John 17:3 is a Stumbling Block for Muhammad’s god Pt. 1

In this post, I will be responding to the following article, which argues that John 17:3 poses a serious challenge for the Trinity I will begin by showing how this very passage ends up exposing Muhammad as a false prophet.

Here is the verse in question, along with some of its immediate context:

“When Jesus spoke these words, He lifted His eyes toward heaven and said: ‘FATHER, the hour has come. GLORIFY YOUR SON, that YOUR SON may also glorify You. As You have given Him authority over all flesh, He will give eternal life to all whom You have given Him. This is eternal life: that they may know You, the only true God, AND Jesus Christ, whom You have sent. I have glorified You on the earth. I have finished the work You have given Me to do. And now, O FATHER, GLORIFY ME in Your own presence with the glory which I had with You BEFORE THE WORLD EXISTED… All that are Mine are Yours, and all that are Yours are Mine. And I am glorified in them.” John 17:1-5, 10

According to the words of the Lord Jesus, the only true God is the Father, specifically the Father of Christ who glorifies Jesus his Son in the same way that the Son glorifies the Father. Jesus further claims to be the Son who existed with the Father in the same divine glory from before the creation of the world, to whom the Father has given sovereign authority over all flesh, being the King that possesses everything that his Father owns,

“On the next day a great crowd that had come to the feast heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem. They took branches of palm trees, and went out to meet Him, and cried out: ‘Hosanna! “Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord!” The King of Israel!’ Then Jesus, having found a young donkey, sat on it. As it is written: ‘Fear not, daughter of Zion; see, your King is coming, sitting on a donkey’s colt.’ His disciples did not understand these things at first. But when Jesus was glorified, they remembered that these things were written about Him and that they had done these things to Him.” John 12:12-16

All that the Father has is Mine. Therefore I said that He will take what is Mine and will declare it to you.” John 16:15

“Again Pilate entered the Praetorium, called Jesus, and said to Him, ‘Are You the King of the Jews?’ Jesus answered him, ‘Are you speaking of your own accord, or did others tell you about Me?’ Pilate answered, ‘Am I a Jew? Your own nation and the chief priests handed You over to me. What have You done?’ Jesus answered, ‘My kingdom is not of this world. If My kingdom were of this world, then My servants would fight, that I would not be handed over to the Jews. But now My kingdom is not from here.’ Therefore Pilate said to Him, ‘Then are You a king?’ Jesus answered, ‘You say correctly that I am a king. For this reason I was born, and for this reason I came into the world, to bear witness to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears My voice.’” John 18:33-37

“From then on, Pilate tried to release Him. But the Jews cried out, ‘If you release this Man, you are not Caesar’s friend. Whoever makes himself a king speaks against Caesar!’” John 19:12

And who will give immortal, incorruptible life to all whom the Father brings to him:

“This is the will of the Father who has sent Me, that of all whom He has given Me, I should lose nothing, but should raise it up at the last day. This is the will of Him who sent Me, that everyone who sees the Son and believes in Him may have eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day.” John 6:39-40 – cf. 5:25, 28-29

This is precisely the reason why our glorious Lord stated that eternal life depends on personally knowing God AND HIM, thereby making himself a necessary object of saving faith. In other words, a person must love, trust, and hope in Christ to the same extent that they love, trust and hope in the only true God if s/he wants to receive eternal life:

“‘Let not your heart be troubled. You believe in God. Believe also in Me. In My Father’s house are many dwelling places. If it were not so, I would have told you. I am going to prepare a place for you. And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and receive you to Myself, that where I am, you may be also. You know where I am going, and you know the way.’ Thomas said to Him, ‘Lord, we do not know where You are going. How can we know the way?’ Jesus said to him, ‘I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me. If you had known Me, you would have known My Father also. From now on you do know Him and have seen Him.’” John 14:1-7

And yet in saying this, our Lord implies his essential coequality with the Father, since trusting in a mere creature to the same extent that one trusts in God would be both idolatrous and blasphemous. After all, no mere creature is capable of granting eternal life to all those who would place their trust in him, since s/he would have to be omniscient, omnipotent and omnipresent to be able to do so:

The Latin Fathers (Aug(230), Amb., Hil(231)), anxious to avoid the inference unwarrantably drawn by some from this verse against the Godhead of Christ, construed: ἵνα γιν. σε κ. ἰ. χ. ὃν ἀπ., τὸν μόνον ἀλ. θεόν,—which is of course inadmissible. Others (Chrys., Euth.), construing rightly, yet regarded Jesus Christ as included in the words μόν. ἀληθ. θεόν. But all such violences to the text are unnecessary. For, first, the very juxtaposition of Jesus Christ here with the Father, and the knowledge of both being defined to be eternal life, is a proof by implication of the Godhead of the former. The knowledge of God and a creature could not be eternal life, and the juxtaposition of the two would be inconceivable. Secondly, the ὃν ἀπέστειλας most distinctly expresses the ἐξελθεῖν from God, John 17:8—implies the ἡμεῖς ἕν of John 17:22, and cannot, in connexion with what follows, possibly be understood in a Socinian, or an Arian sense. I do not scruple to use and preach on the verse as a plain proof of the co-equality of the Lord Jesus in the Godhead. (Henry Alford, Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary; bold emphasis ours)

Seeing that Ibn Anwar’s prophet was flesh whom God owns, this means that Muhammad belongs to the Lord Jesus who has now been placed under the glorious feet of Christ!

“Then comes the end when He will deliver up the kingdom to God the Father, when He puts an end to all rule and all authority and power. For He will reign until He has put all enemies under His feet. The last enemy that will be destroyed is death. For He ‘has put all things under His feet.’ But when He says, ‘all things are put under Him,’ it is revealed that He, who has put all things under Him, is the exception. When all things are subjected to Him, then the Son Himself will also be subject to Him who put all things under Him, that God may be all in all.” 1 Corinthians 15:24-28

Now does any of this comport with what Ibn Anwar’s prophet taught concerning God and Christ?

Not at all, since Muhammad’s monad is most definitely not the Father of Christ, who shares his sovereignty with his beloved Son.

In fact, Muhammad expressly taught that his god wasn’t a father to any one, especially Jews and Christians,

The Jews and Christians say: We are sons of Allah and His loved ones. Say: Why then doth He chastise you for your sins? Nay, ye are but mortals of His creating. He forgiveth whom He will, and chastiseth whom He will. Allah’s is the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, and unto Him is the journeying. S. 5:18 Pickthall

Since he is too glorious to have a son,

If Allah had willed to choose a son, He could have chosen what He would of that which He hath created. Be He Glorified! He is Allah, the One, the Absolute. S. 39:4 Pickthall

Which is why the only relationship a creature can ever have with the Islamic monad is that of a slave and master relationship:

And they say: The Beneficent hath taken unto Himself a son. Assuredly ye utter a disastrous thing Whereby almost the heavens are torn, and the earth is split asunder and the mountains fall in ruins, That ye ascribe unto the Beneficent a son, When it is not meet for (the Majesty of) the Beneficent that He should choose a son. There is none in the heavens and the earth but cometh unto the Beneficent as a slave. S. 19:88-93 Pickthall – cf. Q. 21:26

Muhammad further stated that his god would kill anyone who would dare believe that Christ is the Son of God:

The Jews say, ‘Ezra is the Son of God’; the Christians say, ‘The Messiah is the Son of God.’ That is the utterance of their mouths, conforming with the unbelievers before them. God assail them! How they are perverted! S. 9:30 Arberry

Muhammad also proclaimed that his deity does not and will not share his authority over all creation with anyone, let alone a son:

Say: “Allah knows best how long they stayed. With Him is (the knowledge of) the unseen of the heavens and the earth. How clearly He sees, and hears (everything)! They have no Wali (Helper, Disposer of affairs, Protector, etc.) other than Him, and He makes none to share in His Decision and His Rule.” S. 18:26 Hilali-Khan

He to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and Who has begotten no son (children or offspring) and for Whom there is no partner in the dominion. He has created everything, and has measured it exactly according to its due measurements. S. 25:2 Hilali-Khan

This puts Ibn Anwar in a dilemma since the only true God according to the biblical verse he referenced is the Father of the Lord Jesus who glorifies and exalts his Son over all flesh, and who requires all creatures to intimately know the Son in the same way they know the Father, since it is the Son who will raise the dead at the last day and give all believers eternal life, all of which Muhammad rejected!

Therefore, according to the very passage appealed to by this polemicist, Muhammad was nothing other than a false prophet and deceiver who did not know the only true God revealed by/in Jesus Christ.

In fact, the NT clearly teaches that anyone who denies God’s Fatherhood and Sonship of Christ is an antichrist:

“Who is a liar but the one who denies that Jesus is the Christ? Whoever denies the Father and the Son is the antichrist. No one who denies the Son has the Father; the one who confesses the Son has the Father.” 1 John 2:22-23

Muhammad was, therefore, an antichrist who stands eternally condemned since he basically turned God into a liar by denying God’s very own witness to Jesus’ being his uniquely beloved Son:

“And a voice came from heaven, saying, ‘You are My beloved Son in whom I am well pleased.’” Mark 1:11

“Then a cloud overshadowed them, and a voice came out of the cloud, saying, ‘This is My beloved Son. Listen to Him.’” Mark 9:7

“For we have not followed cleverly devised myths when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of His majesty. For He received honor and glory from God the Father when a voice came to Him from the majestic glory, saying, ‘This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.’ And we ourselves heard this voice, which came from heaven, when we were with Him on the holy mountain.” 2 Peter 1:16-18

“If we receive the testimony of men, the testimony of God is greater; for this is the testimony of God which He has given concerning His Son. Whoever believes in the Son of God has this witness in himself. Whoever does not believe God has made Him out to be a liar, because he does not believe the testimony that God gave about His Son. And this is the testimony: that God has given us eternal life, and this life is in His Son. Whoever has the Son has life, and whoever does not have the Son of God does not have life. I have written these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God, that you may know that you have eternal life, and that you may continue to believe in the name of the Son of God.” 1 John 5:9-13

We again want to thank Ibn Anwar for again employing an objection that ends up condemning Muhammad as a false prophet whom Satan used to lead people away from knowing the true God and Jesus Christ his beloved Son.

