The Biblical Basis for the Trinity Pt. 2

We continue from where we left off

B. The one true God Jehovah exists as three eternally distinct Persons, namely, the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit.

1. Biblical evidence that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are distinct Persons.

That the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are different Persons can be readily seen from the operations and roles which they assume, especially in regards to the work of redemption.

For instance, God causes Mary to conceive and give birth to his Son by the power of his Holy Spirit:

“Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost. Then Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not willing to make her a publick example, was minded to put her away privily. But while he thought on these things, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost.” Matthew 1:18-20

“And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth, to a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin’s name was Mary. And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women. And when she saw him, she was troubled at his saying, and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be. And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favour with God. And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David: and he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end. Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man? And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.” Luke 1:26-35

And at Jesus’ baptism, the Holy Spirit descended upon him in bodily form that resembled a dove, as God then spoke from heaven in order to bear witness concerning his beloved Son:

“And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon HIM: and lo a voice from heaven, saying, THIS is MY beloved Son, in WHOM I am well pleased.” Matthew 3:16-17

“And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon HIM. And I knew him not: but HE that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon WHOM thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on HIM, the SAME is he which baptizeth WITH THE HOLY GHOST. And I saw, and bare record that this is the Son of God.” John 1:32-34

This isn’t the only time that God testified concerning his Son:

“While he yet spake, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them: and behold a voice out of the cloud, which said, This is MY beloved Son, in WHOM I am well pleased; hear ye HIM.” Matthew 17:5

Moreover, because they are personally distinct, the Father, Son and Holy Spirit love one another and speak to one another, just as we find in the following examples:

Father, glorify thy name. Then came there a voice from heaven, saying, I have both glorified it, and will glorify it again. The people therefore, that stood by, and heard it, said that it thundered: others said, An angel spake to him. Jesus answered and said, This voice came not because of me, but for your sakes.” John 12:28-30

“But that the world may know that I love the Father; and as the Father gave me commandment, even so I do. Arise, let us go hence.” John 14:31

As the Father hath loved me, so have I loved you: continue ye in my love. If ye keep my commandments, ye shall abide in my love; even as I have kept my Father’s commandments, and abide in his love.” John 15:9-10

“And now, O Father, glorify THOU ME with THINE OWN SELF with the glory which I had with THEE before the world was… Father, I will that they also, whom thou hast given me, be with me where I am; that they may behold my glory, which thou hast given me: for thou lovedst me before the foundation of the world.” John 17:5, 24

And being personally distinct further explains why one Person can send the Other(s), and why they can speak of glorifying and/or doing the will of the Other(s):

“And he went a little further, and fell on his face, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt… He went away again the second time, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if this cup may not pass away from me, except I drink it, thy will be done. And he came and found them asleep again: for their eyes were heavy. And he left them, and went away again, and prayed the third time, saying the same words.” Matthew 26:39, 42-44

“For I came down from heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will OF HIM that SENT ME.” John 6:38

“Therefore, when he was gone out, Jesus said, Now is the Son of man glorified, and God is glorified in him. If God be glorified in him, God shall also glorify him in himself, and shall straightway glorify him.” John 13:31-32

“These words spake Jesus, and lifted up his eyes to heaven, and said, Father, the hour is come; glorify thy Son, that thy Son also may glorify thee: as thou hast given him power over all flesh, that he should give eternal life to as many as thou hast given him.” John 17:1-2

“And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever; even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.” John 14:16-17, 26

“But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me: and ye also shall bear witness, because ye have been with me from the beginning.” John 15:26-27

I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come. He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you. All things that the Father hath are mine: therefore said I, that he shall take of mine, and shall shew it unto you.” John 16:12-15

“but when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons. And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.” Galatians 4:4-7

This explains why the Lord could say that the witness given by both himself and his Father fulfills the Law’s requirement for the testimony of two distinct men or individuals in order for a matter to be settled or established:

“It is also written in your law, that the testimony of two men is true. I am one that bear witness of myself, and the Father that sent me beareth witness of me.” John 8:17-18

Since the Father and the Son are two distinct Persons, their joint testimony satisfies the Law’s demand for two independent witnesses.

2. Even though they are personally distinct from one another, these three Divine Persons are said to be one.

The Holy Bible teaches the Father, Son and Holy Spirit bear the same divine name, obviously because they are not three gods but three divine Persons who eternally and simultaneously exist as one God:

“Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the NAME of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:” Matthew 28:19

“My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me: and I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand. My Father, which gave them me, is greater than all; and no man is able to pluck them out of my Father’s hand. I and my Father are one.” John 10:27-30

“For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one.” 1 John 5:7

3. Biblical evidence that all three are identified as the one true God Jehovah.

For the sake of trying to keep these articles as short as possible, I will only list the biblical passages without quoting them.

A. All Three are called Lord (meaning Jehovah) and God.

  1. The Father: John 17:3; 1 Corinthians 8:6; 2 Corinthians 1:3; Ephesians 4:6; 1 Thessalonians 1:9-10; Jude 1:25; Revelation 1:4; 21:6-7.
  2. The Son: Isaiah 9:6-7; Jeremiah 23:5-6; Matthew 1:22-23; Luke 3:3-6, 15-17; John 1:1, 14-15, 23; 20:28; Acts 20:28; Romans 9:5; 10:9-13; 1 Corinthians 8:6; Ephesians 4:5, 7-10; Hebrews 1:8-10; 1 John 1:2; 5:20; Revelation 1:7-8, 17-18; 2:8; 22:12-13, 16, 20.
  3. The Holy Spirit: 2 Samuel 23:2-3; 2 Corinthians 3:17-18; Hebrews 9:14.

B. All Three are identified as the one Creator and Sustainer of all things.

  1. The Father: Matthew 10:29-31; 19:4-6; John 5:21, 26; 10:29; Acts 17:24-28; Ephesians 3:9; 1 Timothy 6:13; Hebrews 3:4; Revelation 4:11.
  2. The Son: John 1:3-4, 10; 5:21, 25-29; 20:27-28; 11:25-27; 14:6; Ephesians 3:9; Colossians 1:16-17; Hebrews 1:2-3, 10-12.
  3. The Holy Spirit: Genesis 1:1-2; Job 26:13; 33:4; Psalm 33:6; 104:30; Isaiah 32:14-15; Ezekiel 37:12-14; John 6:63; 7:38-39; 2 Corinthians 3:6.

C. All Three are said to be Omniscient, Omnipresent and Omnipotent.

  1. The Father: Matthew 6:6, 8, 18; 19:26; Mark 14:36; John 14:23; Acts 15:8, 18; Romans 8:27; 11:33-36; 1 John 3:20; Revelation 4:8.
  2. The Son: Matthew 16:27; 28:18; Mark 2:8; John 6:37-40, 44; 10:28; 14:20-23; 16:29-31; 21:17; Romans 8:10, 35-39; 2 Corinthians 13:5; Ephesians 1:23; 3:8, 17-19; 4:10; Philippians 3:20-21; Colossians 1:17, 27; Revelation 1:9-13, 17-20; 2:1, 18-19, 23; 3:1; 5:6; 22:12-13, 16, 20-21.
  3. The Holy Spirit: Numbers 11:16-17, 24-29; Psalm 139:7; Isaiah 63:10-11, 14; Ezekiel 36:27; 39:29; Matthew 10:19-20; Mark 13:11; John 7:38-39; 14:16-17, 26; 16:7-15; Acts 1:5, 8; 2:1-4, 17, 19, 33; Romans 8:9, 11-16, 26-27; 15:18-19; 1 Corinthians 2:10-12; 3:16; 6:19; 12:3, 7-13; 2 Corinthians 1:22; 5:5; Galatians 4:6; Ephesians 1:13-14, 17-18; 3:16; 4:3, 30; 1 Timothy 4:1; 2 Timothy 1:14.

D. All Three are described as Objects of prayers, invocations and/or worship.

  1. The Father: Matthew 4:10; 6:9-13; John 4:21-24; 15:16; 16:23; Acts 24:14; Romans 1:25; 1 Corinthians 14:25; Ephesians 3:14; Philippians 3:3; 4:6; Revelation 4:8-11; 5:13-14; 7:11; 11:1, 16; 14:6-7.
  2. The Son: Matthew 2:2, 11; 8:2; 9:18; 14:33; 15:25; 20:20; 21:15-16; 28:9, 17; Mark 5:6; Luke 24:52; John 9:38; 14:13-14; Acts 1:24; 7:59-60; 9:14, 21; 22:16-21; 1 Corinthians 1:2-3; 16:22-23; 2 Corinthians 12:7-10; 1 Timothy 1:12-16; 2 Timothy 4:18; 2 Peter 3:18; 1 John 1:3; 2 John 1:3; Hebrews 1:6; Revelation 1:5-6; 5:8-14; 20:6; 22:3, 20-21.
  3. The Holy Spirit: 2 Corinthians 13:14; Revelation 1:4-5.

