym al-Isfahani, ad-Daylami, al-Baihaqi, as-Salabi, Hamawaini, Manawi, Ibn al-Jawzi, Muhammad ibn `Ali al-Sabban, al-Mawardi, al-Khanji al-Shafi, as-Samani, al-Khwarizmi, ash-Sharani, ad-Daraqutni, Ibn Sabbagh al-Maliki, Muhibbuddin at-Tabari, Ibn Hajr al-Haythami, Shaikh Mansur `Ali Nasif, Muhammad ibn Talha, Jalaluddin as-Suyuti, al-Qurtubi, al-Baghawi and many more deal with the subject in their books.

`Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghudda reveals that the hadiths about Jesus returning to Earth and killing the Dajjal have reached the degree of being mutawatir.18 In his Nazm al-Mutanathir min al-Hadith al-Mutawatir19, al-Kattani stated that “the descent of Jesus is established by the Sunnah, and Ijma al-Ummah (concensus of the Islamic community), and the hadiths on this issue and Dajjal and the Mahdi are mutawatir. In his commentary Al Bahru Al-Muhit, Ibn Atiyya al Garnati states that the Islamic community has the common belief that Prophet Jesus is alive, that he will come back at the End Times and that the hadiths about this issue are mutawatir. (Harun Yahya, pp. 56-65 http://www.harunyahya.com/en/Books/2684/the-signs-of-prophet-jesus; capital and underline emphasis ours)

And:

Islamic Scholars Consider Prophet Jesus’ Coming as a Matter of Aqidah (Faith)

In almost all works that dwell on the essence of faith of the followers of Sunnah, there is reference to Prophet Jesus’ coming to Earth before the Last Day, his struggle against Dajjal and his killing him, and the pervasion of the morality of true religion over the Earth. Assessing the evidence from the Qur’an and the news provided by hadiths altogether, Islamic scholars have adopted faith in Prophet Jesus’ return AS AN IMPORTANT TENET OF FAITH. The related explanations are as follows:

1. In verse 157 of the Surat an-Nisa’, God commands, “…They did not kill him and they did not crucify him but it was made to seem so to them….” This verse, together with many others, reveal that Prophet Jesus is alive in God’s sight and indicates that he will come to Earth for a second time. Reaching to consensus on this issue, Islamic scholars state that advocating a contrary suggestion IS BY NO MEANS POSSIBLE. For instance in his commentary of this verse, Ibn Hazm stresses that someone who says Prophet Jesus is murdered would revert back from Islam or become a disbeliever.

2. The fact that the hadiths pertaining to Prophet Jesus’ second coming are mutawatir, that is, so clear as to be immune to any doubts, is a great evidence for Muslims. Furthermore, there exists NOT A SINGLE DIFFERENT HADITH that maintains otherwise – that is, any hadith that suggests that Prophet Jesus will not return.

3. Another evidence used by Islamic scholars is the hadith narrated by Jabir Ibn Abdullah which says, “Anyone who denies Mahdi’s coming has denied what was revealed to Prophet Mohammed. Anyone who rejects Prophet Jesus’, son of Maryam, coming HAS BECOME A DISBELIEVER. Anyone who does not accept Dajjal’s appearance has also become a disbeliever.” There is reference to this hadith in very important Islamic resources such as, Fasl al-Khitab by Khwaja Parsa Bukhari, Maani al-Akhbar by Muhammed ibn Ibrahim Kalabadhi, Al-Rawd Al-Unuf by Suhayl, Arf-ul-wardi-fi Akhbar Mahdi by Jalaluddin Suyuti. This aside, Sheikh Abu Bakr has explained the chain of people who narrated this hadith. It is as follows (from the last person to the first): Muhammad Ibn Hasan, Abu Abdullah al-Hussein Ibn Muhammad, Isma’il Ibn Abi Uways, Malik Ibn Abas, Muhammad Ibn Munkadir, Jabir Ibn Abdullah.20