We’re not through just yet since we have more woes for Ibn Anwar in the next part of our rebuttal.

God NEVER means Muhammad’s Allah, a non-existent monad, in the New Testament

In this short post I am going to be responding to the following article

Muslim polemicist Ibn Anwar attempts to refute Trinitarianism by arguing that the term “God” never refers to the Trinity in the NT. He then cites the following Trinitarian scholars to prove that in the NT the word “God” is most often employed for the Father:

“In all but seven places in the New Testament the term theos refers to the one whom the Jews knew as their God and earliest Christians called “Father” or “Abba.”…The term [God] never refers to the Trinity in the New Testament…” (Ben Witherington III, New Testament Theology and Ethics [InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, Illinois 2016], Volume 1, p. 46)

“The scripture, when it mentions GOD, absolutely and by way of Eminence, always means the Person of the Father.” (Samuel Clarke, The Works of Samuel Clarke, Volume 4. [John and Paul Knapton, London 1738], Volume 4, p. 134)

It never ceases to amaze me how these Muslim antagonists routinely fail to see that the very objections which they level against Christianity end up proving that Islam is a false religion and that Muhammad was a false prophet.

For instance, doesn’t Ibn Anwar realize that this admission that the term God refers to the Father in the NT means that Muhammad was an antichrist? After all, the Quran plainly states that Muhammad’s god isn’t a father to anyone, since he is supposedly too glorious to have a son:

Say the Jews and Christians, ‘We are the sons of God, and His beloved ones.’ Say: ‘Why then does He chastise you for your sins? No; you are mortals, of His creating; He forgives whom He will, and He chastises whom He will.’ For to God belongs the kingdom of the heavens and of the earth, and all that is between them; to Him is the homecoming. S. 5:18

Had God desired to take to Him a son, He would have chosen whatever He willed of that He has created. Glory be to Him! He is God, the One, the Omnipotent. S. 39:4

And Muhammad’s monad is most definitely not the Father of Christ,

The Jews say, ‘Ezra is the Son of God’; the Christians say, ‘The Messiah is the Son of God.’ That is the utterance of their mouths, conforming with the unbelievers before them. God assail them! How they are perverted! S. 9:30

Since the highest relationship one can have with the Islamic deity is that of a slave to a master, no more and no less:

And they say, ‘The All-merciful has taken unto Himself a son. You have indeed advanced something hideous! The heavens are wellnigh rent of it and the earth split asunder, and the mountains wellnigh fall down crashing for that they have attributed to the All-merciful a son; and it behoves not the All-merciful to take a son. None is there in the heavens and earth but he comes to the All-merciful as a servant; S. 19:88-93

And yet according to the Christian Scriptures, the one true God is the Father, since he is Father of the Lord Jesus, his uniquely divine Son, as well as of all those who believe in Christ:

“And a voice came from heaven, saying, ‘You are My beloved Son in whom I am well pleased.’” Mark 1:11

“Then a cloud overshadowed them, and a voice came out of the cloud, saying, ‘This is My beloved Son. Listen to Him.’” Mark 9:7

“He said, ‘Abba, Father, all things are possible for You. Remove this cup from Me; yet not what I will, but what You will.’” Mark 14:36

“Yet to all who received Him, He gave the power to become sons of God, to those who believed in His name, who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. The Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we saw His glory, the glory as the only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth.” John 1:12-14

“Jesus answered them, ‘MY Father is working still, and I am working.’ So the Jews sought even more to kill Him, because He not only had broken the Sabbath, but also said that God was HIS Father, making Himself equal with God.” John 5:17-18

“So Jesus said to them, ‘When you lift up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am He, and I do nothing of Myself. But I speak these things as MY Father taught Me. He who sent Me is with Me. The Father has not left Me alone, for I always do those things that please Him.’… Jesus answered, ‘If I glorify Myself, My glory is nothing. It is MY Father who glorifies Me, of whom you say that He is your God. Yet you have not known Him, but I know Him. If I say, “I do not know Him,” I shall be a liar like you. But I know Him and keep His word.’” John 8:28-29, 54-55

MY Father, who has given them to Me, is greater than all. No one is able to snatch them from MY Father’s hand. MY Father and I are one… do you say of Him, whom the Father has sanctified and sent into the world, ‘You blaspheme,’ because I said, ‘I am the Son of God’? If I am not doing the works of MY Father, do not believe Me. But if I do them, though you do not believe Me, believe the works, that you may know and believe that the Father is in Me, and I in Him.” John 10:29-30, 36-38

“The Jews answered him, ‘We have a law, and by our law He ought to die, because He made Himself the Son of God!’” John 19:7

“Jesus said to her, ‘Stop holding on to Me, for I have not yet ascended to My Father. But go to My brothers and tell them, “I am ascending to MY Father and your Father, to My God and your God.”’” John 20:17

“But for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist. And there is one Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we exist.” 1 Corinthians 8:6

“Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ… so that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give you the Spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of Him,” Ephesians 1:3, 17

one God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all.” Ephesians 4:6

“With it we bless the Lord and Father, and with it we curse men, who are made in the image of God.” James 3:9

“For we have not followed cleverly devised myths when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of His majesty. For He received honor and glory from God the Father when a voice came to Him from the majestic glory, saying, ‘This is MY beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.’ And we ourselves heard this voice, which came from heaven, when we were with Him on the holy mountain.” 2 Peter 1:16-18

“Grace, mercy, and peace will be with you from God the Father and from the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father, in truth and love.” 2 John 1:3

“Jude, a servant of Jesus Christ and a brother of James, To those who are sanctified and called by God the Father and preserved in Jesus Christ:” Jude 1:1

The NT is equally clear that anyone who denies God’s Fatherhood and/or the unique divine Sonship of Christ is an antichrist:

“Who is a liar but the one who denies that Jesus is the Christ? Whoever denies the Father and the Son is the antichrist. No one who denies the Son has the Father; the one who confesses the Son has the Father.” 1 John 2:22-23

Hence, since Muhammad denied that his monad was anyone’s father, and cursed all those who would dare believe that Christ is God’s Son, this makes him an antichrist according to the very documents that Ibn Anwar appealed to in his attempt to refute the blessed and glorious Trinity!

We therefore want to personally thank Ibn Anwar for employing arguments that end up proving that his prophet and his religion are of the devil, and not from the one true God of the NT who is the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ and of all true believers.

All Biblical references taken from the Modern English Version (MEV) of the Holy Bible.

All quranic citations taken from A. J. Arberry’s version of the Quran.

The Holy Spirit as the Omniscient Lord of all creation Pt. 1

How Matthew 11:27 Proves Muhammad was a false prophet and antichrist

In this series of rebuttals I will be responding to the following post by Muslim-turned apostate-turned Muslim again-turned apostate once again-turned Muslim one more time Ibn Anwar

Ibn Anwar cites the comments of two anti-Trinitarian heretics in respect to Matthew 11:27 who argue that this verse refutes the divine Personhood of the Holy Spirit:

“If the spirit is a sentient (able to sense, be self-aware), separate and distinct being with personality, then Jesus either did not know this or was very inconsistent in giving “Him” proper due. In Matthew 11:27, Jesus asserts that “…no one knows the Son except the Father, and no one knows the Father except the Son…” If “the Holy Spirit” is a person distinct from the Father, and is also omniscient and almighty “God,” then would He not also have to know the Father and the Son? Jesus’ statement, then, would not have been true, and in fact would be a lie.”

The Muhammadan then poses the following dilemma for Trinitarians to contend with:

In light of the plain reading of Matthew 11:27, Christians have to choose between two possibilities:

  1. The Trinity is true and the Holy Spirit is indeed omniscient and knows the Father and the Son intimately as the third Person in the Godhead just as the first and second Persons in the Godhead know him, but this would make Jesus inconsistent or a deceiver for claiming that only the Father knows him and only he knows the Father as per Matthew 11:27.
  2. Jesus is being neither inconsistent nor a deceiver in Matthew 11:27 and that means the Trinity is false as the Holy Spirit, according to the verse in question, is necessarily demoted from the pedestal of godhood for not having omniscience.

To make things even clearer the following syllogism may help:

Premise 1: The Trinity has three Persons and each Person is equally almighty God and totally all knowing, having known each other in an eternal relationship where each Person is distinct from the other yet inseparable from the Godhead in One Essence.

Premise 2: The third Person, i.e., the Holy Spirit, according to Matthew 11:27, is not all knowing and has no knowledge of the first or second Persons in the Godhead and is left alone in the dark.

Conclusion: The Trinity is false.

In actuality the dilemma only exists in the imagination of this Muslim neophyte since,

  1. The Trinity is true and the Holy Spirit is indeed omniscient and knows the Father and the Son intimately as the third Person in the Godhead, just as the first and second Persons in the Godhead know him.
  2. Jesus is neither inconsistent nor a deceiver in Matthew 11:27, and the Trinity is still true, since the Holy Spirit is not included in our Lord’s claims that no one knows the Father and the Son.