It should be noted that the reason why we do not find much in respect to praying to and/or worshiping the Holy Spirit is because of the NT teaching that the Spirit is sent to indwell believers in order to instruct and empower them to serve God and to bring him glory. Thus, the work of the Holy Spirit is to teach us how to pray in a manner pleasing to God since the Spirit perfectly knows the mind of God as he is perfectly known by God. The Holy Spirit therefore knows how to guide Christians to pray in accord with God’s perfect will:

“Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our infirmities: for we know not what we should pray for as we ought: but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered. And he that searcheth the hearts knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit, because he maketh intercession for the saints according to the will of God.” Romans 8:26-27

“But as it is written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him. But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God. Which things also we speak, not in the words which man’s wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with spiritual. But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. But he that is spiritual judgeth all things, yet he himself is judged of no man. For who hath known the mind of the Lord, that he may instruct him? But we have the mind of Christ.” 1 Corinthians 2:9-16

“But ye, beloved, building up yourselves on your most holy faith, praying in the Holy Ghost, keep yourselves in the love of God, looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life.” Jude 1:20-21



The Biblical Basis for the Trinity Pt. 1

1. Brief Definition of the Trinity

The Holy Bible proclaims that there is only one eternal, uncreated, infinite, all knowing (omniscient), all present (omnipresent), almighty (omnipotent), all loving (omni-benevolent) God whose name is Jehovah. The inspired Scriptures identify Jehovah as the sole Creator and Sustainer of all things, and describe him as being perfectly holy, pure, righteous, among many other characteristics.

God’s Word further testifies that there are three eternally distinct Persons who exist as this one God, namely the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. They are not Persons in the sense of being finite creatures composed of bodies which limit them to time, space and place. Rather, they are Persons in the sense that all three of them possess a mind, will, intellect, emotions, can speak and be spoken to etc. This is why the Christian doctrine of the Trinity teaches that God is three eternal Persons in one infinite, eternal Being.

To put this in another way, Christians affirm on the basis of the inspired testimony of the Holy Bible that there is only one infinite Being of God, which is shared by three coequal, coeternal divine Persons. Christian theology distinguishes between the terms “Being” and “Person,” since Being refers to what something or someone is or happens to be, whereas “Person” refers to a particular “who,” or to one’s personal identity.

2. Biblical Verses Proving the Trinity.

The Holy Bible teaches that there is only one eternal, uncreated, infinite, all knowing, all present, almighty, all holy, all pure, all righteous, all loving God whose name is Yahweh/Yahveh/Jehovah. Jehovah alone is the Creator and Sustainer of all things.

“And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the Lord appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I am the Almighty God; walk before me, and be thou perfect.” Genesis 17:1

“And God spake unto Moses, and said unto him, I am the Lord: and I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them.” Exodus 6:2-3

He is the Rock, his work is perfect: for all his ways are judgment: a God of truth and without iniquity, just and right is he.” Deuteronomy 32:4

“then hear thou in heaven thy dwelling place, and forgive, and do, and give to every man according to his ways, whose heart thou knowest; (for thou, even thou only, knowest the hearts of all the children of men;)” 1 Kings 8:39

“Then the Levites, Jeshua, and Kadmiel, Bani, Hashabniah, Sherebiah, Hodijah, Shebaniah, and Pethahiah, said, Stand up and bless the Lord your God for ever and ever: and blessed be thy glorious name, which is exalted above all blessing and praise. Thou, even thou, art Lord alone; thou hast made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth, and all things that are therein, the seas, and all that is therein, and thou preservest them all; and the host of heaven worshippeth thee.” Nehemiah 9:5-6

“that men may know that thou, whose name alone is JEHOVAH, art the most high over all the earth.” Psalm 83:18

“Lord, thou hast been our dwelling place in all generations. Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, thou art God.” Psalm 90:1-2

“to shew that the Lord is upright: he is my rock, and there is no unrighteousness in him.” Psalm 92:15

The Lord is merciful and gracious, slow to anger, and plenteous in mercy. He will not always chide: neither will he keep his anger for ever. He hath not dealt with us after our sins; nor rewarded us according to our iniquities. For as the heaven is high above the earth, so great is his mercy toward them that fear him. As far as the east is from the west, so far hath he removed our transgressions from us. Like as a father pitieth his children, so the Lord pitieth them that fear him. For he knoweth our frame; he remembereth that we are dust.” Psalm 103:8-14

“The Lord is gracious, and full of compassion; slow to anger, and of great mercy. The Lord is good to all: and his tender mercies are over all his works.” Psalm 145:8-9

“O Lord, thou hast searched me, and known me. Thou knowest my downsitting and mine uprising, thou understandest my thought afar off. Thou compassest my path and my lying down, and art acquainted with all my ways. For there is not a word in my tongue, but, lo, O Lord, thou knowest it altogether. Thou hast beset me behind and before, and laid thine hand upon me. Such knowledge is too wonderful for me; it is high, I cannot attain unto it. Whither shall I go from thy spirit? or whither shall I flee from thy presence? If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there: if I make my bed in hell, behold, thou art there. If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea; even there shall thy hand lead me, and thy right hand shall hold me. If I say, Surely the darkness shall cover me; even the night shall be light about me. Yea, the darkness hideth not from thee; but the night shineth as the day: the darkness and the light are both alike to thee.” Psalm 139:1-12

“He telleth the number of the stars; he calleth them all by their names. Great is our Lord, and of great power: his understanding is infinite.” Psalm 147:4-5

“And Hezekiah received the letter from the hand of the messengers, and read it: and Hezekiah went up unto the house of the Lord, and spread it before the Lord. And Hezekiah prayed unto the Lord, saying, O Lord of hosts, God of Israel, that dwellest between the cherubims, thou art the God, even thou alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth: thou hast made heaven and earth. Incline thine ear, O Lord, and hear; open thine eyes, O Lord, and see: and hear all the words of Sennacherib, which hath sent to reproach the living God. Of a truth, Lord, the kings of Assyria have laid waste all the nations, and their countries, and have cast their gods into the fire: for they were no gods, but the work of men’s hands, wood and stone: therefore they have destroyed them. Now therefore, O Lord our God, save us from his hand, that all the kingdoms of the earth may know that thou art the Lord, even thou only.” Isaiah 37:14-20

Who hath directed the Spirit of the Lord, or being his counsellor hath taught him? With whom took he counsel, and who instructed him, and taught him in the path of judgment, and taught him knowledge, and shewed to him the way of understanding? It is he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in… To whom then will ye liken me, or shall I be equal? saith the Holy One. Lift up your eyes on high, and behold who hath created these things, that bringeth out their host by number: he calleth them all by names by the greatness of his might, for that he is strong in power; not one faileth. Why sayest thou, O Jacob, and speakest, O Israel, My way is hid from the Lord, and my judgment is passed over from my God? Hast thou not known? hast thou not heard, that the everlasting God, the Lord, the Creator of the ends of the earth, fainteth not, neither is weary? there is no searching of his understanding.” Isaiah 40:13-14, 25-28

“Thus saith God the Lord, he that created the heavens, and stretched them out; he that spread forth the earth, and that which cometh out of it; he that giveth breath unto the people upon it, and spirit to them that walk therein.” Isaiah 42:5

“Ye are my witnesses, saith the Lord, and my servant whom I have chosen: that ye may know and believe me, and understand that I am he: before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me. I, even I, am the Lord; and beside me there is no saviour. I have declared, and have saved, and I have shewed, when there was no strange god among you: therefore ye are my witnesses, saith the Lord, that I am God.  Yea, before the day was I am he; and there is none that can deliver out of my hand: I will work, and who shall let it?” Isaiah 43:10-13

“Thus saith the Lord, thy redeemer, and he that formed thee from the womb, I am the Lord that maketh all things; that stretcheth forth the heavens ALONE; that spreadeth abroad the earth BY MYSELF; that frustrateth the tokens of the liars, and maketh diviners mad; that turneth wise men backward, and maketh their knowledge foolish: that confirmeth the word of his servant, and performeth the counsel of his messengers; that saith to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be inhabited; and to the cities of Judah, Ye shall be built, and I will raise up the decayed places thereof:” Isaiah 44:24-26

“I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded… For thus saith the Lord that created the heavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it; he hath established it, he created it not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited: I am the Lord; and there is none else. I have not spoken in secret, in a dark place of the earth: I said not unto the seed of Jacob, Seek ye me in vain: I the Lord speak righteousness, I declare things that are right. Assemble yourselves and come; draw near together, ye that are escaped of the nations: they have no knowledge that set up the wood of their graven image, and pray unto a god that cannot save. Tell ye, and bring them near; yea, let them take counsel together: who hath declared this from ancient time? who hath told it from that time? have not I the Lord? and there is no God else beside me; a just God and a Saviour; there is none beside me. Look unto me, and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth: for I am God, and there is none else.” Isaiah 45:12, 18-22

“Remember the former things of old: for I am God, and there is none else; I am God, and there is none like me, declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not yet done, saying, My counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure: calling a ravenous bird from the east, the man that executeth my counsel from a far country: yea, I have spoken it, I will also bring it to pass; I have purposed it, I will also do it.” Isaiah 46:9-11