4. The abundance of narrators who reported the hadiths related to Prophet Jesus’ coming and their trustworthiness is another issue to which Islamic scholars draw attention. Some of the narrators who reported these hadiths are: Abu’l Asas as-Sanani, Abu Rafi, Abul Aliyya, Abu Umama al-Bahili, Abu’d Darda’, Abu Hurayra, Abu Malik al-Hudri, Jabir Ibn Abdullah, Hudhayfa Ibn Adis, Safina, Abu Qatada, Uthman Ibnul ‘Aas, Nafi’ Ibn Kaysani, Al Walid Ibn Muslim, Ammar Ibn Yathir, Abdullah Ibni Abbas…

As a result of all this information, Islamic scholars have considered faith in Prophet Jesus’ return to Earth and the pervasion of the morality of the true religion as an important essence of faith. (Ibid., pp. 66-69; capital and underline emphasis ours)

Interestingly, Ally himself accepts the Islamic teaching that Christ shall return physically to the earth:

Muslims also generally believe that Jesus will return to earth before the Day of Judgment. This belief is not clearly stated in the Quran although two verses (4:158 and 43:61) have been interpreted as possible references to this event. This belief is, however, stated in many sayings attributed to the Prophet Muhammad and found in the most authentic collections of his sayings. (Jesus Christ the Messiah [sic]: A Belief Shared by Muslims and Christians, April 1, 2012 http://islaminfo.com/jesus-christ-the-messiah-a-belief-shared-by-muslims-and-christians.html)

Thus, Ally has no choice but to accept that Jesus’ return to rule as a judge makes him A DAVIDIC MESSIAH, not a priestly one since it is the Davidic Messiah who rules and reigns, not the priestly Messiah. This, therefore, means that the same objection leveled by Jews against Christians can equally be lodged against Muslims. Per Ally’s logic, the Jews have every right to tell their Muslim friends that they will only believe in Jesus once he physically returns to the earth to rule and judge. It is only then that they will accept the fact of his being their Messiah, he who was to come from the line of David in order to rule over the nations.

With that said, Ally’s claim that Islam depicts Jesus as a priestly Messiah introduces more problems for him solve, as we shall see in the next segment of our rebuttal.

Further Reading

Qur’an Contradiction: Mary, Sister of Aaron & Daughter of Amram http://www.answering-islam.org/Quran/Contra/qbhc06.html

Quran Contradiction: Mary, the Mother of Jesus and Sister of Aaron http://www.answering-islam.org/Responses/Menj/sister_of_aaron.htm

Is Mary the Sister of Aaron? http://www.answering-islam.org/Silas/mary.htm

The Quran’s Confusion Concerning the Identity of Mary http://www.answering-islam.org/authors/shamoun/rebuttals/ibnanwar/mary_aaron.html

 

What type of Messiah does the Quran say Jesus Happens to Be? Pt. 2

Exposing more of Shabir Ally’s misinformation

We continue from we previously left off https://answeringislamblog.wordpress.com/2017/08/25/what-type-of-messiah-does-the-quran-say-jesus-happens-to-be-pt-1/.

Mary’s lineage according to Islamic Scholars

In the clip, Ally made the assertion that some of the Muslim commentators believed Mary was from the line of Aaron, which would mean that she was of the tribe of Levi. This, in turn, would place Jesus within the priestly line, as opposed to the Davidic one. Ally further stated that “In the Islamic view, on the other hand, there is no mention that he is of Davidic descent.”

This, again, is another one of Ally’s outright lies since Muslim tradition unanimously acknowledges Mary’s descent from David.

For instance, one of Islam’s greatest scholars and historians Al-Tabari links Jesus’ mother to David, and even went as far as to “borrow” the genealogy of Joseph found in Matthew’s Gospel!

