In this article I will present more evidence in support of Mary’s perpetual virginity by showing how the Lord God made her womb the holy of holies for Christ to dwell in all his fullness.


The God-breathed Scriptures affirm that the high priest alone was authorized to enter into the holy of holies, also called the most holy place, once a year in order to make national atonement for all Israel:

“Now even the first covenant had regulations for worship and an earthly sanctuary.For a tent was prepared, the outer one, in which were the lampstand and the table and the bread of the Presence; it is called the Holy Place.Behind the second curtain stood a tent called the Holy of Holies,having the golden altar of incense and the ark of the covenant covered on all sides with gold, which contained a golden urn holding the manna, and Aaron’s rod that budded, and the tables of the covenant;above it were the cherubim of glory overshadowing the mercy seat. Of these things we cannot now speak in detail. These preparations having thus been made, the priests go continually into the outer tent, performing their ritual duties;but into the second only the high priest goes, and he but once a year, and not without taking blood which he offers for himself and for the errors of the people. By this the Holy Spirit indicates that the way into the sanctuary is not yet opened as long as the outer tent is still standing(which is symbolic for the present age). According to this arrangement, gifts and sacrifices are offered which cannot perfect the conscience of the worshiper,but deal only with food and drink and various ablutions, regulations for the body imposed until the time of reformation.” Hebrews 9:1-10 – Cf. Leviticus 16

No one else, not even the priests that served along with the Aaronic high priest, was permitted to enter and come out of the most holy place.


According to the [N]ew [T]estament writings, Jesus our Lord is our High Priest who entered into the heavenly tabernacle, which the earthly sanctuary was modeled after (Cf. Exodus 25:8-9, 40; 26:30; 27:7-8; Acts 7:44). Christ did this in order to present himself before the Father in the holy of holies where he presents his sacrificial death on our behalf as he intercedes for all those who place their trust in him:

“Therefore, holy brethren, who share in a heavenly call, consider Jesus, the apostle and high priest of our confession. He was faithful to him who appointed him, just as Moses also was faithful in God’s house.” Hebrews 3:1-2

“The former priests were many in number, because they were prevented by death from continuing in office; but he holds his priesthood permanently, because he continues for ever. Consequently he is able for all time to save those who draw near to God through him, since he always lives to make intercession for them. For it was fitting that we should have such a high priest, holy, blameless, unstained, separated from sinners, exalted above the heavens. He has no need, like those high priests, to offer sacrifices daily, first for his own sins and then for those of the people; he did this once for all when he offered up himself. Indeed, the law appoints men in their weakness as high priests, but the word of the oath, which came later than the law, appoints a Son who has been made perfect for ever.” Hebrews 7:23-28  

“Now the point in what we are saying is this: we have such a high priest, one who is seated at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven, a minister in the sanctuary and the true tent which is set up not by man but by the Lord. For every high priest is appointed to offer gifts and sacrifices; hence it is necessary for this priest also to have something to offer. Now if he were on earth, he would not be a priest at all, since there are priests who offer gifts according to the law. They serve a copy and shadow of the heavenly sanctuary; for when Moses was about to erect the tent, he was instructed by God, saying, ‘See that you make everything according to the pattern which was shown you on the mountain. But as it is, Christ has obtained a ministry which is as much more excellent than the old as the covenant he mediates is better, since it is enacted on better promises.” Hebrews 8:1-6  

“But when Christ appeared as a high priest of the good things that have come, then through the greater and more perfect tent (not made with hands, that is, not of this creation) he entered once for all into the Holy Place, taking not the blood of goats and calves but his own blood, thus securing an eternal redemption… Thus it was necessary for the copies of the heavenly things to be purified with these rites, but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these. For Christ has entered, not into a sanctuary made with hands, a copy of the true one, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God on our behalf. Nor was it to offer himself repeatedly, as the high priest enters the Holy Place yearly with blood not his own; for then he would have had to suffer repeatedly since the foundation of the world. But as it is, he has appeared once for all at the end of the age to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. And just as it is appointed for men to die once, and after that comes judgment, so Christ, having been offered once to bear the sins of many, will appear a second time, not to deal with sin but to save those who are eagerly waiting for him.” Hebrews 9: 11-12, 23-28


The inspired Scriptures further proclaim that the eternal Word of God became flesh in order to make his physical body the immortal tabernacle/temple where Christ as God would permanently dwell in all his fullness:

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God; all things were made through him, and without him was not anything made that was made. In him was life, and the life was the light of men… The true light that enlightens every man was coming into the world. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, yet the world knew him not… And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us (eskenosen), full of grace and truth; we have beheld his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father.” John 1:1-4, 9-10, 14

The Greek word for dwelt comes from skenoo, which is the verbal form of the noun skene, the very term which the Greek versions of the Hebrew Bible employ for the [O]ld [T]estament tent/tabernacle/temple where God said he would dwell and fill with his glory:

“Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle. And Moses was not able to enter the tent of meeting (ten skenen tou martyriou), because the cloud abode upon it, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle (he skene).” Exodus 40:34-35

“Now Moses used to take the tent (ten skenen) and pitch it outside the camp, far off from the camp; and he called it the tent of meeting (skene martyriou). And every one who sought the Lord would go out to the tent of meeting (skene martyriou), which was outside the camp.Whenever Moses went out to the tent (ten skenen), all the people rose up, and every man stood at his tent door, and looked after Moses, until he had gone into the tent (ten skenen).When Moses entered the tent (ten skenen), the pillar of cloud would descend and stand at the door of the tent (tes skenes), and the Lord would speak with Moses.And when all the people saw the pillar of cloud standing at the door of the tent (ten skenen), all the people would rise up and worship, every man at his tent door.Thus the Lord used to speak to Moses face to face, as a man speaks to his friend. When Moses turned again into the camp, his servant Joshua the son of Nun, a young man, did not depart from the tent (tes skenes).” Exodus 33:7-11

“When Solomon had ended his prayer, fire came down from heaven and consumed the burnt offering and the sacrifices, and the glory of the LORD filled the temple. And the priests could not enter the house of the LORD, because the glory of the LORD filled the LORD’s house. When all the children of Israel saw the fire come down and the glory of the LORD upon the temple, they bowed down with their faces to the earth on the pavement, and worshiped and gave thanks to the LORD, saying, ‘For he is good, for his steadfast love endures for ever.’” 2 Chronicles 7:1-3

The foregoing highlights that Christ’s physical body has now become God’s eternal, abiding temple where all the fullness of God’s glory would dwell:

“It was in him that the full nature of God (pan to pleroma) chose to live, and through him God planned to reconcile in his own person, as it were, everything on earth and everything in Heaven by virtue of the sacrifice of the cross.” Colossians 1:19-20 J. B. Phillips New Testament (PHILIIPS)

“For the entire fullness (pleroma) of God’s nature (theotetos) dwells (katoikei) bodily in Christ,” Colossians 2:9 Christian Standard Bible (CSB)

Here’s another rendering of this verse:

“because all the essence of deity inhabits him in bodily form.” International Standard Version (ISV)

The Greek verb for dwell is used elsewhere in reference to God dwelling in the temple:

“and he who swears by the temple, swears by it and by him who dwells (katoikounti) in it;” Matthew 23:21

This explains why Jesus referred to his body as the temple which the Jews would destroy, and which he would raise up on the third day:

“Jesus answered them, ‘Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.’ The Jews then said, ‘It has taken forty-six years to build this temple, and will you raise it up in three days?’ But he spoke of the temple of his body. When therefore he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this; and they believed the scripture and the word which Jesus had spoken.” John 2:19-22


This now leads me to the issue of the blessed Mother.

The Christian writings affirm that Mary conceived and gave birth to God’s eternal Son by the power of the Holy Spirit.

The Scriptures emphatically proclaim that God in all his fullness entered into the holy and consecrated womb of the blessed Mother for the express purpose of becoming human:

“But when the time had fully come, God sent forth his Son, born of woman, born under the law,” Galatians 4:4

“Now the birth of Jesus Christ took place in this way. When his mother Mary had been betrothed to Joseph, before they came together she was found to be with child of the Holy Spirit; and her husband Joseph, being a just man and unwilling to put her to shame, resolved to divorce her quietly. But as he considered this, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, ‘Joseph, son of David, do not fear to take Mary your wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit; she will bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins.’ All this took place to fulfil what the Lord had spoken by the prophet: ‘Behold, a virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and his name shall be called Emman′u-el’ (which means, God with us). When Joseph woke from sleep, he did as the angel of the Lord commanded him; he took his wife, but knew her not until she had borne a son; and he called his name Jesus.” Matthew 1:18-25  

What all of this shows is that God made Mary’s body the very tabernacle/temple of God, and therefore made her womb the most holy place since that is where Immanuel, YHWH Almighty, came to dwell in all the fullness of his Deity up until the moment she gave birth to him.