“Forasmuch as there is none like unto thee, O Lord; thou art great, and thy name is great in might. Who would not fear thee, O King of nations? for to thee doth it appertain: forasmuch as among all the wise men of the nations, and in all their kingdoms, there is none like unto thee… But the Lord is the true God, he is the living God, and an everlasting king: at his wrath the earth shall tremble, and the nations shall not be able to abide his indignation. Thus shall ye say unto them, The gods that have not made the heavens and the earth, even they shall perish from the earth, and from under these heavens. He hath made the earth by his power, he hath established the world by his wisdom, and hath stretched out the heavens by his discretion.” Jeremiah 10:6-7, 10-12

Thou art of purer eyes than to behold evil, and canst not look on iniquity: wherefore lookest thou upon them that deal treacherously, and holdest thy tongue when the wicked devoureth the man that is more righteous than he?” Habakkuk 1:13

“What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? God forbid.” Romans 9:14

“Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, be honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen.” 1 Timothy 1:17

“This then is the message which we have heard of him, and declare unto you, that God is light, and in him is no darkness at all.” 1 John 1:5

“He that loveth not knoweth not God; for God is love… And we have known and believed the love that God hath to us. God is love; and he that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God, and God in him.” 1 John 4:8, 16

With the foregoing in view we are now ready to proceed to the second part of our discussion

Biblical Witness to the Deity of the Holy Spirit

The following article focuses on establishing the Deity of the Holy Spirit from the King James Version of the Holy Bible (KJV), also known as the Authorized Version (AV). I pray that this will bless Christians in their efforts to evangelize the lost, as they try to convince people to believe in Jesus Christ as their risen Lord and divine Savior.


The Holy Bible identifies the Holy Spirit as Jehovah God, while also referring to him as the Spirit of Jehovah.

For instance, the prophet David plainly wrote that the Spirit of Jehovah is none other than the God and Rock of Israel who spoke to and through him:

“Now these be the last words of David. David the son of Jesse said, and the man who was raised up on high, the anointed of the God of Jacob, and the sweet psalmist of Israel, said, THE SPIRIT OF THE LORD SPAKE BY ME, and HIS WORD was in my tongue. THE GOD OF ISRAEL SAID, THE ROCK OF ISRAEL SPAKE TO ME, He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God.” 2 Samuel 23:1-3

Hence, when the Spirit speaks, God speaks, since the Holy Spirit is God!

And the very fact that David says that the Spirit speaks shows that he is a Divine Person, and not simply Jehovah’s impersonal force. More on this point a little later.

The Apostle Paul is another inspired author who testifies that the Spirit is Lord, i.e. Jehovah:

“Now the Lord is that Spirit: and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty. But we all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord.” 2 Corinthians 3:17-18

Here we have Paul referring to the Spirit as the Lord while also identifying him as the Spirit of the Lord!

The NT even goes as far as to take OT passages where Jehovah is speaking and apply them to the Holy Spirit!

For instance, the prophet Isaiah saw Jehovah in a vision where he received his commission to become Jehovah’s spokesperson to the people of Israel:

“In the year that king Uzziah died I saw also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple. Above it stood the seraphims: each one had six wings; with twain he covered his face, and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly. And one cried unto another, and said, Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of hosts: the whole earth is full of his glory. And the posts of the door moved at the voice of him that cried, and the house was filled with smoke. Then said I, Woe is me! for I am undone; because I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips: for mine eyes have seen the King, the Lord of hosts. Then flew one of the seraphims unto me, having a live coal in his hand, which he had taken with the tongs from off the altar: And he laid it upon my mouth, and said, Lo, this hath touched thy lips; and thine iniquity is taken away, and thy sin purged. Also I heard THE VOICE OF THE LORD, SAYING, Whom shall I SEND, and who will go for US? Then said I, Here am I; send me. AND HE SAID, Go, and tell this people, Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and convert, and be healed.” Isaiah 6:1-10

Remarkably, Paul cites Isaiah 6:9-10 as an example of the Holy Spirit speaking to the nation of Israel:

“And when they agreed not among themselves, they departed, after that Paul had spoken one word, Well SPAKE THE HOLY GHOST by Esaias the prophet unto our fathers, SAYING, Go unto this people, and say, Hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and not perceive: For the heart of this people is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes have they closed; lest they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.” Acts 28:25-27

This means that the God who appeared and spoke to Isaiah was actually the Holy Spirit!

Acts isn’t the only book to do this, since the inspired writer of Hebrews does the very same thing when he cites the following Psalm:

“… To day if ye will hear HIS voice, Harden not your heart, as in the provocation, and as in the day of temptation in the wilderness: When your fathers tempted ME, proved ME, and saw MY work. Forty years long was I grieved with this generation, AND SAID, It is a people that do err in their heart, and they have not known MY ways: Unto whom I sware in MY wrath that they should not enter into MY rest.” Psalm 95:7-11

And attributes it to the Holy Spirit:

“Wherefore (AS THE HOLY GHOST SAITH, To day if ye will hear HIS voice, Harden not your hearts, as in the provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness: When your fathers tempted ME, proved ME, and saw MY works forty years. Wherefore I was grieved with that generation, AND SAID, They do alway err in their heart; and they have not known MY ways. So I sware in MY wrath, They shall not enter into MY rest.)” Hebrews 3:7-11

The author also quotes Jeremiah 31:33-34 where Jehovah promises Israel that he will forgive their sins and be their God:

“But this shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, SAITH THE LORD, I will put MY law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be MY people. And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the Lord: for they shall all know ME, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, SAITH THE LORD: for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more.” Jeremiah 31:33-34

And, once again, applies it to the Holy Spirit!

“Whereof the Holy Ghost also is a witness to us: for after that HE HAD SAID BEFORE, This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, SAITH THE LORD, I will put MY laws into their hearts, and in their minds will I write them; And their sins and iniquities will I remember no more.” Hebrews 10:15-17

These Biblical references prove that, as far as the inspired Biblical witness is concerned, the Holy Spirit is actually Jehovah God who spoke to and through the OT prophets.

This brings me to the next section.


The Scriptures are just as clear that the Holy Spirit is a Person, meaning an entity who has a mind, a will, has emotions, can speak and be spoken to etc. However, he is not a Person in the sense of being a finite creature composed of a body of some kind, which limits him to time, space, or matter. He is a Divine Person in the same sense that the Father and the Son are, and therefore is an incorporeal, infinite Being.

The Holy Bible says that the Spirit has a mind and knows what God’s will is:

“Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our infirmities: for we know not what we should pray for as we ought: but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered. And he that searcheth the hearts knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit, because he maketh intercession for the saints according to the will of God.” Romans 8:26-27

The very fact that this passage says that God knows the mind of the Spirit, and that the Spirit knows how to intercede on behalf of believers in accord with God’s will, affirms that they are two distinct Persons who know each other intimately. It also demonstrates that the Holy Spirit is omniscient and omnipresent, since the only way for him to be able to intercede for all true believers is if he is actually present with every single one of them.

The following reference even speaks of the Spirit having a will:

“But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal. For to one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom; to another the word of knowledge by the same Spirit; To another faith by the same Spirit; to another the gifts of healing by the same Spirit; To another the working of miracles; to another prophecy; to another discerning of spirits; to another divers kinds of tongues; to another the interpretation of tongues: But all these worketh THAT ONE AND THE SELFSAME SPIRIT, dividing to every man severally AS HE WILL. For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body: so also is Christ. For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit.” 1 Corinthians 12:7-13

Paul clearly teaches here that it is the Holy Spirit who personally decides which particular gift to give to each member of the spiritual body of Christ. This, once again, confirms that the Spirit is not only a Divine Person, since impersonal forces do not possess a will or volition, but that he is also omnipresent and omnipotent. After all, the Spirit must be present with every single believer in order to grant to each one a specific gift, and then empower every one of them to successfully employ it for the purpose of building up the Church of Christ.

The Scriptures further say that the Holy Spirit possesses emotions:

But they rebelled, and vexed (maru wa’issabu) his holy Spirit: therefore he was turned to be their enemy, and he fought against them.” Isaiah 63:10

Isaiah says that the Israelites did what the Apostle Paul warned Christians not to do, namely, grieve or vex the Holy Spirit:

And grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption.” Ephesians 4:30

In fact, the people of Israel did to the Holy Spirit the very exact thing that the Psalter says they did to Jehovah:

“How oft did they provoke (yamruhu) him in the wilderness, and grieve (ya’asibuhu) him in the desert! … Yet they tempted and provoked (wayyamru) the most high God, and kept not his testimonies:” Psalm 78:40, 56

The very fact that the OT says that God’s people grieved and rebelled against both Jehovah and his Holy Spirit affirms that, much like Jehovah, the Spirit is a personal Being who possesses divine emotions.

And, as we mentioned earlier, the Holy Spirit even speaks and can be spoken to.