“The Persians assert that sixty-five years after Alexander seized Babylonia, and fifty-one years after Arsacid rule began, Mary the daughter of ‘Imran gave birth to Jesus. But the Christians assert that Jesus was born to her 303 years after Alexander conquered Babylonia, and that John the Baptist was born six months before Jesus. They report that Mary was pregnant with Jesus when she was thirteen years old. They also report that Jesus lived thirty-two years and a few days before his ascension, and that Mary lived six more years after his ascension, altogether over fifty years. They assert that John and Jesus met in the Jordan River when Jesus was thirty years of age, and that John was slain before the ascension of Jesus. Zechariah b. Berechiah, the father of Yahya b. Zechariah, and ‘Imran b. Matthan, the father of Mary, were married to two sisters. One was married to Zechariah- she was the mother of John, the other was with ‘Imran b. Matthan, and she was the mother of Mary. ‘Imran b. Matthan died when the mother of Mary was pregnant with her. When Mary was born, Zechariah provided for her after her mother’s death, because her aunt, the sister of her mother, was with him. The name of Mary’s mother was Hanna bt. Faqud b. Qabil; the name of the sister of Mary’s mother, that is, the name of John’s mother was Elizabeth bt. Faqud. Zechariah provided for Mary, and she was engaged to Joseph b. Jacob b. Mathan b. Eleazar b. Eliud b. Achim b. Zadok b. Azor b. Eliakim b. Abiud b. Zerubbabel, b. Shealtiel b. Jechonia b. Josiah b. Amon b. Manasseh b. Hezekiah b. Ahaziah b. Jotham b. Uzziah b. Joram b. Jehosaphat b. Asa b. Abijah b. Rehoboam b. SOLOMON B. DAVID.

According to Ibn Humayd – Salamah – Ibn Ishaq: As far as I could learn from her lineage, Mary was the daughter of ‘Imran b. Josiah b. Amon b. Manasse b. Hezekiah b. Ahaziah b. Jotham b. Azariah b. Amaziah b. Joash b. Ahaziah b. Joram b. Jehosaphat b. Asa b. Abijah b. Rehoboam b. SOLOMON. (The History of al-Tabari Volume IV – The Ancient Kingdom, Moshe Perlman trans. [The State University of New York Press (SUNY), Albany, NY 1987], pp. 103-104; bold emphasis ours)

Hence, al-Tabari cites traditions that affirm that both Joseph AND Mary were descendants of King David.

Another renowned scholar Ibn Kathir wrote the following in reference to Q. 19:16 http://www.qtafsir.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2687&Itemid=75:

(And mention in the Book, Maryam,) She was Maryam bint `Imran from the family lineage of Dawud. She was from a good and wholesome family of the Children of Israel. Allah mentioned the story of her mother’s pregnancy with her in Surah Al `Imran, and that she (Maryam’s mother) dedicated her freely for the service of Allah. This meant that she dedicated the child (Maryam) to the service of the Masjid of the Sacred House (in Jerusalem). Thus, they (Zakariyya, Maryam’s mother and Maryam) were similar in that aspect. (Bold emphasis ours)

And here is what he wrote concerning Q. 3:33:

Allah states that He has chosen these households over the people of the earth. For instance, Allah chose Adam, created him with His Hand and blew life into him. Allah commanded the angels to prostrate before Adam, taught him the names of everything and allowed him to dwell in Paradise, but then sent him down from it out of His wisdom. Allah chose Nuh and made him the first Messenger to the people of the earth, when the people worshipped idols and associated others with Allah in worship. Allah avenged the way Nuh was treated, for he kept calling his people day and night, in public and in secret, for a very long time. However, his calling them only made them shun him more, and this is when Nuh supplicated against them. So Allah caused them to drown, and none among them was saved, except those who followed the religion that Allah sent to Nuh. Allah also chose the household of Ibrahim, including the master of all mankind, and the Final Prophet, Muhammad. Allah also chose the household of `Imran, the father of Marym bint `Imran, the mother of `Isa, peace be upon them. SO `ISA IS FROM THE OFFSPRING OF IBRAHIM, as we will mention in the Tafsir of Surat Al-An`am, Allah willing, and our trust is in Him… (Ibid.: http://www.qtafsir.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=547&Itemid=46; bold and capital emphasis ours)