This is explicitly brought out by what the angel Gabriel said to her after announcing that she would give birth to the Mighty God of Isaiah 9:6-7:

“In the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city of Galilee named Nazareth, to a virgin betrothed to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin’s name was Mary. And he came to her and said, ‘Hail, O favored one, the Lord is with you!’ But she was greatly troubled at the saying, and considered in her mind what sort of greeting this might be. And the angel said to her, ‘Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus. He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David, and he will reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there will be no end.’ And Mary said to the angel, ‘How shall this be, since I have no husband?’ And the angel said to her, ‘The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be called holy, the Son of God.’” Luke 1:26-35

The phrase overshadow is the same term, which Luke employs elsewhere in regard to God visibly appearing in the glory cloud on the Mt. of Transfiguration as he enveloped Jesus and three of his disciples:

“Now about eight days after these sayings he took with him Peter and John and James, and went up on the mountain to pray. And as he was praying, the appearance of his countenance was altered, and his raiment became dazzling white. And behold, two men talked with him, Moses and Eli′jah, who appeared in glory and spoke of his departure, which he was to accomplish at Jerusalem. Now Peter and those who were with him were heavy with sleep, and when they wakened they saw his glory and the two men who stood with him. And as the men were parting from him, Peter said to Jesus, ‘Master, it is well that we are here; let us make three booths, one for you and one for Moses and one for Eli′jah’—not knowing what he said. As he said this, a cloud came and overshadowed them; and they were afraid as they entered the cloud. And a voice came out of the cloud, saying, ‘This is my Son, my Chosen; listen to him!’” Luke 9:28-35  

We’ve already seen that this is the same cloud that filled the OT tabernacle/temple, and that Jesus’ physical body is God’s abiding, indestructible Temple. Therefore, it makes sense that the same cloud which filled the OT tabernacle/temple during Moses’ and Solomon’s time, would overshadow Christ in order to bear witness that Jesus is the beloved Son of God whom all must obey.

Hence, it isn’t surprising that this same verb would also be applied to Mary being overshadowed by God’s power so she could conceive the very physical body which would become Christ’s tabernacle/temple.

This brings me to my next point.

The NT teaches that Jesus is the Last Adam, since the first Adam was a type and shadow of the One to come:

“Therefore as sin came into the world through one man and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all men sinned—sin indeed was in the world before the law was given, but sin is not counted where there is no law. Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sins were not like the transgression of Adam, who was a type of the one who was to come.” Romans 5:12-14

“But in fact Christ has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who have fallen asleep. For as by a man came death, by a man has come also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive. But each in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then at his coming those who belong to Christ.” 1 Corinthians 15:20-23  

“Thus it is written, ‘The first man Adam became a living being’; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit. But it is not the spiritual which is first but the physical, and then the spiritual. The first man was from the earth, a man of dust; the second man is from heaven. As was the man of dust, so are those who are of the dust; and as is the man of heaven, so are those who are of heaven. Just as we have borne the image of the man of dust, we shall also bear the image of the man of heaven.” 1 Corinthians 15:45-49

Now one major contrast between the two is that, in the case of the first Adam the woman came out from him, being bone from his bones and flesh of his flesh:  

“Then the man said, ‘This at last is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.’ Therefore a man leaves his father and his mother and cleaves to his wife, and they become one flesh.” Genesis 2:23-24

Interestingly, v. 24 is applied to Christ’s union with the Church, which is said to be his very own spiritual body and bride:

Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ? Shall I therefore take the members of Christ and make them members of a prostitute? Never!Do you not know that he who joins himself to a prostitute becomes one body with her? For, as it is written, ‘The two shall become one flesh.’But he who is united to the Lord becomes one spirit with him.Shun immorality. Every other sin which a man commits is outside the body; but the immoral man sins against his own body.Do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit within you, which you have from God? You are not your own;you were bought with a price. So glorify God in your body.” 1 Corinthians 6:15-20

“Husbands, love your wives, as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her, that he might sanctify her, having cleansed her by the washing of water with the word, that he might present the church to himself in splendor, without spot or wrinkle or any such thing, that she might be holy and without blemish. Even so husbands should love their wives as their own bodies. He who loves his wife loves himself. For no man ever hates his own flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it, as Christ does the church, because we are members of his body. ‘For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh.” This mystery is a profound one, and I am saying that it refers to Christ and the church; however, let each one of you love his wife as himself, and let the wife see that she respects her husband.” Ephesians 5:25-33

Now in the case of the Last Adam he came forth from a woman, thereby making him bone of her bones and flesh of her flesh.

In other words, Jesus as the greater Adam derived his flesh and bones from the flesh and bones of Mary!

Seeing that this is the very flesh that became the physical tabernacle/temple of God, this means that God initially consecrated Mary’s own physical body to become his tabernacle/temple!

To put this in another way, Mary’s body was the initial temple which Jesus came to dwell in all his fullness for the express purpose of taking on a physical body. And after becoming flesh from the holy flesh of his blessed Mother, Christ then made his own fleshly body God’s eternal tabernacle/temple.

What the foregoing texts establish is that Mary’s body was God’s temple, with her womb being the most holy place where God came to dwell in all the fullness of his Deity.

And when we recall that the high priest alone was permitted to go in and out of the holy of holies, this means that Jesus is the only One that could enter into and come out of the consecrated body of his holy Mother. After all, Christ is the heavenly High Priest who was conceived in the blessed womb of Mary.

There’s simply no way of getting around this explicit biblical teaching.  





In this post I will provide some extra-biblical Jewish support which demonstrates that there were certain Jews who were aware of a second divine Power existing alongside of God. I will further highlight that these Jews even believed in a female spirit creature who is dead to God loved and whom angels revere, a feminine figure whose role it is to intercede for virgins and penitent sinners. I will show this prefigures the status and role which the early Christians assigned to the blessed mother of our risen Lord.  

The work in question is titled Joseph and Asenath, and is dated anywhere between 100 BC –100 AD:

A text from Hellenistic Egypt (ca. 100 B.C.E. to 100 C.E.) tells a romantic story of Joseph and Asenath’s courtship. Initially, Asenath rejects Joseph, but then falls in love with him, only to have Joseph reject her because she is the daughter of an Egyptian priest. It’s only after she repents and changes her allegiance to Israel’s God that Joseph marries her. (TheTorah–com, Joseph and Asenath)

I will be quoting from the following translation:

Joseph & Aseneth: Translated by David Cook, University of Birmingham This translation of Joseph and Aseneth is taken from H. F. D. Sparks (ed.), The Apocryphal Old Testament (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984), pp. 473-503, and is reproduced here by permission of Oxford University Press:


This works contains a vivid description of Asenath being visited by the Commander of the Lord’s house and of the heavenly host. The depiction of this divine Being is modeled after the texts of the Hebrew Bible, which refer to the Angel of YHWH as God’s personal agent who is both distinct from and yet identical with YHWH.

Here’s how this source describes this glorious figure:

XIV. And as Aseneth finished her confession to the Lord, lo, the morning star rose in the eastern sky. 2. And Aseneth saw it and rejoiced and said, “The Lord God has indeed heard me, for this star is a messenger and herald of the light of the great day. 3. And lo, the heaven was torn open near the morning star and an indescribable light appeared. 4. And Aseneth fell on her face upon the ashes; and there came to her a man from heaven [1] and stood at her head[2] and he called to her, “Aseneth”. [3] 5. And she said, “Who called me? For the door of my room is shut and the tower is high: how then did anyone get into [4] my room?” 6. And the man [5] called her a second time and said, “Aseneth, Aseneth;” and she said, “Here am I, my lord, tell me who you are.” 7. And the man said, “I am the commander [6] of the Lord’s house [7] and chief captain [8] of all the host of the Most High[9] stand up, [10] and I will speak to you.” 8. And she looked up and saw a man like Joseph in every respect, with a robe and a crown and a royal staff. 9. But his face was like lightning, and his eyes were like the light of the sun, [11] and the hairs of his head like flames [12] of fire, and his hands and feet like iron from the fire. 10. And Aseneth looked at him, and she fell on her face at his feet in great fear and trembling. 11. And the man said to her, “Take heart, Aseneth, and do not be afraid; but stand up, [13] and I will speak to you.” 12. And Aseneth got up, and the man said to her, “Take off the black tunic you are wearing and the sackcloth round your waist, [14] and shake the ashes off your head, and wash your face with water. 13. And put on a new robe that you have never worn before, [15] and tie your bright girdle round your waist — the double girdle of your virginity. 14. And then come back to me, and I will tell you what I have been sent to you to say.” 15. And Aseneth went into the room where her treasure-chests and the finery for her adornment were; [16] and she opened her wardrobe and took out a new, fine robe, and she took off her black robe and put on the new and brilliant one. 16. And she untied the rope and the sackcloth round her waist; [17] and she put on the brilliant double girdle of her virginity — one girdle round her waist and the other round her breast. 17. And she shook the ashes off her head, and washed her face with pure water, and covered her head with a fine and lovely veil.

1. So FG: B ‘a man of light from heaven; D ‘the man of God’.
2. Lit. ‘over her head’.
3. So B: D Slav. om.
4. Lit. ‘and how did he come into’ (=B Slav.: D ‘and how did you come here into’).
5. B ‘And he’.
6. So BD: A ‘chief captain’; EFG ‘ruler’.
7. So BEF Slav.: G ‘of the Lord’: D ‘of glory of the Lord’; A ‘of the Lord God’.
8. So D: EFGA ‘and commander’.
9. So GA Slav.: D ‘of all the host of the Lord Most High’; F ‘of all the heavenly host’; B om. ‘and chief . . . High’ altogether.
10. Lit. ‘stand upon your feet’ (D ‘stand up fromt he floor’).
11. B ‘his eyes like the sun’.
12. Lit. ‘a flame’
13. Lit. ‘stand upon your feet’ (D om. ‘upon your feet’).
14. round your waist (lit. ‘from your loins’) = FGA: B ‘from you’; D Slav. om.
15. Lit. ‘a new robe, undefiled’.
16. where . . . were: B om.
17. And . . . waist: D om.