For instance, he spoke to the prophet Ezekiel, instructing and empowering him to carry out his prophetic role:

“Then the spirit entered into me, and set me upon my feet, and spake with me, and said unto me, Go, shut thyself within thine house.” Ezekiel 3:24


And the Spirit of the Lord fell upon me, and said unto me, Speak; Thus saith the Lord; Thus have ye said, O house of Israel: for I know the things that come into your mind, every one of them.” Ezekiel 11:5

The Spirit also spoke through the Apostles, giving them utterance on what to say, and how to say it:

“But when they deliver you up, take no thought how or what ye shall speak: for it shall be given you in that same hour what ye shall speak. For it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father which speaketh in you.” Matthew 10:19-20

Again, the Spirit must possess all of God’s omni-attributes in order to be able to do this, i.e., the Spirit needed to be with all the Apostles at the same time, no matter where they went, so that he could empower every one of them to successfully carry out God’s will. We will have more to say concerning the Spirit’s divine attributes a little later.

The Spirit was also responsible for assigning the Apostles to their respective missions, and for bringing people to them for the purpose of hearing the message of salvation:

“While Peter thought on the vision, the Spirit said unto him, Behold, three men seek thee. Arise therefore, and get thee down, and go with them, doubting nothing: FOR I HAVE SENT THEM.” Acts 10:19-20


“Now there were in the church that was at Antioch certain prophets and teachers; as Barnabas, and Simeon that was called Niger, and Lucius of Cyrene, and Manaen, which had been brought up with Herod the tetrarch, and Saul. As they ministered to the Lord, and fasted, the Holy Ghost SAID, Separate ME Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them. And when they had fasted and prayed, and laid their hands on them, they sent them away.  So they, being sent forth by the Holy Ghost, departed unto Seleucia; and from thence they sailed to Cyprus.” Acts 13:1-4

The preceding examples conclusively establish that the Holy Spirit is not merely God’s power or force, but a Divine Person who, much like the Father and the Son, possesses an infinite mind, will, intellect, emotions etc.


The divine Scriptures identify the Holy Spirit as the Creator who gives life to all things, since the inspired writings proclaim that the Father employed his Spirit in creating and animating the entire cosmos:

By his spirit he hath garnished the heavens; his hand hath formed the crooked serpent.” Job 26:13

The spirit of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me life.” Job 33:40 – cf. Genesis 1:1-2, 26-27; 2:4-7

It is even explicitly said of the Spirit that he is the One who gives life:

It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life.” John 6:63

“Who also hath made us able ministers of the new testament; not of the letter, but of the spirit: for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life.” 2 Corinthians 3:6

God also uses the Spirit to replenish and regenerate creation:

“Thou hidest thy face, they are troubled: thou takest away their breath, they die, and return to their dust. Thou sendest forth thy spirit, they are created: and thou renewest the face of the earth.” Psalm 104:29-30

“Because the palaces shall be forsaken; the multitude of the city shall be left; the forts and towers shall be for dens for ever, a joy of wild asses, a pasture of flocks; Until the spirit be poured upon us from on high, and the wilderness be a fruitful field, and the fruitful field be counted for a forest.” Isaiah 32:14-15

“Therefore prophesy and say unto them, Thus saith the Lord God; Behold, O my people, I will open your graves, and cause you to come up out of your graves, and bring you into the land of Israel. And ye shall know that I am the Lord, when I have opened your graves, O my people, and brought you up out of your graves, And shall put my spirit in you, and ye shall live, and I shall place you in your own land: then shall ye know that I the Lord have spoken it, and performed it, saith the Lord.” Ezekiel 37:12-14

“For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another. But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared, Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost; Which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour; That being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life.” Titus 3:3-7

The above texts again depict the Spirit as being all-powerful and omnipresent, since this is the only way for the Holy Spirit to be able to rejuvenate all of God’s people, as well as the entire earth.

As such, this simply provides further proof that the Holy Spirit is Jehovah God (even though he is not the Father or the Son) since the Scriptures are quite emphatic that Jehovah alone created and gives life to all things:

“Thus saith God the Lord, he that created the heavens, and stretched them out; he that spread forth the earth, and that which cometh out of it; he that giveth breath unto the people upon it, and spirit to them that walk therein:” Isaiah 42:5

“Thus saith the Lord, thy redeemer, and he that formed thee from the womb, I am the Lord that maketh all things; that stretcheth forth the heavens ALONE; that spreadeth abroad the earth BY MYSELF;” Isaiah 44:24

“God that made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made with hands; Neither is worshipped with men’s hands, as though he needed any thing, seeing he giveth to all life, and breath, and all things; And hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation;” Acts 17:24-26

“I give thee charge in the sight of God, who quickeneth all things, and before Christ Jesus, who before Pontius Pilate witnessed a good confession;” 1 Timothy 6:13

In light of the foregoing, the only way that the Bible writers could even identify the Spirit as the omnipotent and omnipresent Creator and life-Giver is if they actually thought and believed that the Holy Spirit is also Jehovah God.


All throughout this article we have pointed out the fact that the Holy Bible ascribes to the Holy Spirit all of the essential attributes of Deity, as well as depicting him as carrying out specific works that the holy Scriptures proclaim are performed by God alone. Here we are going to provide some more verses in order to further solidify this point.

The Holy Spirit is presented as being all knowing, and therefore needing no one to counsel or guide him:

Who hath directed the Spirit of the Lord, or being his counsellor hath taught him? With whom took he counsel, and who instructed him, and taught him in the path of judgment, and taught him knowledge, and shewed to him the way of understanding?” Isaiah 40:13-14

The Spirit’s omniscience can be further seen from the following citation:

“But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God.” 1 Corinthians 2:10-12

The Spirit knows the deep things of God, something which Paul says is beyond the ability of any creature to comprehend:

“O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out! For who hath known the mind of the Lord? or who hath been his counsellor?” Romans 11:33-34

The Spirit must clearly be omniscient in order to know the depths of the very thoughts and mind of God. This explains why God has given believers his Holy Spirit, since whom better to make God known to man than the Spirit of God who perfectly knows and comprehends God?

The Spirit is also omnipresent and omnipotent:

Whither shall I go from thy spirit? or whither shall I flee from thy presence? If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there: if I make my bed in hell, behold, thou art there. If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea; Even there shall thy hand lead me, and thy right hand shall hold me. If I say, Surely the darkness shall cover me; even the night shall be light about me. Yea, the darkness hideth not from thee; but the night shineth as the day: the darkness and the light are both alike to thee.” Psalm 139:7-12

There is no escaping from the Holy Spirit seeing that he is present everywhere, i.e., there isn’t a place a person can go to where the Spirit isn’t already there since the entire creation is always present before him. And:

“For I will take you from among the heathen, and gather you out of all countries, and will bring you into your own land. Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean: from all your filthiness, and from all your idols, will I cleanse you. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you: and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of flesh. And I will put my spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my judgments, and do them. And ye shall dwell in the land that I gave to your fathers; and ye shall be my people, and I will be your God.” Ezekiel 36:24-28


“Neither will I hide my face any more from them: for I have poured out my spirit upon the house of Israel, saith the Lord God.” Ezekiel 39:29

God will place his Spirit within his people in order to empower them to perfectly obey his commands and to never turn away from him again. The only way that the Spirit could do this is if he is omnipresent and omnipotent.

Here are a couple more examples:

“And when the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place. And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them. And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.” Acts 2:1-4


“But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his. And if Christ be in you, the body is dead because of sin; but the Spirit is life because of righteousness. But if the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, he that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies by his Spirit that dwelleth in you. Therefore, brethren, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh. For if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die: but if ye through the Spirit do mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God. For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father. The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God:” Romans 8:9-16

Once again, the only way that the Holy Spirit can indwell all believers simultaneously, enable them to perfectly speak various languages, give them life both spiritually and physically, as well as lead them to conform to God’s holy standards is if he is omnipotent, omniscient, and omnipresent. Yet the Holy Spirit must be Jehovah God in order for him to possess these divine qualities.

Therefore, with the foregoing in perspective, we must conclude that the explicit testimony of the inspired Scriptures is that the Holy Spirit is Jehovah God, even though he is not the Father or the Son.

There is a lot more evidence which we could have presented but, for the sake of brevity, this will have to suffice for now.