Ibn Kathir also mentions specific Muslim scholars who used the example of Jesus to prove that a man can trace his lineage through his mother:

“… Mentioning `Isa in the offspring of Ibrahim, or Nuh as we stated above, is proof that the grandchildren from a man’s daughter’s side are included among his offspring. `Isa is included among Ibrahim’s progeny through his mother, although `Isa did not have a father. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Harb bin Abi Al-Aswad said, ‘Al-Hajjaj sent to Yahya bin Ya`mar, saying, “I was told that you claim that Al-Hasan and Al-Hussein are from the offspring of the Prophet, did you find it in the Book of Allah? I read the Qur’an from beginning to end and did not find it.” Yahya said, “Do you not read in Surah Al-An`am…

(and among his progeny Dawud, Sulayman…) until, (and Yahya and `Isa…).

Al-Hajjaj said, “Yes.” Yahya said, “Is not `Isa from the offspring of Ibrahim, although he did not have a father!” Al-Hajjaj said, “You have said the truth.”’ For example, when a man leaves behind a legacy, a trust, or gift to his ‘offspring’ then the children of his daughters are included. But if a man gives something to his ‘sons’, or he leaves a trust behind for them, then that would be particular to his male children and their male children…” (Q. 6:84-90 http://www.qtafsir.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=991&Itemid=61; bold emphasis ours)

The following Muslim scholars all concur with Ibn kathir regarding this issue:

And Zachariah and, his son, John, and Jesus, son of Mary — THIS SHOWS THAT [the term] ‘SEED’ (dhurriyya) CAN INCLUDE OFFSPRING FROM THE FEMALE [side] — and Elias, the paternal nephew of Aaron, brother of Moses; all, of them, were of the righteous. (Tafsir al-Jalalayn: http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=74&tSoraNo=6&tAyahNo=85&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=2; bold and capital emphasis ours)

(And Zachariah and John and Jesus and Elias. Each one (of them)) We guided by bestowing upon them prophethood and Islam; and all of them were of the seed of Abraham (was of the righteous) i.e. they were messengers. (Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs: http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=73&tSoraNo=6&tAyahNo=85&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=2; bold emphasis ours)

Out of these seventeen prophets identified in the cited verses, Sayyidna Nuh is the patriarch of Sayyidna Ibrahim. The rest have been called their progeny: (and, of his progeny, to Dawud and Sulayman … ). This poses two difficulties. The first could be about Sayyidna ‘Isa who, because of his father-less birth, is a progeny of Sayyidna Ibrahim from the daughter’s side, that is, not a paternal grandson, instead, is a grand-son from the maternal side.

If so, how would calling him his progeny would be correct? Most learned Muslim scholars and jurists have answered it by saying that progeny is inclusive of both paternal and maternal grandsons. It is from here that they prove that Sayyidna Hasan and Sayyidna Husain stand included under the progeny of the Holy Prophet. (Ma’ariful-Qur’an, by Maulana Mufti Muhammad Shafi’, translated by Muhammad Shamim, revised by Taqi ‘Usmani, Volume 3, p. 406: https://ia802707.us.archive.org/2/items/maarifulquran-english-pdf/MaarifulquranEnglishPdf-Vol3-Page399-453ByMuftiShafiUsmaniRah.pdf; bold emphasis ours)

Now according to the following Muslim source, all of the classical Islamic scholars unanimously held to the view the blessed mother of our risen Lord was a descendant of king David:

“The Qur’an informs us that the father of Mary was named ‘Imran and the classical Muslim scholars UNANIMOUSLY ACCEPT that she was from the line of the prophet David… Differences of opinion emerge, however, over the intervening genealogy, most probably due to a lack of familiarity with such foreign names and consequent error in recording them in the Arabic orthography. According to the Spanish exegete al-Qurtubi, ‘All these differences are mentioned because the Prophets and Messengers are all descendants one of the other.’ The following genealogy (taking into account orthographic variations), which is attributed to Ibn Ishaq or directly to the Prophet’s companion Ibn ‘Abbas, is the most generally accepted: Mary bint ‘Imran ibn Yashim ibn Misha ibn Hazqiya ibn Yawish (ibn Isha ibn Yahushafat) IBN SULAYMAN IBN DAWUD… Although the name of her mother is not supplied in the Qur’an, it is universally accepted as Hanna bint Faqudh.” (Aliah Schleifer, Mary The Blessed Virgin of Islam [Fons Vitae; ISBN: 1887752021; July 1, 1998], pp. 22-23; bold and capital emphasis ours)

Therefore, the claim that Mary was one of the descendants of Aaron holds no weight since there is no reliable historical data to support it.(1)

Now Ally may try to counter this fact by appealing to Luke 1:36 which identifies Elizabeth as Mary’s kinswoman or relative:

“Listen, your cousin Elizabeth has also conceived a son in her old age. And this is the sixth month with her who was declared barren.”

Ally may argue that, since Elizabeth is said to be a descendant of Aaron (cf. Luke 1:5), Mary must have also been from the household of Aaron.

There are two main problems with his argument. First, Luke goes out of his way to affirm Jesus’ Davidic descent,

“In the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city of Galilee named Nazareth, to a virgin betrothed to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. And the virgin’s name was Mary. The angel came to her and said, ‘Greetings, you who are highly favored. The Lord is with you. Blessed are you among women.’ When she saw him, she was troubled by his words, and considered in her mind what kind of greeting this might be. 30 But the angel said to her, ‘Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. Listen, you will conceive in your womb and bear a Son and shall call His name JESUS. He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Highest. And the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David, and He will reign over the house of Jacob forever. And of His kingdom there will be no end.’” Luke 1:26-33

“Now Jesus Himself began His ministry at about thirty years of age, being, as was supposed, the son of Joseph, who was the son of Heli, who was the son of Matthat, who was the son of Levi, who was the son of Melchi, who was the son of Jannai, who was the son of Joseph, who was the son of Mattathias, who was the son of Amos, who was the son of Nahum, who was the son of Esli, who was the son of Naggai, who was the son of Maath, who was the son of Mattathias, who was the son of Semein, who was the son of Josech, who was the son of Joda, who was the son of Joanan, who was the son of Rhesa, who was the son of Zerubbabel, who was the son of Shealtiel, who was the son of Neri, who was the son of Melchi, who was the son of Addi, who was the son of Cosam, who was the son of Elmadam, who was the son of Er, who was the son of Joshua, who was the son of Eliezer, who was the son of Jorim, who was the son of Matthat, who was the son of Levi, who was the son of Simeon, who was the son of Judah, who was the son of Joseph, who was the son of Jonan, who was the son of Eliakim, who was the son of Melea, who was the son of Menna, who was the son of Mattatha, who was the son of Nathan, who was the son of David, who was the son of Jesse, who was the son of Obed, who was the son of Boaz, who was the son of Salmon, who was the son of Nahshon, who was the son of Amminadab, who was the son of Ram, who was the son of Hezron, who was the son of Perez, who was the son of Judah,” Luke 3:23-33

“Brothers, I may speak confidently to you concerning the patriarch David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. But being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him, that of his seed according to the flesh, He would raise up the Christ to sit on his throne,” Acts 2:29-30

“When He had removed him, He raised up David to be their king, of whom He testified, saying, ‘I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after My own heart, who will fulfill My entire will.’ From this man’s descendants God has raised a Savior for Israel, Jesus, according to His promise.” Acts 13:22-23

As do the rest of the inspired NT writers (cf. Matthew 1:1; Mark 10:47-48; Romans 1:3; 2 Timothy 2:8; Hebrews 7:14; Revelation 5:5; 22:16).