We now put this in the form of a syllogism in order to help make things clearer for this specific Muhammadan:

Premise 1: The Trinity has three Persons and each Person is equally almighty God and totally all knowing, having known each other in an eternal relationship where each Person is distinct from the other yet inseparable from the Godhead in One Essence.

Premise 2: Since Matthew 11:27 is not addressing the Holy Spirit, and therefore has nothing to say about the Spirit’s knowledge of the Father and the Son, the only one left in the dark is this neophyte as he tries in vain to refute the overwhelming and explicit biblical arguments for the Triunity of God, particularly for the essential Deity and Personhood of God’s blessed and glorious Spirit.

Conclusion: The Trinity is a fact of who and what God is within his own eternal Being, apart from creation.

As my foregoing statements imply, I will seek to prove that our blessed Lord wasn’t including the Holy Spirit among those who do not and cannot know the Father or the Son completely and exhaustively. I will demonstrate from the God-breathed Scriptures that the Holy Spirit is an eternal, omniscient Person who is essentially one with the Father and the Son. But first I will use this very text to show from the words of our glorious Lord that he is an incomprehensible, omniscient Being who can only be perfectly understood by someone possessing an infinite mind.

Here is the passage in question along with the immediate context:

“At that time Jesus said, ‘I thank You, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because You have hidden these things from the wise and prudent and revealed them to infants. Even so, Father, for it seemed good in Your sight. All things are delivered to Me by My Father, and no one knows the Son, except the Father. And no one knows the Father, except the Son and he to whom the Son will reveal Him.’” Matthew 11:25-27 – cf. Luke 10:21-22

Our Lord’s words are truly astonishing since he is basically claiming to be essentially equal to the Father. After all, no finite creature can say that s/he knows God in the same way that s/he is known by God, since God knows a person exhaustively and completely. And yet the Scriptures are clear that no one who is a mere creature is capable of knowing God exhaustively since God’s Being is beyond comprehension:

“O LORD, You have searched me and known me. You know when I sit down and when I get up; You understand my thought from far off. You search my path and my lying downa nd are aware of all my ways. For there is not a word on my tongue, but behold, O LORD, You know it fully. You put Yourself behind and before me, and keep Your hand on me. Such knowledge is too wonderful for me; it is lofty, and I cannot fathom it.” Psalm 139:1-6

“Great is the LORD, and greatly to be praised, and His greatness is unfathomable.” Psalm 145:3

“He counts the number of the stars; He calls them all by their names. Great is our Lord and great in power; His understanding is without measure.” Psalm 147:4-5 – cf. Job 5:9; 9:10; 11:7-9; 36:26; 37:5; Isaiah 40:13-14, 17-18, 25-26; Romans 11:33-34; Ephesians 3:17-19; Philippians 4:7

Thus, the only way that Christ can know God the Father in the same way that he is known by him is if the Son possesses an infinite mind. I.e., the Son must be omniscient in order for him to know the Father perfectly and exhaustively.

That’s not all. The Lord’s saying that only the Father knows him implies that, much like the Father, the Son is a Being that is beyond the ability of any creature to know completely. This means that the Son is essentially making himself out to be an incomprehensible Being, and since the only Being that is incomprehensible is God, the Lord Jesus is therefore claiming to be God in the flesh.(1)

We will let the following Bible expositors bring out these points more clearly:

All things are delivered … – The same doctrine is clearly taught often in the New Testament. See John 3:35; John 6:46; John 10:15; Colossians 1:16-17. It means that Christ has control over all things for the good of his church; that the government of the universe is committed to him “as Mediator,” that he may redeem his people and guide them to glory, Ephesians 1:20-22.

No man knoweth the Son – That is, such is the nature of the Son of God, such the mystery of the union between the divine and human nature, such his exalted character as “divine,” that no mortal can fully comprehend Jesus. None but God fully knows him. If he had been only a mere man, this language surely would not have been used of him.

Neither knoweth any man the Father … – In the original this is, neither knoweth “anyone” the Father except the Son. That is, no man or angel clearly and fully comprehends the character of the infinite God; none but the Son – the Lord Jesus – and he to whom he makes him known, have any just apprehensions of his being and perfections. (Albert Barne’s Notes on the Whole Bible; bold emphasis ours)

All things have been delivered unto me of my Father (παντα μοι παρεδοτη υπο του πατρος μου — panta moi paredothē hupo tou patros mou). This sublime claim is not to be whittled down or away by explanations. It is the timeless aorist like εδοτη — edothē in Matthew 28:18 (see note) and “points back to a moment IN ETERNITY, AND IMPLIES THE PRE-EXISTENCE of the Messiah” (Plummer). The Messianic consciousness of Christ is here as clear as a bell. It is a moment of high fellowship. Note επιγινωσκει — epiginōskei twice for “fully know.” Note also βουληται — boulētai = wills, is willing. The Son retains the power and the will to reveal the Father to men. (A. T. Robertson’s Word Pictures in the New Testament; bold and capital emphasis ours)

Rejoiced in the Holy Spirit (ηγαλλιασατο τωι πνευματι τωι αγιωι — ēgalliasato tōi pneumati tōi hagiōi). First aorist middle of the late verb αγαλλιαω — agalliaō for αγαλλω — agallō to exult. Always in the middle in the N.T. save Luke 1:47 in Mary‘s Magnificat. This holy joy of Jesus was directly due to the Holy Spirit. It is joy in the work of his followers, their victories over Satan, and is akin to the joy felt by Jesus in John 4:32-38 when the vision of the harvest of the world stirred his heart. The rest of this verse is precisely like Matthew 11:25., a peculiarly Johannine passage in Matthew and Luke, but not in Mark, and so from Q (the Logia of Jesus). It has disturbed critics who are unwilling to admit the Johannine style and type of teaching as genuine, but here it is. See note on Matthew 11:25 for discussion. “That God had proved his independence of the human intellect is a matter for thankfulness. Intellectual gifts, so far from being necessary, are often a hindrance” (Plummer)… But the same use and contrast of “the Father,” “the Son.” in both Matthew and Luke, “an aerolite from the Johannean heaven” (Hase). No sane criticism can get rid of this Johannine bit in these Gospels written long before the Fourth Gospel was composed. We are dealing here with the oldest known document about Christ (the Logia) and the picture is that drawn in the Fourth Gospel (see my The Christ of the Logia). It is idle to try to whittle away by fantastic exegesis the high claims made by Jesus in this passage. It is an ecstatic prayer in the presence of the Seventy under the rapture of the Holy Spirit on terms OF PERFECT EQUALITY AND UNDERSTANDING between the Father and the Son in the tone of the priestly prayer in John 17. We are justified in saying that this prayer of supreme Fellowship with the Father in contemplation of final victory over Satan gives us a glimpse of the prayers with the Father when the Son spent whole nights on the mountain alone with the Father. Here is the Messianic consciousness in complete control and with perfect confidence in the outcome. Here as in Matthew 11:27 by the use of willeth to reveal him (βουληται αποκαλυπσαι — boulētai apokalupsai). The Son claims the power to reveal the Father “to whomsoever he wills” (ωι αν βουληται — hōi an boulētai indefinite relative and present subjunctive of βουλομαι — boulomai to will, not the future indicative). This is divine sovereignty most assuredly. Human free agency is also true, but it is full divine sovereignty in salvation that is here claimed along with possession (παρεδοτη — paredothē timeless aorist passive indicative) of all power from the Father. Let that supreme claim stand. (Ibid.; bold and capital emphasis ours)

All things are delivered unto me of my Father. He does not say, They are revealed-as to one who know them not, and was an entire stranger to them except as they were discovered to him-but, They are ‘delivered over’ [ paredothee (Greek #3860)], or ‘committed,’ to me of my Father; meaning the whole administration of the kingdom of grace. So in John 3:35, “The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into His hand” (see on that verse). But though the “all things” in both these passages refer properly to the kingdom of grace, they of course include all things necessary to the full execution of that trust-that is, unlimited power. (So Matthew 28:18; John 17:2; Ephesians 1:22.)

… Even so, Father; for so it seemed good in thy sight. This is “the only record, outside St. John’s Gospel, of a prayer like that which we find in John 17:1-26. For the most part, we may believe, those prayers were offered apart, on the lonely hillside, in the darkness of night; or, it may be, the disciples shrank in their reverence, or perhaps in the consciousness of their want of capacity, from attempting to record what was so unspeakably sacred. But it is noteworthy that in this exceptional instance we find, both in the prayer and the teaching that follows it in St. Matthew and St. Luke, turns of thought and phrase almost absolutely identical with what is most characteristic of St. John. It is as though this isolated fragment of a higher teaching had been preserved by them as a witness that there was a region upon which they scarcely dared to enter, but into which men were to be led afterwards by the beloved disciple, to whom the Spirit gave power to recall what had been above the reach of the other reporters of his Master’s teaching” (Dean Plumptre).