XV. And she came back to the man; and when the man saw her he said to her, “Take now the veil off your head, for to-day you are a pure virgin and your head is like a young man’s.” 2. So she took it off her head; and the man said to her, “Take heart, Aseneth, [1] for lo, the Lord has heard the words of your confession. 3. Take heart, Aseneth, [2] your name is written in the book of life, and it will never be blotted out. 4. From to-day you will be made new, and refashioned, and given new life; and you shall eat the bread of life and drink the cup of immortality, and be anointed with the unction of incorruption. [3]… 12. And when the man had finished speaking Aseneth was overjoyed. 13. And she fell at his feet and said to him, “Blessed be the Lord God [16] that sent you out to deliver me from darkness and bring me into light; and blessed be his name for ever. 14. Let me speak now, my lord, if I have found favour with you: sit down a little on the bed, and I will get a table ready and food for you to eat; [17] and I will bring you good wine, of the finest flavour, for your to drink; [18] and then you shall go your way.”

1. BFHA Slav. add ‘you pure virgin’.
2. Take heart Aseneth: D om., BA add ‘you (A + ‘pure’) virgin’.
3. The authorities differ not a little in detail here. All, however, refer to Aseneth’s eating of the bread and all except F to her drinking of the cup. Her anointing with the unction appears in HGA Arm., but not in BDEF Slav. Cp. viii.5…

16. B om.
17. Lit. ‘. . . and bread, and eat’ (imperative).
18. Lit. ‘wine, whose savour reaches to the heavens, and drink’ (imperative). (Ibid.

The Being who appeared to Asenath is modeled after the following OT texts, where the Commander of the Lord’s heavenly host is identified as the Angel of YHWH, that very Messenger who is said to be YHWH himself appearing to his servants:

“When Joshua was by Jericho, he lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold, a man stood before him with his drawn sword in his hand; and Joshua went to him and said to him, ‘Are you for us, or for our adversaries?’ And he said, ‘No; but as commander of the army of the LORD I have now come.’ And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, and worshiped, and said to him, “What does my lord bid his servant?’ And the commander of the LORD’s army said to Joshua, ‘Put off your shoes from your feet; for the place where you stand is holy.’ And Joshua did so.” Joshua 5:13-15

“Now Moses was keeping the flock of his father-in-law, Jethro, the priest of Mid′ian; and he led his flock to the west side of the wilderness, and came to Horeb, the mountain of God.And the angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush; and he looked, and lo, the bush was burning, yet it was not consumed.And Moses said, ‘I will turn aside and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt.’When the Lord saw that he turned aside to see, God called to him out of the bush, ‘Moses, Moses!’ And he said, ‘Here am I.’Then he said, “Do not come near; put off your shoes from your feet, for the place on which you are standing is holy ground.’And he said, ‘I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’ And Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look at God.” Exodus 3:1-6

“Then the Lord opened the eyes of Balaam, and he saw the angel of the Lord standing in the way, with his drawn sword in his hand; and he bowed his head, and fell on his face. And the angel of the Lord said to him, ‘Why have you struck your ass these three times? Behold, I have come forth to withstand you, because your way is perverse before me;’” Numbers 22:31-32

Asenath’s heavenly visitant is further described after the luminescent Being that both Ezekiel and Daniel saw:

“And above the firmament over their heads there was the likeness of a throne, in appearance like sapphire; and seated above the likeness of a throne was a likeness as it were of a human form. And upward from what had the appearance of his loins I saw as it were gleaming bronze, like the appearance of fire enclosed round about; and downward from what had the appearance of his loins I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was brightness round about him. Like the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud on the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about. Such was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the LORD. And when I saw it, I fell upon my face, and I heard the voice of one speaking.” Ezekiel 1:26-28

“In the third year of Cyrus king of Persia a word was revealed to Daniel, who was named Belteshaz′zar. And the word was true, and it was a great conflict. And he understood the word and had understanding of the vision. In those days I, Daniel, was mourning for three weeks. I ate no delicacies, no meat or wine entered my mouth, nor did I anoint myself at all, for the full three weeks. On the twenty-fourth day of the first month, as I was standing on the bank of the great river, that is, the Tigris, I lifted up my eyes and looked, and behold, a man clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with gold of Uphaz. His body was like beryl, his face like the appearance of lightning, his eyes like flaming torches, his arms and legs like the gleam of burnished bronze, and the sound of his words like the noise of a multitude. And I, Daniel, alone saw the vision, for the men who were with me did not see the vision, but a great trembling fell upon them, and they fled to hide themselves. So I was left alone and saw this great vision, and no strength was left in me; my radiant appearance was fearfully changed, and I retained no strength. Then I heard the sound of his words; and when I heard the sound of his words, I fell on my face in a deep sleep with my face to the ground. And behold, a hand touched me and set me trembling on my hands and knees. And he said to me, ‘O Daniel, man greatly beloved, give heed to the words that I speak to you, and stand upright, for now I have been sent to you.” While he was speaking this word to me, I stood up trembling.” Daniel 10:1-11  

The New Testament takes this a step further by identifying Jesus as the human incarnation of this glorious divine Being:

“And after six days Jesus took with him Peter and James and John his brother, and led them up a high mountain apart. And he was transfigured before them, and his face shone like the sun, and his garments became white as light. And behold, there appeared to them Moses and Eli′jah, talking with him. And Peter said to Jesus, ‘Lord, it is well that we are here; if you wish, I will make three booths here, one for you and one for Moses and one for Eli′jah.’ He was still speaking, when lo, a bright cloud overshadowed them, and a voice from the cloud said, ‘This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased; listen to him.’” Matthew 17:1-5

“Then I turned to see the voice that was speaking to me, and on turning I saw seven golden lampstands, and in the midst of the lampstands one like a son of man, clothed with a long robe and with a golden girdle round his breast; his head and his hair were white as white wool, white as snow; his eyes were like a flame of fire, his feet were like burnished bronze, refined as in a furnace, and his voice was like the sound of many waters; in his right hand he held seven stars, from his mouth issued a sharp two-edged sword, and his face was like the sun shining in full strength. When I saw him, I fell at his feet as though dead. But he laid his right hand upon me, saying, ‘Fear not, I am the first and the last, and the living one; I died, and behold I am alive for evermore, and I have the keys of Death and Hades.’” Revelation 1:12-18  

“Then I saw another mighty angel coming down from heaven, wrapped in a cloud, with a rainbow over his head, and his face was like the sun, and his legs like pillars of fire. He had a little scroll open in his hand. And he set his right foot on the sea, and his left foot on the land, and called out with a loud voice, like a lion roaring; when he called out, the seven thunders sounded. And when the seven thunders had sounded, I was about to write, but I heard a voice from heaven saying, ‘Seal up what the seven thunders have said, and do not write it down.’ And the angel whom I saw standing on sea and land lifted up his right hand to heaven  and swore by him who lives for ever and ever, who created heaven and what is in it, the earth and what is in it, and the sea and what is in it, that there should be no more delay,” Revelation 10:1-6  

“Then I looked, and lo, a white cloud, and seated on the cloud one like a son of man, with a golden crown on his head, and a sharp sickle in his hand.And another angel came out of the temple, calling with a loud voice to him who sat upon the cloud, ‘Put in your sickle, and reap, for the hour to reap has come, for the harvest of the earth is fully ripe.’So he who sat upon the cloud swung his sickle on the earth, and the earth was reaped.” Revelation 14:14-16

“Then I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse! He who sat upon it is called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he judges and makes war. His eyes are like a flame of fire, and on his head are many diadems; and he has a name inscribed which no one knows but himself. He is clad in a robe dipped in blood, and the name by which he is called is The Word of God. And the armies of heaven, arrayed in fine linen, white and pure, followed him on white horses. From his mouth issues a sharp sword with which to smite the nations, and he will rule them with a rod of iron; he will tread the wine press of the fury of the wrath of God the Almighty. On his robe and on his thigh he has a name inscribed, King of kings and Lord of lords.” Revelation 19:11-16

In the aforementioned texts, Christ is not only described as the majestic Figure seen by Moses, Joshua, Balaam, Ezekiel and Daniel, he is also portrayed as the Ancient of Days and heavenly Son of Man whom the prophet Daniel saw:

“As I looked, Judgment before the Ancient One thrones were placed and one that was ancient of days took his seat; his raiment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like pure wool; his throne was fiery flames, its wheels were burning fire. A stream of fire issued and came forth from before him; a thousand thousands served him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him; the court sat in judgment, and the books were opened.” Daniel 7:9-10

“I saw in the night visions, and behold, with the clouds of heaven there came one like a son of man, and he came to the Ancient of Days and was presented before him. And to him was given dominion and glory and kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve him; his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom one that shall not be destroyed.” Daniel 7:13-14

And in Revelation 1:17, which I quoted above, Christ even applies a title of YHWH to himself, namely, “the First and the Last”!