Honoring the Lord Jesus as God Pt. 3

We proceed from where we left off

Priestly Service 

The Holy Bible teaches that God has priests who serve him:

“But ye shall be named the Priests of the Lord: men shall call you the Ministers of our God: ye shall eat the riches of the Gentiles, and in their glory shall ye boast yourselves.” Isaiah 61:6

“Exalt ye the Lord our God, and worship at his footstool; for he is holy. Moses and Aaron among his priests, and Samuel among them that call upon his name; they called upon the Lord, and he answered them. He spake unto them in the cloudy pillar: they kept his testimonies, and the ordinance that he gave them.” Psalm 99:5-7

The sacred Scriptures further attest that all true believers are to be servants of the true God who look to him as their sovereign Lord and Master:

“Unto thee lift I up mine eyes, O thou that dwellest in the heavens. Behold, as the eyes of servants look unto the hand of their masters, and as the eyes of a maiden unto the hand of her mistress; so our eyes wait upon the Lord our God, until that he have mercy upon us.” Psalm 123:1-3

This explains why prophets like Moses were given the label “servant of God/Jehovah”:

“Remember the word which Moses the servant of the Lord commanded you, saying, The Lord your God hath given you rest, and hath given you this land.” Joshua 1:13

“And when he came to the den, he cried with a lamentable voice unto Daniel: and the king spake and said to Daniel, O Daniel, servant of the living God, is thy God, whom thou servest continually, able to deliver thee from the lions?” Daniel 6:20

And yet the NT teaches that Christ himself has priests and servants who are expected to serve him:

“And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet are like fine brass; I know thy works, and charity, and service, and faith, and thy patience, and thy works; and the last to be more than the first. Notwithstanding I have a few things against thee, because thou sufferest that woman Jezebel, which calleth herself a prophetess, to teach and to seduce MY servants to commit fornication, and to eat things sacrificed unto idols.” Revelation 2:18-20

“Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection: on such the second death hath no power, but they shall be priests of God AND OF CHRIST, and shall reign with him a thousand years.” Revelation 20:6

“And there shall be no more curse: but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it; and HIS servants shall serve HIM:” Revelation 22:3

This explains why the earliest Christian disciples and Apostles proudly went around identifying themselves as the servants of not just God the Father, but also of the Lord Jesus Christ his beloved Son:

“James, a servant of God AND OF THE LORD JESUS CHRIST, to the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad, greeting.” James 1:1

“Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,” Romans 1:1

“Jude, the servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James, to them that are sanctified by God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ, and called:” Jude 1:1

The following verse is quite remarkable:

“Simon Peter, a servant and an apostle of Jesus Christ, to them that have obtained like precious faith with us through the righteousness of God and our Saviour Jesus Christ:” 2 Peter 1:1

The Apostle Peter not only refers to himself as the servant of Jesus Christ, but he also identifies his risen Master as the God and Savior of all those that have been granted saving faith from Christ himself!

Now the way in which believers are expected to serve their heavenly Lord is by offering up spiritual sacrifices to him, such as getting people saved through the preaching of the Gospel,

“Nevertheless, brethren, I have written the more boldly unto you in some sort, as putting you in mind, because of the grace that is given to me of God, that I should be the minister of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles, ministering the gospel of God, that the offering up of the Gentiles might be acceptable, being sanctified by the Holy Ghost. I have therefore whereof I may glory through Jesus Christ in those things which pertain to God. For I will not dare to speak of any of those things which Christ hath not wrought by me, to make the Gentiles obedient, by word and deed, through mighty signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God; so that from Jerusalem, and round about unto Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ.” Romans 15:15-19

As well as by faithfully carrying out his will in every aspect of their life, especially in regards to how they treat their earthly masters or servants:

“Servants, be obedient to them that are your masters according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as unto Christ; not with eyeservice, as menpleasers; but as the servants of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart; with good will doing service, as to the Lord, and not to men: knowing that whatsoever good thing any man doeth, the same shall he receive of the Lord, whether he be bond or free. And, ye masters, do the same things unto them, forbearing threatening: knowing that your Master also is in heaven; neither is there respect of persons with him.” Ephesians 6:5-9

“Servants, obey in all things your masters according to the flesh; not with eyeservice, as menpleasers; but in singleness of heart, fearing God: and whatsoever ye do, do it heartily, as to the Lord, and not unto men; knowing that of the Lord ye shall receive the reward of the inheritance: for ye serve the Lord Christ. Masters, give unto your servants that which is just and equal; knowing that ye also have a Master in heaven.” Colossians 3:22-24, 4:1

Prayers and Invocations

Another manner in which God’s people were to honor Jehovah was by calling upon his name, meaning by praising and invoking him in prayer:

“Exalt ye the Lord our God, and worship at his footstool; for he is holy. Moses and Aaron among his priests, and Samuel among them that call upon his name; they called upon the Lord, and he answered them. He spake unto them in the cloudy pillar: they kept his testimonies, and the ordinance that he gave them.” Psalm 99:5-7

“I love the Lord, because he hath heard my voice and my supplications. Because he hath inclined his ear unto me, therefore will I call upon him as long as I live. The sorrows of death compassed me, and the pains of hell gat hold upon me: I found trouble and sorrow. Then called I upon the name of the Lord; O Lord, I beseech thee, deliver my soul…  I will take the cup of salvation, and call upon the name of the Lord… I will offer to thee the sacrifice of thanksgiving, and will call upon the name of the Lord.” Psalm 116:1-4, 13, 14

“Be careful for nothing; but in every thing by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known unto God.” Philippians 4:6

The reason God’s people were exhorted to call on Jehovah alone is because he alone is the God who hears and answers the prayers of his saints:

O thou that hearest prayer, unto thee shall all flesh come.” Psalm 65:2

What makes this rather astonishing is that the first Christians were known and characterized by their practicing of calling upon the name of their risen Lord and Savior:

“unto the church of God which is at Corinth, to them that are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints, with all that in every place call upon the name of Jesus Christ our Lord, both theirs and ours: grace be unto you, and peace, from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.” 1 Corinthians 1:2-3

The following next example is quite remarkable:

“And they stoned Stephen, calling upon God, and saying, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit. And he kneeled down, and cried with a loud voice, Lord, lay not this sin to their charge. And when he had said this, he fell asleep.” Acts 7:59-60

Here, the blessed Stephen prayed to the Lord Jesus in the exact same way that the OT saints would pray to Jehovah!

Into thine hand I commit my spirit: thou hast redeemed me, O Lord God of truth.” Psalm 31:5

This practice of calling upon the name of the exalted Christ began among Jesus’ Jewish followers in Jerusalem, of all places!

“Then Ananias answered, Lord, I have heard by many of this man, how much evil he hath done to thy saints at Jerusalem: and here he hath authority from the chief priests to bind all that call on thy name. But the Lord said unto him, Go thy way: for he is a chosen vessel unto me, to bear my name before the Gentiles, and kings, and the children of Israel: for I will shew him how great things he must suffer for my name’s sake. And Ananias went his way, and entered into the house; and putting his hands on him said, Brother Saul, the Lord, even Jesus, that appeared unto thee in the way as thou camest, hath sent me, that thou mightest receive thy sight, and be filled with the Holy Ghost. And immediately there fell from his eyes as it had been scales: and he received sight forthwith, and arose, and was baptized. And when he had received meat, he was strengthened. Then was Saul certain days with the disciples which were at Damascus. And straightway he preached Christ in the synagogues, that he is the Son of God. But all that heard him were amazed, and said; Is not this he that destroyed them which called on this name in Jerusalem, and came hither for that intent, that he might bring them bound unto the chief priests?” Acts 9:13-21

As cane be seen from the above passage, the risen Lord would often appear to his servants in dreams and visions as they prayed to him:

“And now why tarriest thou? arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on the name of the Lord. And it came to pass, that, when I was come again to Jerusalem, even while I prayed in the temple, I was in a trance; and saw him saying unto me, Make haste, and get thee quickly out of Jerusalem: for they will not receive thy testimony concerning me. And I said, Lord, they know that I imprisoned and beat in every synagogue them that believed on thee: and when the blood of thy martyr Stephen was shed, I also was standing by, and consenting unto his death, and kept the raiment of them that slew him. And he said unto me, Depart: for I will send thee far hence unto the Gentiles.” Acts 22:16-21

Nor are these a few isolated cases, since the NT is filled with example of the Apostles praying to Jesus, just as the following texts confirm:

“The former treatise have I made, O Theophilus, of all that Jesus began both to do and teach, until the day in which he was taken up, after that he through the Holy Ghost had given commandments unto the apostles whom he had chosen… When they therefore were come together, they asked of him, saying, Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel?… Wherefore of these men which have companied with us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us… And they prayed, and said, Thou, Lord, which knowest the hearts of all men, shew whether of these two thou hast chosen,” Acts 1:1-2, 6, 21, 24

The context clearly points to Jesus as the omniscient Lord whom the disciples invoked to make known to them Judas’ replacement. And:

“If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be Anathema Maranatha. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. My love be with you all in Christ Jesus. Amen.” 1 Corinthians 16:22-24

“And lest I should be exalted above measure through the abundance of the revelations, there was given to me a thorn in the flesh, the messenger of Satan to buffet me, lest I should be exalted above measure. For this thing I besought the Lord thrice, that it might depart from me. And he said unto me, My grace is sufficient for thee: for my strength is made perfect in weakness. Most gladly therefore will I rather glory in my infirmities, that the power of Christ may rest upon me. Therefore I take pleasure in infirmities, in reproaches, in necessities, in persecutions, in distresses for Christ’s sake: for when I am weak, then am I strong.” 2 Corinthians 12:7-10

The Lord whose power is sufficient to sustain the blessed Apostle is none other than Christ himself.