All things are delivered to me of my Father. These words, spoken late in the public ministry, evidently refer to the Almighty power possessed and frequently exercised by the incarnate Son of God. During the days of his humiliation, Jesus Christ exercised the power of Creator, Lord of the elements, Lord of the secrets of health and disease, Lord of life and death. Dean Mansel, comparing this statement, recorded both by SS. Matthew and Luke, with the language of St. John, remarks “that there is no substantial difference between the different evangelists in their views of our Lord’s Person and nature, and that the Gospel of St. John, far from being the representative of a later theology, does but more fully expound what is implicitly contained in the earliest of the Gospels.” St. Matthew (Matthew 11:28-30) here gives us that sublime invitation of the Master’s to the weary and heavy-laden. In the consciousness of his possession of all power, Jesus, with infinite compassion, offers to the great army of sufferers that rest which he alone can give. (The Pulpit Commentaries; bold emphasis ours)

And no man knoweth the Son, but the Father; neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will [or ‘willeth’ bouleetai (G1011)] to reveal him. What a saying is this, that ‘the Father and the Son are mutually and exclusively known to each other!’ A higher claim to equality with the Father cannot be conceived. Either, then, we have here one of the most revolting assumptions ever uttered, or the proper Divinity of Christ should to Christians be beyond dispute. ‘But alas for me!’ may some burdened soul, sighing for relief, here exclaim. If it be thus with us, what can any poor creature do but lie down in passive despair, unless he could dare to hope that he may be one of the favoured class ‘to whom the Son is willing to reveal the Father’? But nay. This testimony to the sovereignty of that gracious “will,” on which alone men’s salvation depends, is designed but to reveal the source and enhance the glory of it when once imparted-not to paralyze or shut the soul up in despair. Hear, accordingly, what follows: (Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown’s Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible – Unabridged ; bold emphasis ours)

… In the former of these, Our Lord, speaking in the most solemn manner, not only presents Himself as the Son, as the sole source of knowledge of God and of blessedness for men, but places Himself in a position, not of equality merely, but of absolute reciprocity and interpenetration of knowledge with the Father. “No one,” He says, “knoweth the Son, save the Father; neither doth any know the Father, save the Son….” varied in Luke so as to read: “No one knoweth who the Son is, save the Father; and who the Father is, save the Son….” as if the being of the Son were so immense that only God could know it thoroughly; and the knowledge of the Son was so unlimited that He could know God to perfection… (The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, edited by James Orr, Volume 4, p. 2346; bold emphasis ours)

This now places the Muhammadan in a serious dilemma since his Quran not only denies that Jesus is God’s Son,

The Jews say, ‘Ezra is the Son of God’; the Christians say, ‘The Messiah is the Son of God.’ That is the utterance of their mouths, conforming with the unbelievers before them. God assail them! How they are perverted! S. 9:30 Arberry

It further denies that Jesus knows what is in God’s inner-most being in the same way that God knows his inner-most being:

And when God said, ‘O Jesus son of Mary, didst thou say unto men, “Take me and my mother as gods, apart from God”?’ He said, ‘To Thee be glory! It is not mine to say what I have no right to. If I indeed said it, Thou knowest it, knowing what is within my soul, and I know not what is within Thy soul; Thou knowest the things unseen. S. 5:116 Arberry

Hence, the words of the historical Jesus exposes Muhammad as a false prophet and antichrist for denying the essential co-equality of the Father and the Son:

“Who is a liar but the one who denies that Jesus is the Christ? Whoever denies the Father and the Son is the antichrist. No one who denies the Son has the Father; the one who confesses the Son has the Father.” 1 John 2:22-23

That’s not all. By claiming that all things had been handed to him, Christ was claiming to be the Heir who possesses absolute sovereign control over all of creation:

“Then Jesus came and spoke to them, saying, ‘ALL authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth.’” Matthew 28:18

“Last of all, he sent his son to them, saying, ‘They will respect my son.’ But when the vinedressers saw the son, they said to themselves, ‘This is the heir. Come, let us kill him and seize his inheritance.’ So they caught him, threw him out of the vineyard, and killed him.” Matthew 21:37-39

This again conflicts with the Muslim neophyte’s scripture, which teaches that God alone possesses absolute sovereignty,

But as for those who are niggardly with the bounty God has given them, let them not suppose it is better for them; nay, it is worse for them; that they were niggardly with they shall have hung about their necks on the Resurrection Day; and to God belongs the inheritance of the heavens and earth; and God is aware of the things you do. S. 3:180 Arberry

To God belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and of the earth; and God is powerful over everything. S. 3:189 Arberry

He unto Whom belongeth the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, He hath chosen no son nor hath He any partner in the Sovereignty. He hath created everything and hath meted out for it a measure. S. 25:2 – cf. Q. 17:111

And that he is the Heir of all things:

It is We who give life, and make to die, and it is We who are the inheritors. S. 15:23 Arberry

Surely We shall inherit the earth and all that are upon it, and unto Us they shall be returned. S. 19:40 Arberry

and We shall inherit from him that he says, and he shall come to Us alone. S. 19:80 Arberry

And Zachariah — when he called unto his Lord, ‘O my Lord, leave me not solitary; though Thou art the best of inheritors.’ S. 21:89 Arberry

Once again, the Muhammadan is left with the problem of the historical Jesus’ words contradicting the message of Muhammad, which in turn exposes the latter as a false prophet.

Ibn Anwar’s woes are far from over as we are about to see in the second part of our rebuttal.


(1) It’s not just the NT which teaches that God has a Son who is incomprehensible and essentially co-equal to him:

“The words of Agur son of Jakeh of Massa. The man says to Ith′i-el, to Ith′i-el and Ucal: Surely I am too stupid to be a man. I have not the understanding of a man. I have not learned wisdom, nor have I knowledge of the Holy One (Qadoshim – Holy Ones). Who has ascended to heaven and come down? Who has gathered the wind in his fists? Who has wrapped up the waters in a garment? Who has established all the ends of the earth? What is his name, and what is his son’s name? Surely you know!” Proverbs 30:3-4 Revised Standard Version (RSV)

Here we have an OT figure who is aware that God and his Son are two holy Ones whom no creature can fully understood since they perform acts that are beyond human comprehension.

The NT identifies that Son as the Lord Jesus Christ since he performs the very acts which Agur ascribed to God’s Son in the aforementioned passage, such as ascending and descending from heaven,

No one has ascended to heaven except He who descended from heaven, even the Son of Man who is in heaven. Just as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up, that whoever believes in Him should not perish, but may have eternal life. For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish, but have eternal life. For God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved. He who believes in Him is not condemned. But he who does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.” John 3:13-18

As well as sovereignly controlling the winds and the waters:

“Then He entered the boat, and His disciples followed Him. Suddenly a great storm arose on the sea, so that the boat was covered with the waves. But He was asleep. His disciples went to Him and awoke Him, saying, ‘Lord, save us! We are perishing!’ He replied, ‘Why are you fearful, O you of little faith?’ Then He rose and rebuked the winds and the sea. And there was a great calm. The men were amazed, saying, ‘What kind of Man is this that even the winds and the sea obey Him!’” Matthew 8:23-27

“Then He directed the disciples to get into the boat and go before Him to the other side, while He sent away the crowds. And after He had dismissed the multitudes, He went up into the hills by Himself to pray. When it was evening, He was still there alone. But the boat was by this time out on the sea, many furlongs [a furlong is one-eighth of a mile] distant from the land, beaten and tossed by the waves, for the wind was against them. And in the fourth watch [between 3:00—6:00 a.m.] of the night, Jesus came to them, walking on the sea. And when the disciples saw Him walking on the sea, they were terrified and said, It is a ghost! And they screamed out with fright. But instantly He spoke to them, saying, Take courage! I Am! Stop being afraid!(A) And Peter answered Him, Lord, if it is You, command me to come to You on the water. He said, Come! So Peter got out of the boat and walked on the water, and he came toward Jesus. But when he perceived and felt the strong wind, he was frightened, and as he began to sink, he cried out, Lord, save me [from death]! Instantly Jesus reached out His hand and caught and held him, saying to him, O you of little faith, why did you doubt? And when they got into the boat, the wind ceased. And those in the boat knelt and worshiped Him, saying, Truly You are the Son of God!” Matthew 14:22-32

Cross references:

A. Matthew 14:27: Exod. 3:14. Amplified Bible Classic Edition (ABC)

What makes this latter text rather interesting is that Christ claims to be the I AM and is worshiped in relation to his controlling the winds and seas, as well as in saving his people, functions which the OT ascribe to Yahweh God alone! (cf. Job 9:8; Psalm 65:5-8; 77:17-19; 107:22-32)

The Watchtower Society Admits that Jesus is Jehovah God… Sort of!

According to the Watchtower’s Reference edition of the New World Translation, the Hebrew translations of Romans 10:9 identify Jesus as ha’Adhohn:

“For if you publicly declare that ‘word in your own mouth,’ that Jesus is Lord,* and exercise faith in your heart that God raised him up from the dead, you will be saved.” Romans 10:9

* Gr., kyʹri·os; J12-14,​16-18,​22 (Heb.), ha·ʼa·dhohnʹ, “the Lord.” Not “Jehovah.” (New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures—With References; bold emphasis ours)

The Reference edition has an appendix admitting that the Old Testament never employs this Hebrew phrase for any one other than Jehovah God Almighty:

1H “The [true] Lord”—Heb., ha·ʼA·dhohnʹ

The title ʼA·dhohnʹ, “Lord; Master,” when preceded by the definite article ha, “the,” gives the expression ha·ʼA·dhohnʹ, “the [true] Lord.” The use of the definite article ha before the title ʼA·dhohnʹ LIMITS the application of this title EXCLUSIVELY to Jehovah God.

In M the expression ha·ʼA·dhohnʹ occurs nine times, namely, in Ex 23:17; Ex 34:23; Isa 1:24; Isa 3:1; Isa 10:16, 33; Isa 19:4; Mic 4:13; Mal 3:1. (Ibid.; bold and capital emphasis ours)

Hence, for Jesus to be “the Lord,” i.e., ha’Adhohn, that a person must confess in order to be saved he must be Jehovah God in the flesh!