“Who has performed and done this, calling the generations from the beginning? I, the Lord, the first, and with the last; I am He.” Isaiah 41:4

“Thus says the Lord, the King of Israel and his Redeemer, the Lord of hosts: ‘I am the first and I am the last; besides me there is no god.’” Isaiah 44:6

“For my own sake, for my own sake, I do it, for how should my name be profaned? My glory I will not give to another. Hearken to me, O Jacob, and Israel, whom I called! I am He, I am the first, and I am the last.” Isaiah 48:11-12


What makes this all the more remarkable is that this divine figure takes the honeycomb which had been miraculously in Asenath’s inner room, and turns it into a sacrifice consumed by fire:

XVI. And the man said to her, “Bring me, please, a honeycomb too.” 2. And Aseneth said, “Let me send someone my lord, [1] to my family estate in the country and I will get you a honeycomb.” 3. And the man said to her, “Go into your inner room and you will find a honeycomb there.” 4. And Aseneth went into her inner room and found a honeycomb lying on the table; and the comb was as white as snow and full of honey, and its smell was like the breath [2] of life. 5. And Aseneth took the comb and brought it to him; and the man said to her, “Why did you say, ‘There is no honeycomb in my house?’ And lo, you have brought me this.” 6. And Aseneth said, My lord, I had no honeycomb in my house, but it happened just as you said: did it perchance come out of your mouth, for it smells like myrrh?” [3] 7. And the man stretched his hand out and placed it on her head and said, “You are blessed, Aseneth, for the indescribable things [4] of God [5] have been revealed to you; and blessed too are those who give their allegiance to the Lord [6] God in penitence, for they shall eat of this comb. 8. The bees of the Paradise of Delight [7] have made this honey, and the angels of God eat of it, and no one who eats of it shall ever die. 9. And the man stretched his right hand out and broke off a piece of the comb and ate it; and he put a piece of it [8] unto Aseneth’s mouth. 10. And the man stretched his hand out and put his finger [9] on the edge of the comb that faced eastwards; and the path [10] of his finger became like blood. 11. And he stretched out his hand a second time and put his finger on the edge of the comb that faced northwards, and the path of his finger became like blood. 12. And Aseneth was standing on the left and watching everything the man was doing. 13. And bees came up from the cells of the comb, and they were white as snow, and their wings were irridescent — purple and blue and gold; [11] and they had golden diadems on their heads and sharp-pointed strings. 14. And all the bees flew in circles round Aseneth, from her feet right up to her head; and yet more bees, [12] as big as queens, settled on Aseneth’s lips. 15. And the man said to the bees, “Go, please, to your places.” 16. And they all left Aseneth and fell to the ground, every one of them[13] and died. 17. And the man said, “Get up now, and go to your place;” and they got up [14] and went, every one of them, to the court round Aseneth’s tower.

1. So D: B Slav. om.
2. Lit. ‘smell’.
3. D adds ‘from your mouth’.
4. So BDH: G ‘the hidden things’; F ‘the mysteries’;A ‘the indescribable mysteries’.
5. So BDA: FGH ‘the Most High’.
6. BF add ‘your’.
7. i.e. the Garden of Eden (cp. the LXX at e.g. Gen iii.23 and Ezek. xxxi.9).
8. Lit. ‘and he gave of the comb with his hand’.
9. B Lat. ‘his forefinger’.
10. So D Lat.: B Slav. ‘appearance’.
11. Lit. ‘and their wings were as purple, and hyacinth, and as threads of gold’ (= B:A ‘. . . hyacinth, and as scarlet’: D Slav. om. ‘and as threads of gold’).
12. Aseneth . . . bees: D om.
13. every one of them = B: D Slav. om.
14. And they got up = BFG A Slav.: D om.

XVII. And the man said to Aseneth, “Have you observed this?” and she said, “Yes, [1] my lord, I have observed it all.” 2. And the man said, “So shall be [2] the words I have spoken to you.” 3. And the man touched the comb, and fire went up from the table and burnt up the comb; and, as it burned, the comb gave out a refreshing fragrance that filled the room. 4. And Aseneth said to the man, “There are, my lord, seven virgins with me, who have been brought up with me, and who wait upon me: they were born in the same night as I was and I love them: let me call them, [3] so that you can bless them as you have blessed me. 5. And the man said, “Call them;” [4] and Aseneth called them, and the man blessed them and said, “God, [5] the Most High, will bless you [6] for ever.” 6. And the man said to Aseneth, “Take this table away;” and Aseneth turned to move the table, and [7] the man vanished out of her sight, and Aseneth saw what looked like a chariot of fire being taken up into heaven towards the east. 7. And Aseneth said, “Be merciful, O Lord, to thy maidservant, because it was in [8] ignorance that I spoke evil [9] before thee.”

1. Lit. ‘Lo’.
2. B ‘my’
3. Lit. ‘Pray, I will call them = DGA: B om.
4. And the man . . . them = BG: Slav. ‘And he said, Call them; D om.
5. So DEFT Slav.: A ‘the Lord God’; B om.
6. E adds ‘and you shall be seven pillars of the City of Refuge’.
7. B adds ‘immediately’.
8. D adds ‘my’.

As the divine Being informs Asenath, the honeycomb was made in heaven, eaten by angels, and smells like the breath since it gives life to all those who repent, which is why anyone who eats of it shall never die.

Even more interesting is what the Commander does after both Asenath and he ate pieces of the honeycomb. The chief Captain points his finger both east and north leaving what resembles a trail of blood!

It seems certain that the blood is meant to signify that the Divine Being standing before Asenath is making atonement for sins, since the Hebrew Bible is clear that God ordained that through the shedding blood atonement would be made:

“For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it for you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that makes atonement, by reason of the life.” Leviticus 17:11

And the fact that the man caused the honeycomb to be consumed by fire further reinforces that this was clearly a sacrificial and atoning act done specifically for the remissions of sins. This act is reminiscent of what took place when the Angel of YHWH met with the parents of Samson:

“Mano′ah said to the angel of the Lord, ‘Pray, let us detain you, and prepare a kid for you.’And the angel of the Lord said to Mano′ah, ‘If you detain me, I will not eat of your food; but if you make ready a burnt offering, then offer it to the Lord.’ (For Mano′ah did not know that he was the angel of the Lord.)And Mano′ah said to the angel of the Lord, ‘What is your name, so that, when your words come true, we may honor you?’And the angel of the Lord said to him, ‘Why do you ask my name, seeing it is wonderful?’So Mano′ah took the kid with the cereal offering, and offered it upon the rock to the Lord, to him who works wonders. And when the flame went up toward heaven from the altar, the angel of the Lord ascended in the flame of the altar while Mano′ah and his wife looked on; and they fell on their faces to the ground. The angel of the Lord appeared no more to Mano′ah and to his wife. Then Mano′ah knew that he was the angel of the Lord.And Mano′ah said to his wife, ‘We shall surely die, for we have seen God.’But his wife said to him, ‘If the Lord had meant to kill us, he would not have accepted a burnt offering and a cereal offering at our hands, or shown us all these things, or now announced to us such things as these.’” Judges 13:15-23

In light of all this, it is hard not to see this being a foreshadow of the Eucharist of Christ, where through the sacrament of bread and wine the risen Lord would give his flesh and blood to all those who turn to him for forgiveness of sins and everlasting life:

“Now as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and broke it, and gave it to the disciples and said, ‘Take, eat; this is my body.’ And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, saying, ‘Drink of it, all of you; for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. I tell you I shall not drink again of this fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom.’” Matthew 26:26-29

“‘I am the bread of life. Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. This is the bread which comes down from heaven, that a man may eat of it and not die. I am the living bread which came down from heaven; if any one eats of this bread, he will live for ever; and the bread which I shall give for the life of the world is my flesh.’ The Jews then disputed among themselves, saying, ‘How can this man give us his flesh to eat?’ So Jesus said to them, ‘Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, you have no life in you; he who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. For my flesh is food indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him. As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so he who eats me will live because of me. This is the bread which came down from heaven, not such as the fathers ate and died; he who eats this bread will live for ever.’” John 6:48-58


Last but not least, in chapter 15 there is mention of an exalted feminine spirit creature, whose roles and characteristics mirror what later church tradition would say of the blessed Theotokos:

5. Take heart, Aseneth: [4] lo, the Lord has given you to Joseph to be his bride, and he shall be your bridegroom. 6. And you shall no more be called Aseneth, but ‘City of Refuge’ shall be your name; for many nations shall take refuge in you, and under your wings shall [5] many peoples [6] find shelter, [7] and within your walls those who give their allegiance to God in penitence will find security. 7. For Penitence is the Most High’s daughter and she entreats the Most High on your behalf every hour, [8] and on behalf of all who repent; [9] for he is the father of Penitence [10] and she the mother of virgins, and every hour she petitions him for those who repent; for [11] she has prepared a heavenly bridal chamber for those who love her, [12] and she will look after them for ever. 8. And Penitence is herself a virgin, very beautiful and pure and chaste and gentle; and God Most High loves her, and all his angels do her reverence. 9. And lo, I am on my way to Joseph, and I will talk to him about you, and he will come to you to-day and see you and rejoice over you; and he shall be your bridegroom. 10. So listen to me, Aseneth, and put on your wedding robe, the ancient [13] robe, [14] the first [15] that was stored away in your room, and deck yourself in all your finest jewellry, and adorn yourself as a bride, and be ready to meet him. 11. Fo lo, he is coming to you to-day; and he will see you and rejoice.”

4. BA add ‘you (A + ‘pure’) virgin’.
5. under . . . shall: D om.
6. B ‘nations’; G om.
7. find shelter (lit. ‘shelter themselves’) = EGH: B ‘lodge and sh. th.’; D om.
8. on your b. every hour: B om.
9. and (B om.) on b. of all (BG om.) who r.: D om.
10. for . . . Penitence: D om.
11. she the mother . . . for: B om.
12. B ‘him’.