In these next examples, we find believers thanking and/or invoking the risen Lord to bestow his mercy, peace and grace upon all the churches of God:

And I thank Christ Jesus our Lord, who hath enabled me, for that he counted me faithful, putting me into the ministry; who was before a blasphemer, and a persecutor, and injurious: but I obtained mercy, because I did it ignorantly in unbelief. And the grace of our Lord was exceeding abundant with faith and love which is in Christ Jesus. This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; of whom I am chief. Howbeit for this cause I obtained mercy, that in me first Jesus Christ might shew forth all longsuffering, for a pattern to them which should hereafter believe on him to life everlasting.” 1 Timothy 1:12-16

“Grace be with you, mercy, and peace, from God the Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father, in truth and love.” 2 John 1:3

“He which testifieth these things saith, Surely I come quickly. Amen. Even so, come, Lord Jesus. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.” Revelation 22:20-21

And because Jesus is alive, believers are able to have fellowship and intimate communion with him through prayer, knowing that he hears them and has the power to grant all of their requests that are in accord with his perfect will:

“And whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. If ye shall ask any thing in my name, I will do it.” John 14:13-14

“Paul, and Silvanus, and Timotheus, unto the church of the Thessalonians which is IN God the Father AND IN the Lord Jesus Christ: Grace be unto you, and peace, from God our Father, AND the Lord Jesus Christ.” 1 Thessalonians 1:1

Now God himself and our Father, AND our Lord Jesus Christ, direct our way unto you. And the Lord make you to increase and abound in love one toward another, and toward all men, even as we do toward you: to the end HE may stablish your hearts unblameable in holiness before God, even our Father, at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ with all his saints.” 1 Thessalonians 3:11-13

“Paul, and Silvanus, and Timotheus, unto the church of the Thessalonians IN God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ: grace unto you, and peace, from God our Father AND the Lord Jesus Christ… that the name of our Lord Jesus Christ may be glorified in you, and ye in him, according to the grace of our God AND the Lord Jesus Christ.” 2 Thessalonians 1:1-2, 12

Now our Lord Jesus Christ himself, AND God, even our Father, which hath loved us, and hath given us everlasting consolation and good hope through grace, comfort your hearts, and stablish you in every good word and work.” 2 Thessalonians 2:16-17

“that which we have seen and heard declare we unto you, that ye also may have fellowship with us: and truly our fellowship is with the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ.” 1 John 1:3

“These things have I written unto you that believe on the name of the Son of God; that ye may know that ye have eternal life, and that ye may believe on the name of the Son of God. And this is the confidence that we have in HIM, that, if we ask any thing according to HIS will, HE heareth us: and if we know that he hear us, whatsoever we ask, we know that we have the petitions that we desired of HIM.” 1 John 5:13-15

Such prayers and invocations provide explicit testimony that the first Christians viewed the risen Christ as the Hearer of prayer, and therefore as God Almighty in the flesh, since only God possesses the omniscience and omnipotence necessary to be able to both hear and answer prayers.


A doxology is an ascription of praise to God, glorifying him for who is and/or for what he has done or will do. Typically, a doxology will end with the word “Amen.” Here are some verses to illustrate these points:

“Blessed be the Lord God of Israel from everlasting, and to everlasting. Amen, and Amen.” Psalm 41:13

“And blessed be his glorious name for ever: and let the whole earth be filled with his glory; Amen, and Amen.” Psalm 72:19

“who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.” Romans 1:25

“For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things: to whom be glory for ever. Amen.” Romans 11:36

“to God only wise, be glory through Jesus Christ for ever. Amen.” Romans 16:27

“Now unto him that is able to do exceeding abundantly above all that we ask or think, according to the power that worketh in us, unto him be glory in the church by Christ Jesus throughout all ages, world without end. Amen.” Ephesians 3:20-21

“Now unto God and our Father be glory for ever and ever. Amen.” Philippians 4:20

“Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, be honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen.” 1 Timothy 1:17

“Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant, make you perfect in every good work to do his will, working in you that which is wellpleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ; to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.” Hebrews 13:20-21

“If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God; if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth: that God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.” 1 Peter 4:11

“But the God of all grace, who hath called us unto his eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after that ye have suffered a while, make you perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle you. To him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.” 1 Peter 5:10-11

“to the only wise God our Saviour, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now and ever. Amen.” Jude 1:25

In the same manner, we find the Lord Jesus being praised for who he is, and for what he has done and shall do. Note for instance the following cases:

“grace be to you and peace from God the Father, AND from our Lord Jesus Christ, WHO gave himself for our sins, that HE might deliver us from this present evil world, according to the will of God and our Father: to WHOM be glory for ever and ever. Amen.” Galatians 1:3-5

“I give thee charge in the sight of God, who quickeneth all things, and before Christ Jesus, WHO before Pontius Pilate witnessed a good confession; that thou keep this commandment without spot, unrebukeable, until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ: which in HIS times HE shall shew, who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords; WHO only hath immortality, dwelling in the light which no man can approach unto; WHOM no man hath seen, nor can see: to WHOM be honour and power everlasting. Amen.” 1 Timothy 6:13-16

“I charge thee therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom… henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day: and not to me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing… And the Lord shall deliver me from every evil work, and will preserve me unto his heavenly kingdom: to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.” 2 Timothy 4:1, 8, 18

“But grow in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. To him be glory both now and for ever. Amen.” 2 Peter 3:18

“and from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood, and hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father; to him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.” Revelation 1:5-6

As if these examples weren’t remarkable enough, this next one is truly astonishing:

“whose are the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.” Romans 9:5 

The Apostle Paul glorifies Christ for being the eternally praised God who reigns over all!

Our examination of the biblical witness leaves absolutely no doubt that the inspired Scriptures ascribe to the risen Lord the exact same praise, honor, glory and worship which only the one true God is supposed to receive, obviously because Jesus happens to be Jehovah God Almighty in the flesh.





Honoring the Lord Jesus as God Pt. 2

We continue from where we previously left off

Here are some further examples of Jesus accepting worship from a host of different people:

“And, behold, there came a leper and worshipped him, saying, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean.” Matthew 8:2

“While he spake these things unto them, behold, there came a certain ruler, and worshipped him, saying, My daughter is even now dead: but come and lay thy hand upon her, and she shall live.” Matthew 9:18

“Then came she and worshipped him, saying, Lord, help me.” Matthew 15:25

“Then came to him the mother of Zebedee’s children with her sons, worshipping him, and desiring a certain thing of him.” Matthew 20:20

“And he led them out as far as to Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them. And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into heaven. And they worshipped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy:” Luke 24:50-52

“Jesus heard that they had cast him out; and when he had found him, he said unto him, Dost thou believe on the Son of God? He answered and said, Who is he, Lord, that I might believe on him? And Jesus said unto him, Thou hast both seen him, and it is he that talketh with thee. And he said, Lord, I believe. And he worshipped him.” John 9:35-38

These next two examples are quite amazing:

“And in the fourth watch of the night Jesus went unto them, walking on the sea. And when the disciples saw him walking on the sea, they were troubled, saying, It is a spirit; and they cried out for fear. But straightway Jesus spake unto them, saying, Be of good cheer; it is I; be not afraid. And Peter answered him and said, Lord, if it be thou, bid me come unto thee on the water. And he said, Come. And when Peter was come down out of the ship, he walked on the water, to go to Jesus. But when he saw the wind boisterous, he was afraid; and beginning to sink, he cried, saying, Lord, save me. And immediately Jesus stretched forth his hand, and caught him, and said unto him, O thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt? And when they were come into the ship, the wind ceased. Then they that were in the ship came and worshipped him, saying, Of a truth thou art the Son of God.” Matthew 14:25-33

Here we see Jesus being worshiped as God’s Son in the context of displaying sovereign power over the winds and the seas. Christ’s authority over the natural elements is reminiscent of Jehovah’s sovereign control over creation:

“Then Job answered and said, I know it is so of a truth: but how should man be just with God? If he will contend with him, he cannot answer him one of a thousand. He is wise in heart, and mighty in strength: who hath hardened himself against him, and hath prospered? Which removeth the mountains, and they know not: which overturneth them in his anger. Which shaketh the earth out of her place, and the pillars thereof tremble. Which commandeth the sun, and it riseth not; and sealeth up the stars. Which alone spreadeth out the heavens, and treadeth upon the waves of the sea. Which maketh Arcturus, Orion, and Pleiades, and the chambers of the south. Which doeth great things past finding out; yea, and wonders without number.” Job 9:1-10

“They that go down to the sea in ships, that do business in great waters; these see the works of the Lord, and his wonders in the deep. For he commandeth, and raiseth the stormy wind, which lifteth up the waves thereof. They mount up to the heaven, they go down again to the depths: their soul is melted because of trouble. They reel to and fro, and stagger like a drunken man, and are at their wits’ end. Then they cry unto the Lord in their trouble, and he bringeth them out of their distresses. He maketh the storm a calm, so that the waves thereof are still. Then are they glad because they be quiet; so he bringeth them unto their desired haven.” Psalm 107:23-30

In this next example, the disciples worship the risen Christ in the context of his claiming to possess absolute sovereignty over the entire creation, being the omnipresent Son who shares the one unique name of the Father and the Holy Spirit:

“And as they went to tell his disciples, behold, Jesus met them, saying, All hail. And they came and held him by the feet, and worshipped him… Then the eleven disciples went away into Galilee, into a mountain where Jesus had appointed them. And when they saw him, they worshipped him: but some doubted. And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.” Matthew 28:9, 16-20