This is more clearly brought out by the fact that the following OT passage, which says a messenger will be sent to prepare for the coming of ha’Adhohn to his very own temple in Jerusalem,

“‘Look! I am sending my messenger, and he must clear up a way before me. And suddenly there will come to HIS temple the [true] Lord, whom YOU people are seeking, and the messenger of the covenant in whom YOU are delighting. Look! He will certainly come,’ Jehovah of armies has said.” Malachi 3:1

A temple which was built solely for the glory and worship of Jehovah,

“David the king now said to all the congregation: ‘Solʹo·mon my son, the one [whom] God has chosen, is young and delicate, but the work is great; for the castle is not for man, but for Jehovah God.’” 1 Chronicles 29:1

To John the Baptist:

“Really, then, why did YOU go out? To see a prophet? Yes, I tell YOU, and far more than a prophet. This is he concerning whom it is written, ‘Look! I myself am sending forth my messenger before your face, who will prepare your way ahead of you!’Truly I say to YOU people, Among those born of women there has not been raised up a greater than John the Baptist; but a person that is a lesser one in the kingdom of the heavens is greater than he is.” Matthew 11:9-11 – cf. Luke 7:26-28

And yet the inspired Christian Scriptures testify that John the Baptist was sent to prepare the people for the coming of Jesus Christ:

“The] beginning of the good news about Jesus Christ: Just as it is written in Isaiah the prophet: ‘(Look! I am sending forth my messenger before your face, who will prepare your way) listen! someone is crying out in the wilderness, “Prepare the way of Jehovah, YOU people, make his roads straight,”’ John the baptizer turned up in the wilderness, preaching baptism [in symbol] of repentance for forgiveness of sins. Consequently all the territory of Ju·deʹa and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem made their way out to him, and they were baptized by him in the Jordan River, openly confessing their sins. Now John was clothed with camel’s hair and with a leather girdle around his loins, and was eating insect locusts and wild honey. And he would preach, saying: ‘After me someone stronger than I am is coming; I am not fit to stoop and untie the laces of his sandals. I baptized YOU with water, but he will baptize YOU with holy spirit.’” Mark 1:1-7

“The next day he beheld Jesus coming toward him, and he said: ‘See, the Lamb of God that takes away the sin of the world! This is the one about whom I said, Behind me there comes a man who has advanced in front of me, because he existed before me. Even I did not know him, but the reason why I came baptizing in water was that he might be made manifest to Israel.’ John also bore witness, saying: ‘I viewed the spirit coming down as a dove out of heaven, and it remained upon him. Even I did not know him, but the very One who sent me to baptize in water said to me, “Whoever it is upon whom you see the spirit coming down and remaining, this is the one that baptizes in holy spirit.” And I have seen [it], and I have borne witness that this one is the Son of God.’ Again the next day John was standing with two of his disciples, and as he looked at Jesus walking he said: ‘See, the Lamb of God!’” John 1:29-36

“Paul said: ‘John baptized with the baptism [in symbol] of repentance, telling the people to believe in the one coming after him, that is, in Jesus.’” Acts 19:4

Therefore, since Jesus is plainly identified as ha’Adhohn whom the prophet Malachi said would be coming to his very own temple, and since that temple was built exclusively for Jehovah God, Jesus must be the human appearance, the very enfleshment of Jehovah God Almighty. There’s simply no way around this biblically revealed fact.

To sum up our discussion, we discovered that:

  1. Jesus is identified as ha’Adhohn in the Hebrew versions of Romans 10:9.
  2. The phrase ha’Adhohn is only used for Jehovah God in the Old Testament.
  3. Jesus must therefore be Jehovah God in the flesh.
  4. This is further confirmed by the fact that Malachi 3:1 prophesies a messenger sent by God to prepare for the coming of ha’Adhohn to his temple in Jerusalem.
  5. Both the Lord Jesus and the Gospel writers identify that messenger as John the Baptist.
  6. Jesus, John the Baptist and the Apostles all confirm that the Baptist was sent to prepare the people for the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ.
  7. This means that Jesus is Christ is none other than ha’Adhohn of Malachi 3:1, the Lord who came to his very own temple in Jerusalem.
  8. As such, Jesus must be Jehovah God Incarnate since only Jehovah is said to be ha’Adhohn and the temple was built exclusively for the worship of Jehovah.

We want to thank the Society for providing indirect evidence that Jesus is in fact Jehovah God Almighty in the flesh, even though he is not the Father or the Holy Spirit.



How Unitarian Logic Proves the Father Can’t be God Pt. 2

Jesus and the Holy Spirit

Click on this link to read pt. 1.

There are some unitarian heretics who appeal to passages such as the following,

“But if I cast out demons by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God has come upon you.” Matthew 12:28

“Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit to Galilee. And His fame went throughout the surrounding region” Luke 4:14

“how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power, who went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with Him.” Acts 10:38

To argue that Jesus cannot be God since, if he were, then he wouldn’t need to have the Holy Spirit helping him to perform his mighty deeds.

Suffice it to say there is a serious problem with this unitarian “logic”. If Jesus doing miracles by the Spirit of God proves he isn’t God then this would mean that Jehovah can’t be God either since he too employs the Spirit to carry out his works. Note what the following texts say:

“And he said to me: “This is the word of the LORD to Zerubbabel, saying: Not by might nor by power, but by My Spirit, says the LORD of Hosts.’” Zechariah 4:6

The Spirit of God has made me, and the breath of the Almighty has given me life.” Job 33:4

“When You send forth Your Spirit, they are created, and You renew the surface of the ground.” Psalm 104:30

“I have filled him with the Spirit of God in wisdom, in understanding, in knowledge, and in all manner of craftsmanship,” Exodus 31:3

“And He has filled him with the Spirit of God, in wisdom, in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of craftsmanship,” Exodus 35:31

Now someone may interject and argue that this is a false comparison since Jehovah carried out his works by his own eternal Spirit, unlike Jesus who did so by Jehovah’s Spirit. In other words, Jesus didn’t do his deeds by the power of his own Spirit, since the Holy Spirit that came to rest upon him at his baptism (cf. Matthew 3:16; Mark 1:10; Luke 3:22; John 1:32-33) didn’t belong to him but to Jehovah God.

The problem with this objection is that it is simply not true that the Holy Spirit doesn’t also belong to Jesus since the NT clearly identifies God’s Holy Spirit as the very Spirit of the Son/Christ:

“You, however, are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God lives IN YOU. Now if any man does not have the Spirit OF CHRIST, he does not belong to Him. And if CHRIST is IN YOU, though the body is dead because of sin, the Spirit is alive because of righteousness. But if the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead lives in you, He who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through His Spirit that lives IN YOU. Therefore, brothers, we are debtors not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh. For if you live according to the flesh, you will die, but if through the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are the sons of God. For you have not received the spirit of slavery again to fear. But you have received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, ‘Abba, Father.’ The Spirit Himself bears witness with our spirits that we are the children of God, and if children, then heirs: heirs of God and joint-heirs with Christ, if indeed we suffer with Him, that we may also be glorified with Him.” Romans 8:9-17

“But when the fullness of time came, God sent forth His Son, born from a woman, born under the law, to redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive the adoption as sons. And because you are sons, God has sent forth into our hearts the Spirit of His Son, crying, ‘Abba, Father!’ Therefore you are no longer a servant, but a son, and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.” Galatians 4:4-7

“For I know that through your prayer and the support of the Spirit of Jesus Christ, this will result in my deliverance.” Philippians 1:19

In fact, the God-breathed revelation claims that it was the very Spirit of Christ who spoke in and through the OT prophets:

“Concerning this salvation, the prophets who prophesied of the grace that should come to you have inquired and searched diligently, seeking the events and time THE SPIRIT OF CHRIST, WHO WAS WITHIN THEM, signified when He foretold the sufferings of Christ and the glories to follow.  It was revealed to them that they were not serving themselves but you, concerning the things which are now reported to you by those who have preached the gospel to you through the Holy Spirit, who was sent from heaven—things into which the angels desire to look.” 1 Peter 1:10-12

What makes this so remarkable is that the Hebrew Scriptures testify that the Spirit who prophesied through the prophets was actually the Spirit of Jehovah himself!

“For many years You endured them and warned them by Your Spirit in Your prophets, yet they would not listen. Therefore, You gave them into the hand of the people of the lands.” Nehemiah 9:30

“They made their hearts hard like a diamond so as not to hear the instruction and words that the LORD of Hosts sent by His Spirit through the former prophets, and there was great anger from the LORD of Hosts.” Zechariah 7:12 – cf.  2 Samuel 23:2; Isaiah 48:16; 61:1; Ezekiel 3:24, 11:5; Joel 2:28-29

The foregoing clearly shows that Jesus Christ must be Jehovah God Incarnate; otherwise we would have to assume that there were two different S/spirits operating through the prophets, namely, Jehovah’s eternal Spirit and the spirit of a mere human creature who did not even exist at the time when these prophets were alive!

Since this is utter nonsense, this means that there is simply no logical way of getting around the fact that Jesus is indeed Jehovah God in the flesh seeing that it was his Holy Spirit who indwelt and inspired the OT prophets:

A. The Spirit of Jehovah prophesied in and through the prophets of the OT.

B. The Spirit of Christ prophesied in and through the OT prophets.

C. Jesus is therefore Jehovah God Almighty (even though he is not the Father).

This is further confirmed by the NT teaching that Jesus personally poured out the Holy Spirit upon his followers after his physical ascension into heaven:

“Brothers, I may speak confidently to you concerning the patriarch David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. But being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him, that of his seed according to the flesh, He would raise up the Christ to sit on his throne, he foresaw this and spoke concerning the resurrection of the Christ, that His soul was not abandoned to Hades, nor did His flesh see corruption. God raised up this Jesus, of which we all are witnesses. Therefore being exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, HE HAS POURED OUT this which you now see and hear.” Acts 2:29-33

According to the Apostle Peter, this miracle fulfilled the following OT prophesy where Jehovah God promises to someday pour out his Spirit upon his servants:

“‘In the last days it shall be,’ says God, ‘that I will pour out MY Spirit on all flesh; your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams. Even on My menservants and maidservants I will pour out MY Spirit in those days; and they shall prophesy. And I will show wonders in heaven above and signs on the earth below: blood, and fire, and vapor of smoke. The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before that great and glorious day of the Lord comes. And whoever calls on the name of the Lord shall be saved.’” Acts 2:17-21 – cf. Joel 2:28-32

Once again, for Jesus to do what the OT says only God does, namely, pour out the Holy Spirit upon all believers, Christ must be God Almighty in the flesh. Again, note the logic behind this argument:

A. Jehovah God pours out his Spirit upon his servants.

B. Jesus pours out the Holy Spirit upon his servants.

C. Therefore, Jesus is Jehovah God (even though he is not the Father).

So much for the unitarian objection against Christ being Jehovah God in the flesh.