13. So BEFHA: D om.
14. So BFA: DEH om.
15. So BD: HA ‘even the first’; EF om.


Note the qualities assigned to this truly remarkable female angel:

  1. She is the beloved daughter of God.
  1. She is revered by angels.
  1. She is aware of the plight of all the penitent and virgins.
  1. She is the Virgin of virgins, and mother of virgins.
  1. She is most pure, chaste and gentle.
  1. She intercedes with God for virgins and those who are penitent.
  1. She forever looks after all who love her to protect and usher them into God’s heavenly bridal chamber.

Since these are the very roles and qualities attributed to Mary by the early Church, and since this comes from a Jewish (not a pagan) source, this refutes the assertion made by many that the exalted status of the blessed Mother stems from paganism. Joseph and Asenath proves that the idea of there being a heavenly female intercessor who is God’s highly exalted beloved daughter is completely in line with the monotheistic beliefs of the Jews before, during and after the time of Christ.

All scriptural citations taken from the Revised Standard Version (RSV).




According to the Scriptures, in particular John’s Gospel, the Jewish leadership wanted Pilate to kill Jesus for claiming to be the Son of God:

“Then they led Jesus from the house of Ca′iaphas to the praetorium. It was early. They themselves did not enter the praetorium, so that they might not be defiled, but might eat the passover. So Pilate went out to them and said, ‘What accusation do you bring against this man?’ They answered him, ‘If this man were not an evildoer, we would not have handed him over.’ Pilate said to them, ‘Take him yourselves and judge him by your own law.’ The Jews said to him, ‘It is not lawful for us to put any man to death.’ This was to fulfil the word which Jesus had spoken to show by what death he was to die.” John 18:28-32  

“The Jews answered him, ‘We have a law, and by that law he ought to die, because he has made himself the Son of God.’” John 19:7

Note that n the above passage John shows the reason why the Jews viewed Christ’s statements as making him worthy of death.

Throughout John’s Gospel, Jesus claims to be the Son of God in such a way that makes him equal to the Father in divinity:   

“The man went away and told the Jews that it was Jesus who had healed him. And this was why the Jews persecuted Jesus, because he did this on the sabbath. But Jesus answered them, ‘My Father is working still, and I am working.’ This was why the Jews sought all the more to kill him, because he not only broke the sabbath but also called God his own Father, making himself equal with God.” John 5:15-18

As God’s unique Son, Jesus believed that he possessed the same divine authority to work on the Sabbath that the Father possesses, thereby making him exempt from all Sabbath restrictions. The Jews correctly understood that, since God alone is exempt from Sabbath keeping seeing that he must still be actively working to sustain creation on that day and every other day, Jesus was therefore making himself equal with God.

This wasn’t the only time that the disbelieving Jews sought to kill Christ:

“They answered him, ‘Abraham is our father.’ Jesus said to them, ‘If you were Abraham’s children, you would do what Abraham did, but now you seek to kill me, a man who has told you the truth which I heard from God; this is not what Abraham did… Yet I do not seek my own glory; there is One who seeks it and he will be the judge. Truly, truly, I say to you, if any one keeps my word, he will never see death.’ The Jews said to him, ‘Now we know that you have a demon. Abraham died, as did the prophets; and you say, ‘If any one keeps my word, he will never taste death.” Are you greater than our father Abraham, who died? And the prophets died! Who do you claim to be?’ Jesus answered, ‘If I glorify myself, my glory is nothing; it is my Father who glorifies me, of whom you say that he is your God. But you have not known him; I know him. If I said, I do not know him, I should be a liar like you; but I do know him and I keep his word. Your father Abraham rejoiced that he was to see my day; he saw it and was glad.’ The Jews then said to him, ‘You are not yet fifty years old, and have you seen Abraham?’ Jesus said to them, ‘Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I am.’ So they took up stones to throw at him; but Jesus hid himself, and went out of the temple.” John 8:39-40, 50-59

Astonishingly, Jesus appeals to the example of Abraham of not wanting to kill him as the unbelieving Jews tried to do as evidence that they were not behaving like him, and therefore were not truly his descendants!

This assumes that Jesus and Abraham personally saw each other, which is precisely what Christ goes on to say when stating that the patriarch rejoiced at seeing Jesus and the Day when the Son would come to save God’s people. The Jews’ response shows that they understood the implication of Jesus’ statements, namely, that a Man who wasn’t yet fifty years old actually saw their ancestor who had been dead for nearly two thousand years.

Christ then corrects their mistaken understanding that he wasn’t fifty, by affirming that he did indeed see Abraham since he has been existing from even before the patriarch had come into being.

In other words, Jesus was showing them that he is much older than fifty years old, since he is more than a Man. Jesus is the divine preexistent Son of God who has been there from before the creation of the world, where he and the Father dwelt in the same glory and whom the Father has been loving from that time onwards:

“and now, Father, glorify thou me in thy own presence with the glory which I had with thee before the world was made… Father, I desire that they also, whom thou hast given me, may be with me where I am, to behold my glory which thou hast given me in thy love for me before the foundation of the world.” John 17:5, 24   

Here’s the final example where the unbelievers sought to again stone Jesus for uttering what they perceived to be blasphemy:

“‘My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me; and I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish, and no one shall snatch them out of my hand. My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all, and no one is able to snatch them out of the Father’s hand. I and the Father are one.’ The Jews took up stones AGAIN to stone him. Jesus answered them, ‘I have shown you many good works from the Father; for which of these do you stone me?’ The Jews answered him, ‘It is not for a good work that we stone you but for blasphemy; because you, being a man, make yourself God.’ Jesus answered them, ‘Is it not written in your law, “I said, you are gods”? If he called them gods to whom the word of God came (and scripture cannot be broken), do you say of him whom the Father consecrated and sent into the world, “You are blaspheming,” because I said, “I am the Son of God”? If I am not doing the works of my Father, then do not believe me; but if I do them, even though you do not believe me, believe the works, that you may know and understand that the Father is in me and I am in the Father.’ Again they tried to arrest him, but he escaped from their hands.” John 10:27-39

These Jews correctly noted that Jesus is a Man, who is not the Father, but nonetheless made himself out to be God.

The reason they were correct in assuming Christ had just claimed be God, even though they were wrong for thinking he had blasphemed for doing so, is because Jesus as the Son attributed to himself the exact same functions and abilities which the Hebrew Bible ascribes to YHWH alone.

For instance, believers are identified as the sheep in YHWH’S hand/care whose voice they must obey:

“O come, let us worship and bow down, let us kneel before the Lord, our Maker! For he is our God, and we are the people of his pasture, and the sheep of his hand. O that today you would hearken to his voice!” Psalm 95:6-7

The OT further affirms that YHWH is the only God who makes alive and whose hand (i.e., power) no one can ever deliver from:

“See now that I, even I, am he, and there is no god beside me; I kill and I make alive; I wound and I heal; and there is none that can deliver out of my hand.” Deuteronomy 32:39

“Hannah also prayed and said, ‘My heart exults in the Lord; my strength is exalted in the Lord. My mouth derides my enemies, because I rejoice in thy salvation. There is none holy like the Lord, there is none besides thee; there is no rock like our God… The Lord kills and brings to life; he brings down to Sheol and raises up.’” 1 Samuel 2:1-2, 6

“I am God, and also henceforth I am He; there is none who can deliver from my hand; I work and who can hinder it?” Isaiah 43:13

What makes the 1 Samuel citation so relevant is that Jesus even stated that he would be that very One who would personally resurrect the dead from their graves and raise up believers to immortality on the last day!

“Truly, truly, I say to you, the hour is coming, and now is, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live… Do not marvel at this; for the hour is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear his voice and come forth, those who have done good, to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil, to the resurrection of judgment.” John 5:25, 28-29

“‘All that the Father gives me will come to me; and him who comes to me I will not cast out. For I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will, but the will of him who sent me; and this is the will of him who sent me, that I should lose nothing of all that he has given me, but raise it up at the last day. For this is the will of my Father, that every one who sees the Son and believes in him should have eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day.’ The Jews then murmured at him, because he said, ‘I am the bread which came down from heaven.’ They said, ‘Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How does he now say, “I have come down from heaven”?’ Jesus answered them, ‘Do not murmur among yourselves. No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him; and I will raise him up at the last day… he who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day.’” John 6:37-44, 54

Christ further claims to be THE Resurrection and the Life, titles and characteristics that belong to the true God alone!

“Jesus said to her, ‘Your brother will rise again.’ Martha said to him, ‘I know that he will rise again in the resurrection at the last day.’ Jesus said to her, ‘I am the resurrection and the life; he who believes in me, though he die, yet shall he live, and whoever lives and believes in me shall never die. Do you believe this?’ She said to him, ‘Yes, Lord; I believe that you are the Christ, the Son of God, he who is coming into the world.’… Jesus said, ‘Take away the stone.’ Martha, the sister of the dead man, said to him, ‘Lord, by this time there will be an odor, for he has been dead four days.’ Jesus said to her, ‘Did I not tell you that if you would believe you would see the glory of God?’ So they took away the stone. And Jesus lifted up his eyes and said, ‘Father, I thank thee that thou hast heard me. I knew that thou hearest me always, but I have said this on account of the people standing by, that they may believe that thou didst send me.’ When he had said this, he cried with a loud voice, ‘Laz′arus, come out.’ The dead man came out, his hands and feet bound with bandages, and his face wrapped with a cloth. Jesus said to them, ‘Unbind him, and let him go.’” John 11:23-27, 39-44

In light of the aforementioned OT passages, it is explicitly clear that Jesus was in fact making himself out to be the God-Man, while also carefully distinguishing himself from God the Father.