Not only do humans worship Jesus, but even unclean spirits do so,

“And they came over unto the other side of the sea, into the country of the Gadarenes. And when he was come out of the ship, immediately there met him out of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit, who had his dwelling among the tombs; and no man could bind him, no, not with chains: because that he had been often bound with fetters and chains, and the chains had been plucked asunder by him, and the fetters broken in pieces: neither could any man tame him. And always, night and day, he was in the mountains, and in the tombs, crying, and cutting himself with stones. But when he saw Jesus afar off, he ran and worshipped him, and cried with a loud voice, and said, What have I to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of the most high God? I adjure thee by God, that thou torment me not.” Mark 5:1-7

As well as the entire angelic host:

“And again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him.” Hebrews 1:6

In fact, Jesus is depicted as receiving the same exact worship that God receives from every creature in existence:

“And when he had taken the book, the four beasts and four and twenty elders fell down before the Lamb, having every one of them harps, and golden vials full of odours, which are the prayers of saints. And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation; and hast made us unto our God kings and priests: and we shall reign on the earth. And I beheld, and I heard the voice of many angels round about the throne and the beasts and the elders: and the number of them was ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands; saying with a loud voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing. And EVERY CREATURE which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, AND ALL THAT ARE IN THEM, heard I saying, Blessing, and honour, and glory, and power, be unto him that sitteth upon the throne, AND UNTO THE LAMB for ever and ever. And the four beasts said, Amen. And the four and twenty elders fell down and worshipped him that liveth for ever and ever.” Revelation 5:8-14


“Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name: that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.” Philippians 2:9-11

Astonishingly, Paul has taken the following OT passage, which speaks of every knee and tongue having to bow and confess allegiance to Jehovah,

“I have sworn by myself, the word is gone out of my mouth in righteousness, and shall not return, That unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear.” Isaiah 45:23

And applied it to the risen Christ!

Not only does this establish that Christ receives the very worship due to God, it also proves that he is no mere creature. Rather, Jesus is distinguished and differentiated from every created being that exists, and is placed alongside God the Father in the Creator/creature divide.

The blessed Apostle wasn’t the only one that took an OT text about worshiping Jehovah and applied it to Christ:

“And when the chief priests and scribes saw the wonderful things that he did, and the children crying in the temple, and saying, Hosanna to the Son of David; they were sore displeased, and said unto him, Hearest thou what these say? And Jesus saith unto them, Yea; have ye never read, Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings thou hast perfected praise?” Matthew 21:15-16

Here we have the Lord himself citing the following Psalm to condone the worship that he was receiving from the children, a Psalm which speaks of Jehovah being praised by infants in order to shame his enemies:

“O Lord our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth! who hast set thy glory above the heavens. Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast thou ordained strength because of thine enemies, that thou mightest still the enemy and the avenger.” Psalm 8:1-2

The only way that Christ could even appeal to this Psalm to justify the worship that the children were giving him is if Jesus thought that he was/is actually Jehovah God in the flesh. Otherwise, how could a text that speaks of the worship that Jehovah receives from babes condone the praise that infants were giving to a creature, if in fact Jesus was nothing more than a mere finite human being?

Here is a logical syllogism which helps sum up this particular section of our discussion:

  1. Jehovah God alone is to be worshiped.
  2. Jesus is/shall be worshiped by every creature in existence.
  3. Jesus must, therefore, be Jehovah God in the flesh (even though he is not the Father or the Holy Spirit).

We have more to say concerning the issue of Christ receiving the same exact accolades and praise that God himself receives, in the next part of our examination



Honoring the Lord Jesus as God Pt. 1

The Lord Jesus taught that God’s express will is for everyone to render unto the Son the same kind of honor that the Father himself receives:

“For the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son: that all men should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father. He that honoureth not the Son honoureth not the Father which hath sent him.” John 5:22-23

In light of this, we are going to quote verses where the God-breathed Scriptures ascribe to Jesus the exact same honor that is supposed to be given to God alone. 


The Lord Jesus emphatically affirmed that only God is to be worshiped and served:

“Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.” Matthew 4:10 – cf. Luke 4:8

This explains why Apostles such as Peter,

“And as Peter was coming in, Cornelius met him, and fell down at his feet, and worshipped him. But Peter took him up, saying, Stand up; I myself also am a man.” Acts 10:25-26

And Paul,

“And there sat a certain man at Lystra, impotent in his feet, being a cripple from his mother’s womb, who never had walked: the same heard Paul speak: who stedfastly beholding him, and perceiving that he had faith to be healed, said with a loud voice, Stand upright on thy feet. And he leaped and walked. And when the people saw what Paul had done, they lifted up their voices, saying in the speech of Lycaonia, The gods are come down to us in the likeness of men. And they called Barnabas, Jupiter; and Paul, Mercurius, because he was the chief speaker. Then the priest of Jupiter, which was before their city, brought oxen and garlands unto the gates, and would have done sacrifice with the people. Which when the apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of, they rent their clothes, and ran in among the people, crying out, and saying, Sirs, why do ye these things? We also are men of like passions with you, and preach unto you that ye should turn from these vanities unto the living God, which made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that are therein:” Acts 14:8-15

As well as God’s righteous angels strictly prohibited anyone from worshiping them:

“And I John saw these things, and heard them. And when I had heard and seen, I fell down to worship before the feet of the angel which shewed me these things. Then saith he unto me, See thou do it not: for I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren the prophets, and of them which keep the sayings of this book: worship God.” Revelation 22:8-9 – cf. 19:9-10

And yet we find the Lord Jesus accepting worship from a variety of individuals in a variety of contexts.

For instance, the Hebrew Bible prophesies that the kings of the east would offer gifts and bow down in worship to the King Messiah:

“Give the king thy judgments, O God, and thy righteousness unto the king’s son… He shall have dominion also from sea to sea, and from the river unto the ends of the earth. They that dwell in the wilderness shall bow before him; and his enemies shall lick the dust. The kings of Tarshish and of the isles shall bring presents: the kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer gifts. Yea, all kings shall fall down before him: all nations shall serve himHis name shall endure for ever: his name shall be continued as long as the sun: and men shall be blessed in him: all nations shall call him blessed.” Psalm 72:1, 8-11, 17

That this is a Messianic Psalm, one that announces the coming of the Christ, can be seen from the fact that even non-Christian Jewish sources interpreted it in this manner:

Composed by Solomon, uttered in prophecy. O God, give your just rulings to the King Messiah, and your righteousness to the son of King David… May his name be invoked for ever; and before the sun came to be his name was determined; so all the peoples will be blessed by his merit, and they shall speak well of him.” Psalm 72:1, 17 (Edward M. Cook, Targum Psalms: An English Translation; bold emphasis ours)


… the Messiah, the antitypical Solomon; who is often called by this name in the Song of Songs; see Song of Solomon 3:7; Solomon being a type of him in his wisdom and riches, and in the peaceableness and extent of his kingdom; to which reference is had in this psalm. But a greater than Solomon is here; that the Messiah is the subject of it is manifest from the largeness of his kingdom, it reaching to the ends of the earth; which was not true of Solomon, Psalm 72:8; and from the duration of it, it being as long as the sun and moon endure, Psalm 72:5; and from the abundance of peace and prosperity in it, which equally last, Psalm 72:3; and from the subjection of kings and nations to him, even all of them, Psalm 72:9; and from the happiness of his subjects; they having protection, deliverance, and salvation by him, and all spiritual blessings in him; which shows him to be the promised seed, in whom all nations should be blessed, Psalm 72:2, and from the honour, praise, glory, and blessedness, ascribed to him, Psalm 72:15. So TertullianF11, long ago, observed, that this psalm belongs to Christ, and not to Solomon. And that the Messiah is intended, many of the Jewish writers, both ancient and modern, acknowledge, as appears from the Targum, Talmud, Midrash, and other writings, which will be observed in the exposition of it. Jarchi, though he interprets it of Solomon, yet owns that their Rabbins expound the whole psalm of the Messiah: and Kimchi, who explains it hyperbolically of Solomon, acknowledges that, in the proper and literal sense, it is to be understood of the Messiah; and which is the sense given by his father, R. Joseph Kimchi. Aben Ezra says, this psalm is either concerning Solomon, or concerning the Messiah; but AbarbinelF12 makes no doubt that it is said concerning him. R. Obadiah says, it is concerning the coming of the Messiah; and to this agrees the title in the Syriac version,

“and a prophecy concerning the coming of the Messiah, and the calling of the Gentiles.’ (John Gill’s Exposition of the Whole Bible; bold emphasis ours)

Psalm 72 was partially fulfilled when certain wise men from the east came to worship and give gifts to the young Messiah whom they visited at his home in Bethlehem:

“Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judæa in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem, saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him… And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshipped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense, and myrrh.” Matthew 2:1-2, 11

Its complete fulfillment awaits the physical, bodily return of the risen Lord from heaven where he will reign over the nations from Jerusalem:

“Behold, the day of the Lord cometh, and thy spoil shall be divided in the midst of thee. For I will gather all nations against Jerusalem to battle; and the city shall be taken, and the houses rifled, and the women ravished; and half of the city shall go forth into captivity, and the residue of the people shall not be cut off from the city. Then shall the Lord go forth, and fight against those nations, as when he fought in the day of battle. And HIS FEET shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the east, and the mount of Olives shall cleave in the midst thereof toward the east and toward the west, and there shall be a very great valley; and half of the mountain shall remove toward the north, and half of it toward the south. And ye shall flee to the valley of the mountains; for the valley of the mountains shall reach unto Azal: yea, ye shall flee, like as ye fled from before the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah: and the Lord my God shall come, and all the saints with thee And the Lord shall be king over all the earth: in that day shall there be one Lord, and his name one And it shall come to pass, that every one that is left of all the nations which came against Jerusalem shall even go up from year to year to worship the King, the Lord of hosts, and to keep the feast of tabernacles. And it shall be, that whoso will not come up of all the families of the earth unto Jerusalem to worship the King, the Lord of hosts, even upon them shall be no rain.” Zechariah 14:1-5, 9, 16-17

“And when he had spoken these things, while they beheld, he was taken up; and a cloud received him out of their sight. And while they looked stedfastly toward heaven as he went up, behold, two men stood by them in white apparel; which also said, Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? this same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven. Then returned they unto Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is from Jerusalem a sabbath day’s journey.” Acts 1:9-12

“to the end he may stablish your hearts unblameable in holiness before God, even our Father, at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ with all his saints.” 1 Thessalonians 3:13

Nor is this the only OT text which speaks of the Messiah being worshiped forever by all the nations:

“I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.” Daniel 7:13-14

The NT identifies this glorious Son of Man figure that the prophet Daniel saw as our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. He is said to be the reigning Son of Man who rides the clouds of heaven:

“But he held his peace, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, and said unto him, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? And Jesus said, I am: and ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.” Mark 14:61-62

“But he, being full of the Holy Ghost, looked up stedfastly into heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God, and said, Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of man standing on the right hand of God.” Acts 7:55-56

Hence, Jesus is the divine King whom the OT Scriptures prophesied would be worshiped and served by the whole inhabited earth for all eternity.

With the foregoing in perspective, we are now ready to proceed to the second part of our discussion

Muhammad the Necrophiliac

There are specific narrations that claim that Muhammad slept with the corpse of his uncle’s deceased wife, the mother of Ali bin Abu Talib.

The following was sent and translated by my good friend and brother in Christ named Demetrius. It is taken from a book called Kanz Al Umal (“The Treasure of the Workers”), in the chapter of “The issues of women”, authored by Ali Ibn Husam Aldin, commonly known as Al-Mutaki Al-Hindi. He based his book on the hadiths and sayings listed in Al-Jami Al-Saghir, written by Jalal ul-Din Al-Suyuti.

Narrated by Ibn Abbas: “I (Muhammad) put on her my shirt that she may wear the clothes of heaven, and I SLEPT with her in her coffin (grave) that I may lessen the pressure of the grave. She was the best of Allah’s creatures to me after Abu Talib.” The prophet was referring to Fatima, the mother of Ali.

Demetrius explains:

The Arabic word used here for “slept” is Id’tajat, and literally means “lay down” with her. It is often used to mean, “lay down to have sex.” Muhammad is understood as saying that because he slept with her she has become like a wife to him so she will be considered like the “mother of the believers.” This will supposedly prevent her from being tormented in the grave, since Muslims believe that as people wait for the Judgment Day they will be tormented in the grave. “Reduce the pressure” here means that the torment won’t be as much because she is now a “mother of the believers” after Muhammad slept with her and “consummated” the union.

The next set of narrations was also sent to me by a Christian brother and basically confirm Demetrius’ claims. All bold emphasis mine.

Kanz Al-Ummal (“The treasure of deeds”)

By Ali Bin Husam Ad-Din Al-Mufqi Al-Hindi

Published by Mu’assasa Ar-Risala. Beirut 1989.

Volume 13, Pages 609-610

Hadith Numbers 37609-37611

Shirazi said: Abu Al-Abbas Ahmad bin Sa’id bin Ma’dan at Merv said he remembered Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Amr that my father and my paternal uncle said and my grandfather Amr bin Mus’ab told me Sa’id bin Muslim bin Qutayba heard that Bin Musa took an oath saying he heard Abu Al-Abbas the commander of the believers said he heard Abu Muhammad bin Ali said he heard Abu Hashim bin Muhammad bin Al-Hanafiya report from Al-Hudays Ibn Ali from his father Ali bin Abu Talib and Muhammad bin Ali from his father from Ibn Abbas said:

When Fatima bin Asad bin Hashim the mother of Ali bin Abu Talib died, she had protected the prophet, and raised him after the death of ‘Abd Al-Muttalib. The prophet raised her up in his shirt and prayed upon her and sought repentance for her and sought the good in what she did, and had marital relations with her whilst she was in her grave at that time she (lay) in it. It was said to him: O Prophet! What you are doing is something that nobody does! He said: Verily I have wrapped her in my shirt that Allah the merciful might have her enter (paradise) and forgive her (sins). I had marital relations with her in her grave that Allah would take away such (punishment in the grave) from her.

37609 – { قال الشيرازي في الألقاب } أنا أبو العباس أحمد بن سعيد بن معدان بمرو قال ذكر أحمد بن محمد بن عمرو أنا أبي وعمي قال وأنا جدي عمرو بن مصعب حدثني سعيد بن مسلم بن قتيبة سمعت علي بن موسى ولي العهد قال سمعت أبا العباس أمير المؤمنين قال سمعت أبي محمد بن علي قال سمعت أبا هاشم بن محمد بن الحنفية يحدث عن الحسين ابن علي عن أبيه علي بن أبي طالب ومحمد بن علي عن أبيه عن ابن عباس قال : لما ماتت أم علي بن أبي طالب فاطمة بنت أسد بن هاشم وكانت ممن كفل النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم وربته بعد موت عبد المطلب كفنها النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم في قميصه وصلى عليها واستغفر لها وجزاها الخير بما وليته منه واضطجع معها في قبرها حين وضعت فقيل له : صنعت يا رسول الله بها صنعا لم تصنع بأحد قال : إنما كفنتها في قميصي ليدخلها الله الرحمة ويغفر لها واضطجعت في قبرها ليخفف الله عنها بذلك ( ترجم لها ابن حجر ترجمة ممتعة

Ali Said: When Fatima bin Asad bin Hashim who raised the prophet died, he prayed upon her in his shirt, and he praised Allah upon her 70 times, and he went into her in her grave. He did this at (her) grave by day and by night. As such he widened and evened (the grave) out, and he went out from it. He eyes flowed into her grave when he went. Umar bin Al-Khattab said to him: O Allah’s messenger! I see you doing in this woman something that nobody has done before. He said: O Umar! This woman was my mother after my mother who bore me. If there was a banquet made for the learned Abu Talib, there was food gathered and prepared by her. As such this woman did (her) all for him.  I turn to Gabriel in what he told me from my lord, that she was from the people of Heaven and Gabriel told me that Allah the all-knowing commanded that 7000 praises from the angels prayed upon her.

37610 – عن علي قال : لما ماتت فاطمة بنت أسد بن هاشم كفنها النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم في قميصه وصلى عليها فكبر عليها سبعين تكبيرة ونزل في قبرها فجعل يومي في نواحي القبر كأنه يوسعه ويسوي عليها وخرج من قبرها وعيناه تذرفان وحثا في قبرها فلما ذهب قال له عمر بن الخطاب : يا رسول الله رأيتك فعلت في هذه المرأة شيئا لم تفعله على أحد فقال : يا عمر هذه المرأة كانت أمي بعد أمي التي ولدتني إن أبا طالب كان يصنع الصنيع وتكون له المأدبة وكان يجمعنا على طعامه فكانت هذه المرأة تفضل منه كله نصيبا فأعود فيه وإن جبريل أخبرني عن ربي أنها من أهل الجنة وأخبرني جبريل أن الله تعالى أمر سبعين ألفا من الملائكة يصلون عليها
المستدرك للحاكم : 3 / 108


Ibn  Abbas said: When Fatima the mother of Ali died, Allah’s messenger cast off his shirt and wrapped his hands and had marital relations with her in her grave when the grave’s dirt was even. Some of them said: O Allah’s messenger! We see you doing something that nobody has done before. He said: Verily I have dressed her in my shirt that she would be dressed in the robes of heaven. I have had marital relations with her in her grave to lessen her from the pressure of (the punishment of) the grave. She was the first of Allah’s creation made after Abu Talib.

37611 – عن ابن عباس قال : لما ماتت فاطمة أم علي خلع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قميصه وألبسها إياه واضطجع في قبرها فلما سوى عليها التراب قال بعضهم : يا رسول الله رأيناك صنعت شيئا لم تصنعه بأحد ؟ قال : إني ألبستها قميصي لتلبس من ثياب الجنة واضطجعت معها في قبرها لأخفف عنها من ضغطة القبر إنها كانت أحسن خلق الله صنيعا إلى بعد أبي طالب
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