God in the Garden of Eden Pt. 2

Another OT Appearance of the Prehuman Christ

In this post, I am going to show from the context of Genesis 3 itself that the LORD God who appeared to Adam and Eve was the prehuman Lord Christ.

Here is the relevant part of Genesis 3:

They HEARD Yahweh God’s VOICE (qol YHWH Elohim) WALKING in the garden in the cool of the day, and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of Yahweh God among the trees of the garden. Yahweh God called to the man, and said to him, ‘Where are you?’ The man said, ‘I HEARD YOUR VOICE (qolaka) in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself.’ God said, ‘Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree that I commanded you not to eat from?’ The man said, ‘The woman whom you gave to be with me, she gave me fruit from the tree, and I ate it. Yahweh God said to the woman, ‘What have you done?’ The woman said, ‘The serpent deceived me, and I ate.’… To Adam he said, ‘Because you have listened to your wife’s voice, and ate from the tree, about which I commanded you, saying, “You shall not eat of it,” the ground is cursed for your sake. You will eat from it with much labor all the days of your life. It will yield thorns and thistles to you; and you will eat the herb of the field. By the sweat of your face will you eat bread until you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken. For you are dust, and to dust you shall return.’ The man called his wife Eve because she would be the mother of all the living. Yahweh God made coats of animal skins for Adam and for his wife, and clothed them. Yahweh God said, ‘Behold, the man has become like one of us, knowing good and evil. Now, lest he reach out his hand, and also take of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever…’ Therefore Yahweh God sent him out from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from which he was taken. So he drove out the man; and he placed cherubim at the east of the garden of Eden, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to guard the way to the tree of life.” Genesis 3:8-13, 17-24 World English Bible (WEB)

According to the context, it was the Voice of God who showed up to confront the first human couple. I.e. God’s Voice is an actual living, conscious Being who appears and speaks to God’s creatures.

Note once again what the passage says:

And they HEARD THE VOICE of Jehovah God WALKING in the garden in the cool of the day: and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of Jehovah God amongst the trees of the garden.” Genesis 3:8 American Standard Version (ASV)

Now some have translated the Hebrew word qol as “sound,”

“Then the man and his wife heard the sound of the LORD God as he was walking in the garden in the cool of the day, and they hid from the LORD God among the trees of the garden.” NIV

E.g., it wasn’t God’s Voice that Adam and Eve heard walking, but rather what they heard was the sound made by God as he walked in the garden.

The problem with interpreting qol as sound here is that this same term is used later on in the chapter without anyone denying that it means voice:

“To Adam he said, ‘Because you have listened to your wife’s voice (qol), and ate from the tree, about which I commanded you, saying, “You shall not eat of it,” the ground is cursed for your sake. You will eat from it with much labor all the days of your life.’” Genesis 3:17 WEB

Would anyone argue that Adam was blamed for listening to the sound of his wife, as opposed to her voice?

The inspired author again uses qol in the very next chapter:

“Yahweh said, ‘What have you done? The voice (qol) of your brother’s blood cries to me from the ground.’” Genesis 4:10 WEB

Even though this is an obvious case of personification, would anyone argue that God was actually saying that the sound, as opposed to the voice, of Abel’s blood was crying out to him?

Therefore, the only reason why anyone would render qol as sound in respect to the LORD God’s appearance in the garden is because of an unwillingness to accept the fact that the OT prophets already knew and spoke of God being multi-Personal by nature.

This isn’t the only time where God’s Voice is depicted as a living, conscious agent:

“In the year that king Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up; and his train filled the temple. Above him stood the seraphim: each one had SIX WINGS; with twain he covered his face, and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly. And one cried unto another, and said, Holy, holy, holy, is Jehovah of hosts: the whole earth is full of his glory. And the foundations of the thresholds shook at the voice of him that cried, and the house was filled with smoke. Then said I, Woe is me! for I am undone; because I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips: for mine eyes have seen the King, Jehovah of hosts. Then flew one of the seraphim unto me, having a live coal in his hand, which he had taken with the tongs from off the altar: and he touched my mouth with it, and said, Lo, this hath touched thy lips; and thine iniquity is taken away, and thy sin forgiven. And I HEARD THE VOICE of the Lord (qol Adonay), SAYING, Whom shall I send, and who will go for US (lanu)? Then I said, Here am I; send me. And he said, Go, and tell this people, Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and turn again, and be healed. Then said I, Lord, how long? And he answered, Until cities be waste without inhabitant, and houses without man, and the land become utterly waste, and Jehovah have removed men far away, and the forsaken places be many in the midst of the land.” Isaiah 6:1-12 ASV

In this amazing vision, the prophet not only sees the LORD God but actually hears God’s Voice speak to him from God’s throne!

Here, again, is the verse in question:

“Then I heard the voice of Adonai saying: ‘Whom should I send, and who will go for Us?’ So I said, ‘Hineni. Send me.’” Tree of Life Version (TLV)

What makes this all the more remarkable is that the Voice asks “who will go for US,” plural, as opposed to speaking in the singular, “for ME.” I.e. the Voice is asking who will be the spokesperson for them, with the plural being a reference to the LORD God whom the prophet saw.

This in itself prepares us to see some kind of personal distinction between the Lord and his Voice, e.g., since God and his Voice are two distinct entities this accounts for the use of the plural form lanu.

Hence, the plural indicates that the Lord who commissioned Isaiah to be his inspired emissary isn’t a unitary monad, but a multi-Personal Being. More on Isaiah’s vision a little later.

The following Psalm provides further proof that God’s Voice in these particular texts is a living personal Being:

Yahweh has established his throne in the heavens. His kingdom rules over all. Praise Yahweh, you angels of his, who are mighty in strength, who fulfill his word, obeying the voice OF HIS WORD (ba-qol dabaro). Praise Yahweh, all you armies of his, you servants of his, who do his pleasure.” Psalm 103:19-21 WEB

The angels obey the Voice of God’s Word which they hear from God’s heavenly throne. We shouldn’t take this as merely a poetic description of God speaking, e.g., the angels hear the words that come from God’s Voice, from God speaking directly to them. Rather, we should take this for what it says, namely, the angels hear the Voice of God’s Word whenever the Word speaks to them from God’s throne. I.e., the angels hear the Word’s Voice whenever the Word reveals God’s orders to them.

Now lest we be accused of reading too much into these verses, or of forcing them to agree with our Trinitarian assumptions, notice what the following Jewish sources have to say in respect to God’s Voice/Word:

“In contrast, the loud moaning of their enemies was a jarring and miserable sound. It rose up and could be heard everywhere as they mourned their dead children. The same judgment fell on both slave and ruler. Both were punished together. The lowest person and the king suffered the same thing. Countless bodies lay around, united together by a common name: death. There weren’t even enough of the living left to bury the dead! In one fleeting moment, their most valued children were destroyed. Because of their misguided casting of spells and drug use, they didn’t believe until it was too late. As a result, all their oldest males were destroyed. It was only then that they acknowledged your people to be your children. It was then, while everything was wrapped in a gentle silence, and half a night had already passed, that your ALL-POWERFUL WORD had leaped down from heaven, THE ROYAL THRONE. Like a fierce warrior, he had entered the land that was marked for destruction. He carried with him your unchanging declaration like a sharp sword. He stood up and filled everything with death; he reached the sky while still standing on the ground.” Wisdom of Solomon 18:10-16 CEB

Here is a pre-Christian Jewish writing, which is believed to be inspired Scripture by a very large segment of Christianity, e.g., Roman Catholicism, Orthodox, Coptic etc., that is fully aware that God’s Word is a personal Agent who sits enthroned with God in heaven, and whom God dispatches to save his people and/or judge his enemies.

Nor is this an isolated or sole example since here is how the Aramaic paraphrases of the Hebrew Bible, commonly referred to as the Targums (Targumim), explain the Voice of God that appeared in the garden:

And they heard the voice OF THE WORD of the Lord God walking in the garden in the repose of the day; and Adam and his wife hid themselves from before the Lord God among the trees of the garden. And the Lord God called to Adam, and said to him, Is not all the world which I have made manifest before Me; the darkness as the light? and how hast thou thought in thine heart to hide from before Me? The place where thou art concealed, do I not see? Where are the commandments that I commanded thee?

[JERUSALEM. Walking in the garden in the strength of the day……And the Word of the Lord God called to Adam, and said to him, Behold, the world which I have created is manifest before Me; and how thinkest thou that the place in the midst whereof thou art, is not revealed before Me? Where is the commandment which I taught thee?]