This explains why John concludes his inspired writing by defining Jesus’ Sonship in relation to his true and essential Deity:

“Jesus said to them again, ‘Peace be with you. As the Father has sent me, even so I send you.’ And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and said to them, ‘Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained.’ Now Thomas, one of the twelve, called the Twin, was not with them when Jesus came. So the other disciples told him, ‘We have seen the Lord.’ But he said to them, ‘Unless I see in his hands the print of the nails, and place my finger in the mark of the nails, and place my hand in his side, I will not believe.’ Eight days later, his disciples were again in the house, and Thomas was with them. The doors were shut, but Jesus came and stood among them, and said, ‘Peace be with you.’ Then he said to Thomas, “Put your finger here, and see my hands; and put out your hand, and place it in my side; do not be faithless, but believing.’ Thomas answered him, ‘My Lord and my God (ho Kyrios mou kai ho Theos mou)!’ Jesus said to him, ‘Have you believed because you have seen me? Blessed are those who have not seen and yet believe.’ Now Jesus did many other signs in the presence of the disciples, which are not written in this book; but these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his name.” John 20:21-31

Once again, Jesus does what YHWH alone is depicted as doing, namely breathing out the Holy Spirit upon individuals:

“These are the generations of the heavens and the earth when they were created. In the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens, when no plant of the field was yet in the earth and no herb of the field had yet sprung up—for the Lord God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was no man to till the ground; but a mist went up from the earth and watered the whole face of the ground—then the Lord God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being.” Genesis 2:4-7

“The spirit of God has made me, and the breath of the Almighty gives me life.” Job 33:4

And Jesus accepts Thomas’ confession of being his very Lord and God, which echoes the Psalmist’s praise of YHWH:

“Bestir thyself, and awake for my right, for my cause, my God and my Lord (Gr. ho Theos mou kai ho Kyrios mou)!” Psalm 35:23

Since YHWH alone sends forth the Holy Spirit, and since he is the only God and Lord that a believer can ever confess and trust in, this again reinforces the fact that the risen Jesus is being described as YHWH God Incarnate.

This helps us understand why the Jews condemned Christ to death for saying he is God’s Son. According to Jesus’ own statements and the Gospel itself, Jesus is God’s Son in the sense of his being personally distinct from and essentially coequal with the Father. Since the Jewish rulers didn’t want to believe this, it therefore comes as no surprise that they erroneously thought that Jesus was blaspheming.    

Biblical references taken from the Revised Standard Version (RSV).


In this post I will seek to establish that Psalm 45 is a love song by the Father to his Son, Jesus Christ. I will show that this is not a Psalm about a particular Davidic king, which finds its ultimate fulfillment in the coming of Jesus in the flesh. Rather, it is a prophetic utterance solely fulfilled in Christ.

Here is the Psalm in question:

1 For the music director, according to “Lilies.” Of the sons of Korah, a contemplative song, a love song.

My heart is stirred with a good word (rachash libbi dabar tob).
I speak my verses to the king.
My tongue is the pen of a skillful writer.

You are the most handsome of the sons of men.
Grace pours from your lips.
Therefore God has blessed you forever.

Gird your sword on your thigh, O mighty one (gibbor),
in your splendor and your majesty.

In your majesty ride victoriously,
on behalf of truth, meekness and justice.
Let your right hand display awesome things.

Your arrows are sharp.
Peoples fall beneath you—
into the heart of the king’s enemies.

Your throne, O God (elohim), is forever and ever,
and a scepter of justice is the scepter of Your kingdom.

You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness.
Therefore, God (elohim), your God (eloheka), anointed you with the oil of gladness above your companions.

All your robes have myrrh, aloes, cassia.
From ivory palaces, stringed instruments
make you glad.

10 Kings’ daughters are among your honored women.
At your right hand stands the queen
in gold of Ophir.

11 “Listen, O daughter, consider and incline your ear.
Forget your people and your father’s house.

12 Then the king will desire your beauty.
Honor him, for he is your lord.

13 A daughter of Tyre comes with a gift.
The richest people will court your favor.”

14 All glorious is the king’s daughter within the palace—
her gown is interwoven with gold.

15 She will be led to the king in embroidered garments.
Her virgins, her companions following her, are coming in to you.

16 They are led in with joy and gladness—
they enter into the palace of the king.

17 Your sons will take your fathers’ place.
You will make them princes throughout the land.

18 I will cause your name to be remembered in all generations.
Therefore the nations will praise you forever and ever. Tree of Life Version (TLV)


It is important to emphasize that God often speaks of himself in the third person all throughout the God-breathed Scriptures, as the following texts affirm:

“And the Lord said to Abraham, ‘Why did Sarah laugh, saying, “Shall I surely bear a child, since I am old?”Is anything too hard for the Lord? At the appointed time I will return to you, according to the time of life, and Sarah shall have a son.’ But Sarah denied it, saying, ‘I did not laugh,’ for she was afraid. And He said, ‘No, but you did laugh!’ Then the men rose from there and looked toward Sodom, and Abraham went with them to send them on the way. And the Lord said, ‘Shall I hide from Abraham what I am doing,since Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him?For I have known him, in order that he may command his children and his household after him, that they keep the way of the Lord, to do righteousness and justice, that the Lord may bring to Abraham what He has spoken to him.’And the Lord said, ‘Because the outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is great, and because their sin is very grave,I will go down now and see whether they have done altogether according to the outcry against it that has come to Me; and if not, I will know.’” Genesis 18:13-21

“Then the Lord said to Moses, ‘Go to the people and consecrate them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their clothes.And let them be ready for the third day. For on the third day the Lord will come down upon Mount Sinai in the sight of all the people.’…So Moses went down from the mountain to the people and sanctified the people, and they washed their clothes…Now Mount Sinai was completely in smoke, because the Lord descended upon it in fire. Its smoke ascended like the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mountain quaked greatly. And when the blast of the trumpet sounded long and became louder and louder, Moses spoke, and God answered him by voice.Then the Lord came down upon Mount Sinai, on the top of the mountain. And the Lord called Moses to the top of the mountain, and Moses went up. And the Lord said to Moses, ‘Go down and warn the people, lest they break through to gaze at the Lord, and many of them perish. Also let the priests who come near the Lord consecrate themselves, lest the Lord break out against them.’But Moses said to the Lord, ‘The people cannot come up to Mount Sinai; for You warned us, saying, “Set bounds around the mountain and consecrate it.”’Then the Lord said to him, ‘Away! Get down and then come up, you and Aaron with you. But do not let the priests and the people break through to come up to the Lord, lest He break out against them.’” Exodus 19:10-11, 14, 18-24 

As such, the Psalm’s employment of third person references to God do not negate the fact that it is still YHWH speaking to and about the King. This leads me to my next point.


According to Hebrews, it is actually God the Father who is specifically addressing the Messianic King in Psalm 45:

“For to which of the angels did He ever say: ‘You are My Son, Today I have begotten You? And again:I will be to Him a Father, And He shall be to Me a Son’? But when He again brings the firstborn into the world, He says:Let all the angels of God worship Him.’ And of the angels He says: ‘Who makes His angels spirits And His ministers a flame of fire.’ But to the Son He [the Father] says:Your throne, O God (Ho Theos), is forever and ever; A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom. You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness; Therefore God, Your God, has anointed You With the oil of gladness more than Your companions.’” Hebrews 1:5-9

Therefore, Psalm 45 are not the words of a human writer to the King, but are the statements of God himself which the inspired human author wrote down.


It is clear from the context of Psalm 45 that this Ruler is no mere human being, since he is not only called God (Heb. Elohim/Gr. Ho Theos) by God himself, he is also given specific divine titles and prerogatives which are not appropriate for a mortal human.

Case in point:

“So the King will greatly desire your beauty; Because He is your Lord (Adonayik), worship Him… I will make Your name to be remembered in all generations; Therefore the people shall praise You forever and ever.” Psalm 45:11, 17

Pay close attention to the fact that the King is called Adonayik, a title that is used only one other time in reference to YHWH:

“Thus says your Lord (Adonayik), The Lord and your God (Elohayik), Who pleads the cause of His people: ‘See, I have taken out of your hand The cup of trembling, The dregs of the cup of My fury; You shall no longer drink it.’” Isaiah 51:22

The reign of this Davidic Ruler is also described in a fashion similar to the way YHWH’s rule is depicted:

 “You, O Lord, remain forever; Your throne from generation to generation.” Lamentations 5:19

Note, as well, that this glorious Potentate further receives the very same worship which the people render to YHWH himself!

All the kings of the earth shall praise You, O Lord, When they hear the words of Your mouth. Yes, they shall sing of the ways of the Lord, For great is the glory of the Lord.” Psalm 138:4-5

All Your works shall praise You, O Lord, And Your saints shall bless You. They shall speak of the glory of Your kingdom, And talk of Your power, To make known to the sons of men His mighty acts, And the glorious majesty of His kingdom.Your kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, And Your dominion endures throughout all generations.” Psalm 145:10-13

These factors conclusively prove that the Psalm is not depicting a mere human sovereign, but rather a Being that is truly Divine, One who is both God and Man at the same time.  