Secondly, the only thing that Luke 1:36 would prove is that Elizabeth had Judean blood in her, not that Mary was of the stock of Aaron. After all, the Holy Bible clearly teaches that Levitical priests were allowed to marry women from any of the twelve tribes of Israel:

“He shall take a wife in her virginity. A widow, or a divorced woman, or a defiled woman, or a prostitute, these he shall not marry. But he shall take for a wife a virgin of HIS OWN PEOPLE,” Leviticus 21:13-14

The prophet Ezekiel, in his vision of a restored priesthood and temple, further clarifies this point:

“But the Levites who have gone far from Me when Israel went astray, who went astray away from Me after their idols, they shall bear the punishment of their iniquity. Yet they shall be ministers in My sanctuary, having charge at the gates of the house and ministering to the house. They shall slay the burnt offering and the sacrifice for the people, and they shall stand before them to minister to them… Nor shall they take for their wives a widow, nor her who has been put away. But they shall take maidens of the seed of THE HOUSE OF ISRAEL, or a widow who had a priest before.” Ezekiel 44:10-11, 22

The Holy Bible also provides an example of a priest who had married a woman from Judea, and who was actually a descendant of king David:

“So when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she rose up and mounted a campaign to destroy all the royal offspring of the house of Judah. But Jehoshabeath, the daughter of the king, took Joash the son of Ahaziah and stole him away from the king’s sons who were going to be put to death, and she placed him and his nurse in a bed chamber. So Jehoshabeath, the daughter of King Jehoram and wife of Jehoiada the priest (since she was a sister of Ahaziah), hid Joash from Athaliah. And she did not put the royal child to death.” 2 Chronicles 22:10-11

What the foregoing shows is that it is more reasonable to assume that Elizabeth was from the line of David from her mother’s side, which would account for her being related to Mary.

As such, Luke 1:36 does very little to establish that Mary was from the line of Aaron, especially when the Biblical data points in the direction of her being a descendant of king David.

We have more to say in the third part of our rebuttal https://answeringislamblog.wordpress.com/2017/08/25/what-type-of-messiah-does-the-quran-say-jesus-happens-to-be-pt-3/.

Endnotes  

(1) It seems that Ibn Kathir wanted to have his cake and eat it too since elsewhere he claims that Mary was a descendant of Aaron, and therefore of Levitical stock:

`Ali bin Abi Talhah and As-Suddi both said, “It was said to her…

(O sister of Harun!) referring to the brother of Musa, because she was of his descendants.” This is similar to the saying, `O brother of Tamim,’ to one who is from the Tamimi tribe, and `O brother of Mudar,’ to one who is from the Mudari tribe. It has also been said that she was related to a righteous man among them whose name was Harun and she was comparable to him in her abstinence and worship… (Q. 19:28 http://www.qtafsir.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2684&Itemid=75; bold and underline emphasis ours)

Ibn Kathir must have forgotten what he wrote elsewhere in affirming Jesus’ Davidic descent. Besides, it is obvious why here, in this passage, he would argue for Mary being a descendant of Aaron since he saw the problem this Quranic verse posed for his belief in the divine origin of the Islamic scripture.

However, his proposed solution still leaves him with a gross error since one doesn’t refer to a person being the brother or sister of a particular individual when speaking of one’s physical ancestry. Rather, the correct phraseology is to describe someone as the son or daughter of so and so, just as we find in the following examples:

“There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judea, a certain priest named Zechariah, of the division of Abijah. And his wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth.” Luke 1:5

“He will turn many of the sons of Israel to the Lord their God.” Luke 1:16

“Then should not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham whom Satan has bound these eighteen years, be loosed from this bondage on the Sabbath?” Luke 13:16

“He cried out, ‘Jesus, Son of David, have mercy on me!’ Those who went in front rebuked him, so that he would keep quiet. But he cried out much more, ‘Son of David, have mercy on me!’” Luke 18:38-39

“Jesus said to him, ‘Today salvation has come to this house, because he also is a son of Abraham.’” Luke 19:9

Therefore, Ibn Kathir’s interpretation is mistaken and this gross Quranic blunder still remains unsolved.