And he said, The voice OF THY WORD heard I in the garden, and I was afraid, because I am naked; and the commandment which Thou didst teach me, I have transgressed; therefore I hid myself from shame…

[JERUSALEM. And the Word of the Lord God said, Behold, Adam whom I have created is sole in my world, as I am sole in the heavens above. It is to be that a great people are to arise from him; from him will arise a people who will know how to discern between good and evil. And now it is good that we keep him from the garden of Eden before he stretch forth his hand and take also of the fruit of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever……And He cast out Adam, and made the glory of His Shekina to dwell at the front of the east of the garden of Eden, above the two Kerubaia. Two thousand years before He had created the world, He created the law, and prepared Gehinnam and the garden of Eden. He prepared the garden of Eden for the righteous, that they should eat, and delight themselves with the fruit of the tree, because they had kept the commandments of the law in this world. For the wicked He prepared Gehinnam, which is like the sharp, consuming sword with two edges. He prepared in the depth of it flakes of fire and burning coals for the wicked, for their punishment for ever in the world to come, who have not kept the commandment of the law in this world. For the law is the tree of life; whoever keepeth it in this life liveth and subsisteth as the tree of life. The law is good to keep in this world, as the fruit of the tree of life in the world that cometh.] (The Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel On the Pentateuch With The Fragments of the Jerusalem Targum From the Chaldee, by J. W. Etheridge, M.A., First Published 1862; capital, italicized and underline emphasis ours)


And they heard the voice OF THE WORD of the Lord God walking in the garden in the evening of the day; and Adam and his wife hid themselves from before the Lord God among the trees of the garden. And the Lord God called to Adam and said to him, Where art thou? And he said, The voice OF THY WORD heard I in the garden, and I was afraid, because I (was) naked, and I would hide. (Ibid.; capitalize, italicized and underline emphasis ours)

And here is the Aramaic interpretation of Isaiah’s vision:

In the year in which King Uzziah was smitten with the leprosy the prophet said, I saw THE GLORY of the Lord sitting upon His throne, high, and lifted up unto the highest heavens, and the temple was filled with the brightness of His glory… And one cried unto another and they were saying, Holy in the highest and exalted heavens is the house of His Shekinah, holy upon the earth is the work of His might, holy for ever, world without end, is the Lord of hosts, the whole earth is full of the brightness of His glory… Then said I, Woe is me, for I have sinned, for I am a guilty man to reprove, and I dwell in the midst of a people polluted with sin: for mine eyes have seen THE GLORY of the Shekinah of the King of the worlds, the Lord of hostsAnd I heard the voice OF THE WORD of the Lord, which said, Whom shall I send to prophesy? and who will go to teach? Then said I, Here am I, send me. (The Chaldee Paraphrase on the Prophet Isaiah by Jonathan b. Uzziel, translated by Rev. C. W. H. Pauli [London Society House, 1871], pp. 20-21; capital, italicized and underline emphasis ours)

In another place, the Targum interprets Isaiah 6:1 in reference to the prophet actually seeing the Word of Yahweh seated on God’s heavenly throne!

“But the custom of (other) nations is to carry their gods upon their shoulders, that they may seem to be nigh them; but they cannot hear with their ears, (be they nigh or) be they afar off; but the Word of the Lord sitteth upon His throne high and lifted up, and heareth our prayer what time we pray before Him and make our petitions.” (Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, Deuteronomy 4:7; italicized and underline emphasis ours)

Notice how all of these citations identify the Voice of God that appeared to Adam and Eve, and who spoke to Isaiah from God’s heavenly throne, as the Word of the Lord. I.e., these Jewish writings understood God’s Voice to be the Word of the Lord who spoke to the first human couple and commissioned the prophet.

These sources simply make explicit the already implicit association between God’s Voice and His Word in the Hebrew Bible, e.g., the Voice of God is God’s Word who appears and speaks on God’s behalf in order to make God known to his creatures.

In other words, these varied Jewish writings confirm that God’s Voice is to be identified with the Word of God that appears and/or speaks to God’s servants (cf. Genesis 15:1, 4; 1 Samuel 3:6-7, 20-21; Jeremiah 1:4-14; Zechariah 4:8-9).

There’s more. This next Jewish work,

(9) Seventy names did I take from (my) names and called him by them to enhance his glory. Seventy princes gave I into his hand, to command unto them my precepts and my words in every language: to abase by his word the proud to the ground, and to exalt by the utterance of his lips the humble to the height ; to smite kings by his speech, to turn kings away from their paths, to set up(the) rulers over their dominion as it is written (Dan.ii. 21): “and he changeth the times and the seasons, and to give wisdom unto all the setwise of the world and understanding (and) knowledge to all who understand knowledge, as it is written (Dan. ii. 21): “and knowledge to them that know understanding”, to reveal to them the secrets of my words and to teach the decree of my righteous judgement,

(10) as it is written (Is. Iv. n): “so shall my word be that goeth forth out of my mouth; it shall not return unto me void but shall accomplish (that which I please)”. ‘E’eseh’ (I shall accomplish) is not written here, but “asah’ (HE shall accomplish), meaning, that whatever word and whatever utterance goes forth from before the Holy One, blessed be He, Metatron stands and carries it out. And he establishes the decrees of the Holy One, blessed be He. (3 Enoch 48 C Alt; capital and underline emphasis ours)

Identifies the Word that is mentioned in the following OT passage,

“So shall My Davar (the WORD of Hashem) be that goeth forth out of My mouth; HE shall not return unto Me reikam (empty, void) but HE [the Davar Hashem, see Yn 1:1,14] shall do that which I please, and HE [the Davar Hashem] shall accomplish (asah) the purpose whereto I sent HIM.” Isaiah 55:11 Orthodox Jewish Bible (OJB)

As the heavenly being called Metatron, which Jewish tradition called the “Lesser Yahweh” and identified as Enoch!

Here is an alternate rendering of the citation from 3 Enoch:

“So the word that goes forth from my  mouth does not return to me empty; HE carries out my will” (P. Alexander, 3 [Hebrew Apocalypse of] Enoch, in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, vol. 1, James H. Charlesworth, ed. [Doubleday, New York 1983], p. 312; capital and underline emphasis ours)

The reason why God’s Word in Isaiah 55:11 was understood to be Metatron is because the verb employed to describe the actions of the Word, i.e. asah (“he shall accomplish”), is a masculine verb. This use of the masculine led the writer(s) to assume that the Word was a heavenly masculine figure, a personal Being whom God dispatches to accomplish his purposes on the earth.

The foregoing quotations show that the Biblical depiction of God’s Voice walking and talking cannot simply be brushed aside as a personification or anthropomorphizing of God’s qualities. Rather, as even the Jews who produced these works clearly saw, God’s Voice/Word is an actual living, conscious divine Entity who is both personally distinct from and identical with God.

Now according to the inspired Christian Scriptures, that Voice, that Word, which the Hebrew Bible often refers to, became a flesh and blood human being and is now known as the Lord Jesus Christ, God’s uniquely beloved Son!

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was GodThe Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth… No one has ever seen God, but the one and only Son, who is himself God and is in closest relationship with the Father, has made him known.” John 1:1, 14, 18 NIV

“That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked at and our hands have touched—this we proclaim concerning the Word of life. The life appeared; we have seen it and testify to it, and we proclaim to you the eternal life, which was with the Father and has appeared to us. We proclaim to you what we have seen and heard, so that you also may have fellowship with us. And our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son, Jesus Christ.” 1 John 1:1-3 NIV

“He is dressed in a robe dipped in blood, and his name is the Word of God.” Revelation 19:13

This confirms what we argued for in the first part of our discussion, namely, the Being who appeared to the first human couple in Eden, the Lord’s Voice that spoke from God’s throne to Isaiah, was actually Jesus Christ in his prehuman existence.

The Apostle John provides further confirmation for this fact since here is what he wrote in regards to the Jewish rejection of Jesus despite all the miraculous signs he had performed to convince them of who he was:

“Although Jesus 77 had performed 78 so many miraculous signs before them, they still refused to believe in him, so that the word 79 of Isaiah the prophet would be fulfilled. He said, 80 ‘Lord, who has believed our message, and to whom has the arm of the Lord 81 been revealed?82 For this reason they could not believe, 83 because again Isaiah said, ‘He has blinded their eyes and hardened their heart, 84 so that they would not see with their eyes and understand with their heart, 85 and turn to me, 86 and I would heal them.’ 87 Isaiah said these things because HE SAW CHRIST’S 88 GLORY, AND SPOKE OF HIM. Nevertheless, even among the rulers 89 many believed in him, but because of the Pharisees 90 they would not confess Jesus to be the Christ, 91 so that they would not be put out of 92 the synagogue. 93” John 12:37-41

88 tn Grk “his”; the referent (Christ) has been specified in the translation for clarity. The referent supplied here is “Christ” rather than “Jesus” because it involves what Isaiah saw. It is clear that the author presents Isaiah as having seen the preincarnate glory of Christ, which was the very revelation of the Father (see John 1:18; John 14:9).

sn Because he saw Christ’s glory. The glory which Isaiah saw in Isa 6:3 was the glory of Yahweh (typically rendered as “Lord” in the OT). Here John speaks of the prophet seeing the glory of Christ since in the next clause and spoke about him, “him” can hardly refer to Yahweh, but must refer to Christ. On the basis of statements like 1:14 in the prologue, the author probably put no great distinction between the two. Since the author presents Jesus as fully God (cf. John 1:1), it presents no problem to him to take words originally spoken by Isaiah of Yahweh himself and apply them to Jesus. (NET Bible!bible/John+12:36; capital and underline emphasis ours)

Here the inspired Apostle cites Isaiah 6:10 where Isaiah sees Yahweh enthroned in heaven, and claims that the God whose glory the prophet beheld in that specific vision was none other than the prehuman Christ! This is brought out more clearly in the Syriac version of John’s Gospel:

Ver. 41. “This did Isaiah say, when he saw his glory and spoke of him.” John justifies in this verse the application which he has just made to Jesus Christ of the vision of Is. vi. The Adonai whom Isaiah beheld at that moment was the divine being who is incarnated in Jesus. Herein also John and Paul meet together; comp. 1 Cor. x. 4, where Paul calls the one who guided Israel from the midst of the cloud Christ. Some interpreters have tried to refer the pronoun autou, of him, not to Christ, but to God. But the last words: and spoke of him, would be useless in this sense and this remark would be aimless in the context. The Alexandrian reading, “because he saw,” instead of “when he saw him,” is adopted by Tischendorf, Weiss, Keil, etc. But it does not appear to me acceptable. Its only reasonable sense would be: “because he really saw his glory and spoke of Him so long beforehand (a thing which seems impossible).” But this reflection would be very coldly apologetic and quite useless for readers who were accustomed to hear the prophecies quoted. It is much more easy to understand how the conjunction hote, which is quite rarely used, may have been replaced by hoti, which appears in every line, than how the reverse could have taken place. The ancient Latin and Syriac versions are agreed in supporting the received text. The sense of the latter is simple and perfectly suitable. “It was of Christ, who manifested Himself to him as Adonai, that Isaiah spoke when he uttered such words.” John proves that he has the right to apply this passage here. (Frederic Louis Godet, Commentary on the Gospel of John with an Historical and Critical Introduction, translated from the third French edition with a preface introductory suggestions, and additional notes by Timothy Dwight President of Yale [Funk and Wagnals Publishers, New York 1886], Volume 2, pp. 235-236; bold emphasis ours)

To sum up our discussion:

  1. According to Genesis 3, Adam and Eve heard God’s Voice walking in the garden, showing that the Voice is not simply God’s speech but a living conscious Entity whom God sends to speak on his behalf.
  2. God’s Voice shows up again in the vision of Isaiah 6 where the prophet sees Yahweh God visibly seated on his heavenly throne.
  3. In that vision, the Voice asks whom should he send and who would go “for US,” referring to the Godhead in the plural.
  4. This indicates that there is a divine plurality within the singular Being of the God of Israel, and that a personal distinction exists between the Lord and the Lord’s Voice.
  5. God’s Voice is associated with God’s Word in Psalm 103:20, thereby indicating that the Voice is simply another or abbreviated way of referring to the Word of the Lord who often appears in the OT to the prophets and the people of God.
  6. Specific Jewish sources make this connection between the Voice and Word of God even more explicit, and clearly view God’s Word as a living, conscious Being whom God sends to communicate to his creation.
  7. The inspired NT writings teach that this very eternal Word took on flesh and blood, and became an actual historical Person whose name is Jesus Christ.
  8. Therefore, since Jesus is the eternal Word of God, and since this Word is associated with the Voice of God that appeared to the first human couple, and who commissioned the prophet Isaiah, this means that the Lord God who walked in the Garden was none other than the preincarnate Christ.

Further Reading

The “Heavenly” and “Earthly” Yahweh Part II

Let Us Make Man: A Trinitarian Interpretation

Whose Glory Did Isaiah See? The Views of Scholars and Apologists


Continuing from where I left off in the previous section, I am going to show here that the NT ascribes to Christ the very same prepositions which are used elsewhere to describe God as the sovereign Creator and Lord of the entire creation. This will reinforce the point that Christ is not some passive instrument that God used to create all things, but is in fact the eternal Creator and Sustainer of all things, who is just as much responsible as the Father and the Holy Spirit are in bringing the entire creation into being.

Here, once again, are all the texts which identify Christ as Creator, Sustainer and sovereign Lord of all creation:

“All things came into being through him (di’ autou), and without him not one thing came into being. What has come into being… He was in the world, and the world came into being through him (di’ autou); yet the world did not know him.” John 1:3, 10

“to them belong the patriarchs, and from them, according to the flesh, comes the Messiah, who is over all (epi panton), God blessed forever. Amen.” Romans 9:5

“yet for us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom (di’ ou) are all things and through whom (di’ autou) we exist.” 1 Corinthians 8:6

“for in him (en auto) all things in heaven and on earth were created, things visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or powers—all things have been created through him (di’ autou) and for him (eis auton). He himself is before all things, and in him (en auto) all things hold together.” Colossians 1:16-17

“but in these last days he has spoken to us by a Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom (di’ ou) he also created the worlds.” Hebrews 1:2

These passages emphatically state that the Lord Jesus is the One in, through, and for whom all things were made, which is why he is said to be over all things.

Now compare this with the following texts:

The God who made the world and everything in it, he who is Lord of heaven and earth, does not live in shrines made by human hands, nor is he served by human hands, as though he needed anything, since he himself gives to all mortals life and breath and all things. From one ancestor he made all nations to inhabit the whole earth, and he allotted the times of their existence and the boundaries of the places where they would live, For ‘In him (en auto) we live and move and have our being’; as even some of your own poets have said, ‘For we too are his offspring.’” Acts 17:24-28

“For from him and through him (di’ autou) and to him (eis auton) are all things. To him be the glory forever. Amen.” Romans 11:36

“one God and Father of all, who is above all (epi panton) and through (dia) all and in (en) all.”

“It was fitting that God, for whom (di’ on) and through whom (di’ ou) all things exist, in bringing many children to glory, should make the pioneer of their salvation perfect through sufferings.” Hebrews 2:10

Since the very same prepositions used to describe God’s role as the Creator, Sustainer and Sovereign Lord of all things are applied to the Lord Jesus, this refutes any attempt of depicting Christ as something other than the Creator and sovereign Lord of all creation.

That Jesus is indeed the eternal Creator God who, together with the Father and Holy Spirit, made all things, is further seen from the fact that all creation is said to exist for him,

“for in him all things in heaven and on earth were created, things visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or powers—all things have been created through him and FOR HIM.” Colossians 1:16

And that he is the Lord who gives life to all creation,

“Indeed, just as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, so also the Son gives life to whomever he wishes.” John 5:21

“You know the message he sent to the people of Israel, preaching peace by Jesus Christ—he is Lord of all.” Acts 10:36

“For to this end Christ died and lived again, so that he might be Lord of both the dead and the living.” Romans 14:9

“He himself is before all things, and IN HIM all things hold together.” Colossians 1:17

“He is the reflection of God’s glory and the exact imprint of God’s very being, and he sustains all things by his powerful word. When he had made purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high… And again, when he brings the firstborn into the world, he says, ‘Let all God’s angels worship him.’” Hebrews 1:3, 6

All of which are said of the one true God!

“And Ezra said: ‘You are the LORD, you alone; you have made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth and all that is on it, the seas and all that is in them. To all of them you give life, and the host of heaven worships you.’” Nehemiah 9:6

“Thus says God, the Lord, who created the heavens and stretched them out, who spread out the earth and what comes from it, who gives breath to the people upon it and spirit to those who walk in it:” Isaiah 42:5

“I will say to the north, ‘Give them up,’ and to the south, ‘Do not withhold; bring my sons from far away and my daughters from the end of the earth—everyone who is called by my name, whom I created FOR MY GLORY, whom I formed and made… The wild animals will honor me, the jackals and the ostriches; for I give water in the wilderness, rivers in the desert, to give drink to my chosen people, the people whom I formed FOR MYSELF so that they might declare my praise.’” Isaiah 43:6-7, 20-21

“The God who made the world and everything in it, he who is Lord of heaven and earth, does not live in shrines made by human hands, nor is he served by human hands, as though he needed anything, since he himself gives to all mortals life and breath and all things.” Acts 17:24-25

“In the presence of God, who gives life to all things, and of Christ Jesus, who in his testimony before Pontius Pilate made the good confession, I charge you.” 1 Timothy 6:13

The Holy Bible further teaches that God created all things by himself, and had no help from anyone:

“he who removes mountains, and they do not know it, when he overturns them in his anger; who shakes the earth out of its place, and its pillars tremble; who commands the sun, and it does not rise; who seals up the stars; who ALONE stretched out the heavens and trampled the waves of the Sea; who made the Bear and Orion, the Pleiades and the chambers of the south; who does great things beyond understanding, and marvelous things without number.” Job 9:5-10

“Who has directed the spirit of the LORD, or as his counselor has instructed him? Whom did he consult for his enlightenment, and who taught him the path of justice? Who taught him knowledge, and showed him the way of understanding?… Lift up your eyes on high and see: Who created these? He who brings out their host and numbers them, calling them all by name; because he is great in strength, mighty in power, not one is missing… Have you not known? Have you not heard? The LORD is the everlasting God, the Creator of the ends of the earth. He does not faint or grow weary; his understanding is unsearchable.” Isaiah 40:13-14, 26, 28

“Thus says the LORD, your Redeemer, who formed you in the womb: I am the LORD, who made all things, who ALONE stretched out the heavens, who BY MYSELF spread out the earth;” Isaiah 44:24

Now since Jesus is said to have created all things he must be God Almighty, otherwise we have a plain contradiction between the Old and New Testaments!

Note the logic behind this argument:

  1. Yahweh alone created all things for himself, for his own glory.
  2. The Lord Jesus created all things for himself.
  3. Jesus is, therefore, Yahweh God Almighty (even though he is not the Father or the Holy Spirit).

Seeing that both premises are biblically sound, the conclusion is therefore inescapable. There’s simply no way of getting around the fact of Jesus Christ being the one true eternal Creator God!

With the foregoing in perspective, could the God-breathed revelation be any clearer, or more explicit, in identifying the Lord Jesus Christ as the Sovereign Creator and Sustainer of all things?

All scriptural references taken from the New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) of the Holy Bible.