The expression employed by the Psalmist “a daughter of Tyre,” or to the kings’ daughters, are not references to specific individuals. Rather, these terms can and often do denote the inhabitants of a particular kingdom or city, just as the following texts indicate:  

“this is the word which the Lord has spoken concerning him: ‘The virgin, the daughter of Zion, Has despised you, laughed you to scorn; The daughter of Jerusalem Has shaken her head behind your back!’” Isaiah 37:22

“Come down and sit in the dust, O virgin daughter of Babylon; Sit on the ground without a throne, O daughter of the Chaldeans! For you shall no more be called Tender and delicate.” Isaiah 47:1

“The LORD has trampled underfoot all my mighty men in my midst; He has called an assembly against me To crush my young men; The LORD trampled as in a winepress The virgin daughter of Judah.” Lamentations 1:15

“How shall I console you? To what shall I liken you, O daughter of Jerusalem? What shall I compare with you, that I may comfort you, O virgin daughter of Zion? For your ruin is spread wide as the sea; Who can heal you?” Lamentations 2:13

Therefore, one can legitimately interpret these statements of the Psalmist as references to all the Gentiles that come to embrace and worship the Davidic King as their Lord God.


In fact, the inspired [N]ew [T]estament writings confirm this understanding.

According to the Christian Scriptures, believers who make up the Church are portrayed as Christ’s Bride, his betrothed whom the Lord will come to consummate marriage with (albeit in a spiritual sense, not in a physical, sexual manner):

“Then the kingdom of heaven shall be likened to ten virgins who took their lamps and went out to meet the bridegroom. Now five of them were wise, and five were foolish. Those who were foolish took their lamps and took no oil with them, but the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps. But while the bridegroom was delayed, they all slumbered and slept. And at midnight a cry was heard: ‘Behold, the bridegroom is coming; go out to meet him!’ Then all those virgins arose and trimmed their lamps. And the foolish said to the wise, ‘Give us some of your oil, for our lamps are going out.’ But the wise answered, saying, ‘No, lest there should not be enough for us and you; but go rather to those who sell, and buy for yourselves.’ And while they went to buy, the bridegroom came, and those who were ready went in with him to the wedding; and the door was shut. Afterward the other virgins came also, saying, ‘Lord, Lord, open to us!’ But he answered and said, ‘Assuredly, I say to you, I do not know you.’ Watch therefore, for you know neither the day nor the hour in which the Son of Man is coming.” Matthew 25:1-13

“Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ? Shall I then take the members of Christ and make them members of a harlot? Certainly not!Or do you not know that he who is joined to a harlot is one body with her? For ‘the two,’ He says, ‘shall become one flesh.’ But he who is joined to the Lord is one spirit with Him. Flee sexual immorality. Every sin that a man does is outside the body, but he who commits sexual immorality sins against his own body.Or do you not know that your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and you are not your own?For you were bought at a price; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God’s.” 1 Corinthians 6:15-20

“Oh, that you would bear with me in a little folly—and indeed you do bear with me. For I am jealous for you with godly jealousy. For I have betrothed you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ.But I fear, lest somehow, as the serpent deceived Eve by his craftiness, so your minds may be corrupted from the [a]simplicity that is in Christ.For if he who comes preaches another Jesus whom we have not preached, or if you receive a different spirit which you have not received, or a different gospel which you have not accepted—you may well put up with it!” 2 Corinthians 11:1-4

“Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself for her, that He might sanctify and cleanse her with the washing of water by the word,that He might present her to Himself a glorious church, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing, but that she should be holy and without blemish. So husbands ought to love their own wives as their own bodies; he who loves his wife loves himself. For no one ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it, just as the Lord does the church.For we are members of His body, of His flesh and of His bones. ‘For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh.’ This is a great mystery, but I speak concerning Christ and the church.Nevertheless let each one of you in particular so love his own wife as himself, and let the wife see that she respects her husband.” Ephesians 5:25-33

“‘Let us be glad and rejoice and give Him glory, for the marriage of the Lamb has come, and His wife has made herself ready.’ And to her it was granted to be arrayed in fine linen, clean and bright, for the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints. Then he said to me, ‘Write: “Blessed are those who are called to the marriage supper of the Lamb!”’ And he said to me, ‘These are the true sayings of God.’” Revelation 19:7-9

“Now I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away. Also there was no more sea. Then I, John, saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband… Then one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls filled with the seven last plagues came to me and talked with me, saying, ‘Come, I will show you the bride, the Lamb’s wife.’ And he carried me away in the Spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me the great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God, having the glory of God. Her light was like a most precious stone, like a jasper stone, clear as crystal. Also she had a great and high wall with twelve gates, and twelve angels at the gates, and names written on them, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel: three gates on the east, three gates on the north, three gates on the south, and three gates on the west. Now the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and on them were the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb.” Revelation 21:1-2, 9-14

As such, the references in the Psalm to the Queen, kings’ daughters or the daughter of the king, to princes etc., are really statements about believers who become sons and daughters of God the Father through their faith in and union with Christ, resulting in their becoming kings/queens that rule over the earth. Note the following passages:

“But you are those who have continued with Me in My trials. And I bestow upon you a kingdom, just as My Father bestowed one upon Me, that you may eat and drink at My table in My kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.” Luke 22:28-30

“and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn from the dead, and the ruler over the kings of the earth. To Him who loved us and washed us from our sins in His own blood, and has made us kings and priests to His God and Father, to Him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.” Revelation 1:5-6  

“And he who overcomes, and keeps My works until the end, to him I will give power over the nations—‘He shall rule them with a rod of iron; They shall be dashed to pieces like the potter’s vessels’— as I also have received from My Father; and I will give him the morning star.” Revelation 2:26-28

“To him who overcomes I will grant to sit with Me on My throne, as I also overcame and sat down with My Father on His throne.” Revelation 3:21

“And they sang a new song, saying: ‘You are worthy to take the scroll, And to open its seals; For You were slain, And have redeemed us to God by Your blood Out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation, And have made us kings and priests to our God; And we shall reign on the earth.’” Revelation 5:9-10

And I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was committed to them. Then I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for their witness to Jesus and for the word of God, who had not worshiped the beast or his image, and had not received his mark on their foreheads or on their hands. And they lived and reigned with Christ for a thousand years. But the rest of the dead did not live again until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is he who has part in the first resurrection. Over such the second death has no power, but they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign with Him a thousand years.” Revelation 20:4-6

This brings me to the climax of my post.


One of the most interesting aspects of this specific Psalm is that we find an allusion to the divine King’s eternal begetting.

Note again this particular verse:

“My heart is stirred with a good word (rachash libbi dabar tob)…” Psalm 45:2 TLV

And contrast this with the English rendering of the Greek versions of the Hebrew Bible, known as the Septuagint (LXX):

“For the end, for alternate [strains by the sons of Kore; for instruction, a Song concerning the Beloved (tou agapetou). My heart has uttered a good word (exereuxato he kardia mou logon agathon): I declare my works to the king: my tongue is the pen of a quick writer.” Psalm 44:1-2

The reason why this Psalm readily lends itself in support of Christ’s eternal begetting is because it not only mentions the Word (Heb. Dabar/Gr. Logos), a title ascribed to the Son,  

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men… That was the true Light which gives light to every man coming into the world. He was in the world, and the world was made through Him, and the world did not know Him… And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth.” John 1:1-4, 9-10, 14

“That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled, concerning the Word of life—the life was manifested, and we have seen, and bear witness, and declare to you that eternal life which was with the Father and was manifested to us—that which we have seen and heard we declare to you, that you also may have fellowship with us; and truly our fellowship is with the Father and with His Son Jesus Christ.” 1 John 1:1-3

“He was clothed with a robe dipped in blood, and His name is called The Word of God.” Revelation 19:13

But also because the Psalm is specifically addressed to the Beloved, a term which the NT ascribes to Jesus as God’s uniquely beloved Son:

“and a voice came out of the heavens: ‘You are My beloved Son (ho Hyios mou, ho agapetos), in You I am well-pleased.’” Mark 1:11

“Then a cloud formed, overshadowing them, and a voice came out of the cloud, ‘This is My beloved Son (ho Hyios mou, ho agapetos), listen to Him!’” Mark 9:7

The Father loves the Son (agapa ton Hyion) and has given all things into His hand.” John 3:35

“Father, I desire that they also, whom You have given Me, be with Me where I am, so that they may see My glory which You have given Me, for You loved Me (hegapesas Me) before the foundation of the world.” John 17:24

“to the praise of the glory of His grace, which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved (to Hegapemenoo).” Ephesians 1:6 NKJV

“For He rescued us from the domain of darkness, and transferred us to the kingdom of His beloved Son (tou Hyiou tes agapes autou),” Colossians 1:13 NKJV

And just as the Psalmist speaks of the Word springing forth from God’s heart, Jesus is said to be dwelling in the bosom or heart of the Father:

“No one has seen God at any time; the only begotten God who is in the bosom of the Father (ho on eis ton kolpon tou Patros), He has explained Him.” John 1:18

“God, unseen until now, is revealed in the Voice, God’s only Son, straight from the Father’s heart.” The Voice (VOICE)


The foregoing helps us appreciate why so many early church fathers and theologians cited this specific Psalm as evidence for the eternal generation of the Son!