What type of Messiah does the Quran say Jesus Happens to Be? Pt. 1

Exposing more of Shabir Ally’s misinformation

In this post, I am going to tackle the assertions made by Shabir Ally in one of his shows where sought to answer a question asked by a Muslim regarding the Quran’s blunder in identifying Mary, the blessed mother of our Lord Jesus Christ, as the sister of Moses and Aaron (Q&A: Why Does the Quran Call Mary the Sister of Aaron? | Dr. Shabir Ally https://bloggingtheology.net/2016/12/17/qa-why-does-the-quran-call-mary-the-sister-of-aaron-dr-shabir-ally/).

This short video further confirms what I have been saying about Ally’s integrity (or lack thereof). Sadly, Ally is one of the most dishonest Muhammadans I have ever encountered, one who does not hesitate to use trickery, deceit, and misinformation in order to win a debate or mislead people into embracing his religion.

This is what Ally said in response to the question of the Quran confusing the two Marys:

But when the question was put to the prophet according to the hadith as to why Mary is called sister of Harun here, it is reported that he said that tell them that – tell the questioners about this – that people normally give the names of their ancestors to their children. So if we think of today’s societies we will find its very common that within the same household you can have Mary, and a Aaron, and a Moses, and a Zechariah and so on. You can have names from very different segments of past history all culminating in the same household among brothers and sisters. So as Muslims doing that now, people would have done that in the past as well, and that would explain why Mary is called sister of Aaron. Perhaps she had a brother named Harun.

Here is the hadith that Ally had in mind:

Mughira b. Shu’ba reported: When I came to Najran, they (the Christians of Najran) asked me: You read “O sister of Harun” (i.e. Hadrat Maryam) in the Qur’an, whereas Moses was born much before Jesus. When I came back to Allah’s Messenger I asked him about that, whereupon he said: The (people of the old age) used to give names (to their persons) after the names of Apostles and pious persons who had gone before them. (Sahih Muslim, Book 025, Number 5326 http://searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=025&translator=2&start=0&number=5326)

Suffice it to say the argument set forth here is laden with problems.

To begin with, the onus is on Ally to prove that Mary had a brother named Aaron since her parents chose to name their offspring after the prophets or righteous persons that came before them. However, Ally faces a major dilemma since there is no credible historical record that he can point to, which would confirm that the blessed mother of our risen Lord actually had a brother, especially one named Aaron.

The other, more serious problem with the response given by Ally’s “prophet” is that this conveniently ignores the fact that Mary isn’t merely said to be the sister of Aaron:

Then she came up with him to her people carrying him. They said, “O Maryam, (Mary) indeed you have readily come with a fabricated thing. O sister of Harun, (Aaron) in no way was your father a woeful person, and in no way was your mother a prostitute.” S. 19:27-28 Muhammad Mahmoud Ghali http://www.islamawakened.com/quran/19/st21.htm

She is also said to be the daughter of Imran in the Quran, with her mother being identified as the wife of Imran:

(Remember) when the wife of ‘Imran said: “O my Lord! I have vowed to You what (the child that) is in my womb to be dedicated for Your services (free from all worldly work; to serve Your Place of worship), so accept this, from me. Verily, You are the All-Hearer, the All-Knowing.” Then when she delivered her [child Maryam (Mary)], she said: “O my Lord! I have delivered a female child,” – and Allah knew better what she delivered, – “And the male is not like the female, and I have named her Maryam (Mary), and I seek refuge with You (Allah) for her and for her offspring from Shaitan (Satan), the outcast.” S. 3:35-36 Hilali-Khan

And Maryam (Mary), the daughter of ‘Imran who guarded her chastity…” S. 66:12 Hilali-Khan

{Note – Imran is the Quranic equivalent of OT Amram, and Maryam is the Arabic cognate of Miriam (Mary’s Hebrew name).}

Now the only Mary who had a brother named Aaron and whose father’s name was Imran was none other than Moses’ older sister!

Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand, and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dancing.” Exodus 15:20

“And the name of the wife of Amram was Jochebed, the daughter of Levi, whom her mother bore to Levi in Egypt, and she bore to Amram Aaron and Moses and Miriam their sister.” Numbers 26:59

“The children of Amram were Aaron, Moses, and Miriam.” 1 Chronicles 6:3

This explains why Moses, Aaron and Mary are grouped together as the leaders whom God raised up for Israel:

“For I have brought you up from the land of Egypt, and from the house of slaves I have redeemed you; and I sent before you Moses, Aaron, and Miriam.” Micah 6:4

What makes this all the more troubling for Ally is that the supposedly authentic narrations attributed to Muhammad even refer to the prophet Moses as the son of Imran!

Abu al-‘Aliya reported: Ibn Abbas, the son of your Prophet’s uncle, told us that the Messenger of Allah had observed: On the night of my night journey I passed by MOSES B. ‘IMRAN, a man light brown in complexion, tall. well-built as if he was one of the men of the Shanu’a, and saw Jesus son of Mary as a medium-statured man with white and red complexion and crisp hair, and I was shown Malik the guardian of Fire, and Dajjal amongst the signs which were shown to me by Allah. He (the narrator) observed: Then do not doubt his (i.e. of the Holy Prophet) meeting with him (Moses). Qatada elucidated it thus: Verily the Apostle of Allah met Moses. (Sahih Muslim, Book 001, Number 0317 http://searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=001&translator=2&start=0&number=0317)

They continued travelling and the Prophet said: “O Jibril, who was this?” He replied: “This is Musa IBN `IMRAN.”… The gate was opened. When they came in they saw Harun. Half of his beard was white and the other half was black. It almost reached his navel due to its length. Surrounding him were a company of the children of Israel listening to him as he was telling them a story. The Prophet greeted him and he returned his greeting and said: “Welcome to the righteous brother and the righteous Prophet!” Then he invoked for goodness on his behalf. The Prophet asked: “Who is this, O Jibril?” He replied: “This is the man who is beloved among his people, Harun IBN `IMRAN.”… As they went in the Prophet saw Musa IBN `IMRAN (again), a tall man with brown complexion, similar to one of the shanu’a — the (Yemeni) men of pure lineage and manly virtue — with abundant hair. (Commemorating the Prophet’s Rapture and Ascension to his Lord, Commemorating the Prophet’s Rapture and Ascension to his Lord http://www.sunnah.org/ibadaat/fasting/ascen3.htm; bold, capital and underline emphasis ours)

In light of the foregoing, it is little wonder that renowned religious scholar Karen Armstrong could write in her quite popular biography on the life of Muhammad that Ally’s prophet erroneously assumed that the risen Lord’s blessed mother was the same as the sister of Moses:

“… Muhammad’s knowledge of scripture was still limited, however. The prophetic figures venerated by the Arabs in their own traditions were put side by side with the prophets of the Bible as though they were equal in status: indeed, as we have seen, the Qur’an sees all rightly guided religions as coming from God. Muhammad did not know the chronology in which the scriptural prophets appeared: he seems, for example, to have thought that Mariam, the mother of Jesus, was the same as Mariam, the sister of Moses in the Jewish scriptures…” (Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet [HarperSanFrancisco, 1992], 6. The Satanic Verses, pp. 130-131)

Ally must, therefore, face the music and accept the fact that his prophet made an egregious historical blunder since he made Jesus the nephew of the prophet Moses!

Ally’s woes are far from over as we are about to see in the second part of our rebuttal https://answeringislamblog.wordpress.com/2017/08/25/what-type-of-messiah-does-the-quran-say-jesus-happens-to-be-pt-2/.