Chapter 7. The Son by Being Designated Word and Wisdom, (According to the Imperfection of Human Thought and Language) Liable to Be Deemed a Mere Attribute. He is Shown to Be a Personal Being

Then, therefore, does the Word also Himself assume His own form and glorious garb, His own sound and vocal utterance, when God says, Let there be light. Genesis 1:3 This is the perfect nativity of the Word, when He proceeds forth from God — formed by Him first to devise and think out all things under the name of Wisdom — The Lord created or formed me as the beginning of His ways; Proverbs 8:22 then afterward begotten, to carry all into effect — When He prepared the heaven, I was present with Him. Thus does He make Him equal to Him: for by proceeding from Himself He became His first-begotten Son, because begotten before all things; Colossians 1:15 and His only-begotten also, because alone begotten of God, in a way peculiar to Himself, from the womb of His own heart — even as the Father Himself testifies: My heart, says He, has emitted my most excellent WordThe Father took pleasure evermore in Him, who equally rejoiced with a reciprocal gladness in the Father’s presence: You are my Son, today have I begotten You; even before the morning star did I beget You. The Son likewise acknowledges the Father, speaking in His own person, under the name of Wisdom: The Lord formed Me as the beginning of His ways, with a view to His own works; before all the hills did He beget Me. For if indeed Wisdom in this passage seems to say that She was created by the Lord with a view to His works, and to accomplish His ways, yet proof is given in another Scripture that all things were made by the Word, and without Him was there nothing made; John 1:3 as, again, in another place (it is said), By His word were the heavens established, and all the powers thereof by His Spirit — that is to say, by the Spirit (or Divine Nature) which was in the Word: thus is it evident that it is one and the same power which is in one place described under the name of Wisdom, and in another passage under the appellation of the Word, which was initiated for the works of God Proverbs 8:22 which strengthened the heavens; by which all things were made, John 1:3 and without which nothing was made. John 1:3 Nor need we dwell any longer on this point, as if it were not the very Word Himself, who is spoken of under the name both of Wisdom and of Reason, and of the entire Divine Soul and Spirit. He became also the Son of God, and was begotten when He proceeded forth from Him. Do you then, (you ask,) grant that the Word is a certain substance, constructed by the Spirit and the communication of Wisdom? Certainly I do. But you will not allow Him to be really a substantive being, by having a substance of His own; in such a way that He may be regarded as an objective thing and a person, and so be able (as being constituted second to God the Father,) to make two, the Father and the Son, God and the Word. For you will say, what is a word, but a voice and sound of the mouth, and (as the grammarians teach) air when struck against, intelligible to the ear, but for the rest a sort of void, empty, and incorporeal thing. I, on the contrary, contend that nothing empty and void could have come forth from God, seeing that it is not put forth from that which is empty and void; nor could that possibly be devoid of substance which has proceeded from so great a substance, and has produced such mighty substances: for all things which were made through Him, He Himself (personally) made. How could it be, that He Himself is nothing, without whom nothing was made? How could He who is empty have made things which are solid, and He who is void have made things which are full, and He who is incorporeal have made things which have body? For although a thing may sometimes be made different from him by whom it is made, yet nothing can be made by that which is a void and empty thing. Is that Word of God, then, a void and empty thing, which is called the Son, who Himself is designated God? The Word was with God, and the Word was God. John 1:1 It is written, You shall not take God’s name in vain. Exodus 20:7 This for certain is He who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God. Philippians 2:6 In what form of God? Of course he means in some form, not in none. For who will deny that God is a body, although God is a Spirit? John 4:24 For Spirit has a bodily substance of its own kind, in its own form. Now, even if invisible things, whatsoever they be, have both their substance and their form in God, whereby they are visible to God alone, how much more shall that which has been sent forth from His substance not be without substance! Whatever, therefore, was the substance of the Word that I designate a Person, I claim for it the name of Son; and while I recognize the Son, I assert His distinction as second to the Father. (Tertullian, Against Praxeas; bold emphasis mine)


3. That the same Christ is the Word of God

In the forty-fourth Psalm: My heart has breathed out a good Word. I tell my works to the King. Also in the thirty-second Psalm: By the Word of God were the heavens made fast; and all their strength by the breath of His mouth. Also in Isaiah: A Word completing and shortening in righteousness, because a shortened word will God make in the whole earth. Also in the cvith Psalm: He sent His Word, and healed them. Moreover, in the Gospel according to John: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by Him, and without Him was nothing made that was made. In Him was life; and the life was the light of men. And the light shines in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not. Also in the Apocalypse: And I saw the heaven opened, and lo, a white horse; and he who sate upon him was called Faithful and True, judging rightly and justly; and He made war. And He was covered with a garment sprinkled with blood; and His name is called the Word of God.

4. That Christ is the Hand and Arm of God

In Isaiah: Is God’s Hand not strong to save? Or has He made His ear heavy, that He cannot hear? But your sins separate between you and God; and on account of your sins He turns His face away from you, that He may not pity. For your hands are defiled with blood, and your fingers with sins. Moreover, your lips have spoken wickedness, and your tongue meditates unrighteousness. No one speaks truth, nor is there true judgment: they trust in vanity, and speak emptiness, who conceive sorrow, and bring forth wickedness. Also in the same place: Lord, who has believed our report? And to whom is the Arm of God revealed? Also in the same: Thus says the Lord, Heaven is my throne, and the earth is the support of my feet. What house will you build unto me? Or what is the place for my rest? For all these things has mine hand made. Also in the same: O Lord God, Your Arm is high, and they knew it not; but when they know it, they shall be confounded. Also in the same: The Lord has revealed His Arab that holy Arm, in the sight of all nations; all nations, even the ends of the earth, shall see salvation from God. Also in the same place: Behold, I have made you as the wheels of a thrashing chariot, new and turned back upon themselves; and you shall thrash the mountains, and shall beat the bills small, and shall make them as chaff, and shall winnow them; and the wind shall seize them, and the whirlwind shall scatter them: but you shall rejoice in the saints of Israel; and the poor and needy shall exult. For they shall seek water, and there shall be none. For their tongue shall be dry for thirst. I the Lord God, I the God of Israel, will hear them, and will not forsake them; but I will open rivers in the mountains, and fountains in the midst of the fields. I will make the wildernesses watery groves, and a thirsty land into watercourses. I will establish in the land of drought the cedar-tree and the box-tree, and the myrtle and the cypress, and the elm and the poplar, that they may see and acknowledge, and know and believe together, that the Hand of the Lord has done these things, and the Holy One of Israel has shown them.

5. That Christ is at once Angel and God

In Genesis, to Abraham: And the Angel of the Lord called him from heaven, and said to him, Abraham, Abraham! And he said, Here am I. And He said, Lay not your hand upon the lad, nor do anything unto him. For now I know that you fear your God, and hast not spared your son, your beloved son, for my sake. Also in the same place, to Jacob: And the Angel of the Lord spoke unto me in dreams, I am God, whom you saw in the place of God where you anointed me a pillar of stone, and vowed to me a vow. Also in Exodus: But God went before them by day indeed in a pillar of cloud, to show them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire. And afterwards, in the same place: And the Angel of God moved forward, which went before the army of the children of Israel. Also in the same place: Lo, I send my Angel before your face, to keep you in the way, that He may lead you into the land which I have prepared for you. Observe Him, and obey Him, and be not disobedient to Him, and He will not be wanting to you. For my Name is in Him. Whence He Himself says in the Gospel: I came in the name of my Father, and you received me not. When another shall come in his own name, him you will receive. And again in the cxviith Psalm: Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord. Also in Malachi: My covenant of life and peace was with Levi; and I gave him fear, that he should fear me, that he should go from the face of my name. The law of truth was in his mouth, and unrighteousness was not found in his lips. In the peace of the tongue correcting, he walked with us, and turned many away from unrighteousness. Because the lips of the priests shall keep knowledge, and they shall seek the law at His mouth; for He is the Angel of the Almighty. (Cyprian, Treatise XII (Book 2); bold emphasis mine)


Chapter 13 That the Same Truth is Proved from the Sacred Writings of the New Covenant.

And thus also John, describing the nativity of Christ, says: The Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, and we saw His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full Of grace and truth… For, moreover, His name is called the Word of God, Revelation 19:13 and not without reason. My heart has emitted a good word; which word He subsequently calls by the name of the King inferentially, I will tell my works to the King. For by Him were made all the works, and without Him was nothing made. John 1:3 Whether says the apostle they be thrones or dominations, or powers, or mights, visible things and invisible, all things subsist by Him. Colossians 1:16 Moreover, this is that word which came unto His own, and His own received Him not. For the world was made by Him, and the world knew Him not. John 1:10-11 Moreover, this Word was in the beginning with God, and God was the Word. John 1:1 Who then can doubt, when in the last clause it is said, The Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, that Christ, whose is the nativity, and because He was made flesh, is man; and because He is the Word of God, who can shrink from declaring without hesitation that He is God, especially when he considers the evangelical Scripture, that it has associated both of these substantial natures into one concord of the nativity of Christ? (Novatian, Treatise Concerning the Trinity; emphasis mine)

In light of the foregoing, the evidence overwhelmingly supports the view that Psalm 45 was not written about any mere Davidic ruler, whether David himself or one of his descendants. Rather, the intertextual biblical evidence confirms that this is a clear-cut prophecy of the Messianic King being the God in the flesh, that God’s eternally begotten Son would come forth to become a human descendant of David in order to reign as the glorious God-Man, God Almighty in the flesh (Cf. Isaiah 9:1-2 6-7 [10:20-21; Matthew 4:12-16; Luke 1:26-35, 78-79]; Jeremiah 23:5-6; 33:15-16; Micah 5:2-5 [Matthew 2:1-6; Luke 2:1-7]).

Unless noted otherwise, scriptural references taken from the New King Version (NKJV).


The God who reigns forever: More prophetic hints to the Deity of the Messiah

Does the Immediate Context of Hebrews 1:8 prove that Jesus is God? [Part 1], [Part 2]