Jesus: Our Passover Lives!

All the Gospel accounts record that Jesus’ betrayal, crucifixion, and death coincided with the Passover feast:

“Now the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which is called the Passover, drew near. And the chief priests and scribes were seeking how to kill Jesus, for they feared the people. Then Satan entered into Judas, called Iscariot, who was one of the twelve. He went and discussed with the chief priests and captains how he might betray Him to them. They were glad and agreed to give him money. He fully consented and searched for an opportunity to betray Him to them apart from the crowds. Then the Day of Unleavened Bread came, when the Passover lamb must be killed. He sent Peter and John, saying, ‘Go and prepare the Passover for us to eat it.’… They went and found it as He had told them. So they prepared the Passover. When the hour had come, He and the twelve apostles with Him sat down. And He said to them, ‘I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer. For I tell you, I will never eat it again until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.’ And He took the cup and gave thanks and said, “Take this and divide it among yourselves. For I tell you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.’ Then He took the bread, and when He had given thanks, He broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is My body which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of Me.’ In like manner, He took the cup after supper, saying, ‘This cup is the new covenant in My blood which is shed for you.’” Luke 22:1-8, 13-20

“When Pilate heard these words, he brought Jesus out and sat down on the judgment seat at a place called The Pavement (which in Hebrew is Gabbatha). It was the Day of Preparation of the Passover and about the sixth hour. He said to the Jews, ‘Here is your King!’ But they shouted, ‘Away with Him! Away with Him! Crucify Him!’ Pilate said to them, “Shall I crucify your King?’ The chief priests answered, ‘We have no king but Caesar!’ Then he handed Him over to them to be crucified. So they took Jesus and led Him away. He went out, carrying His own cross, to a place called The Place of a Skull, which in Hebrew is called Golgotha. There they crucified Him, and two others with Him, one on either side, and Jesus in the middle.” John 19:13-18

Paul takes it a step further by identifying Jesus as our Passover:

“Therefore purge out the old yeast, that you may be a new batch, since you are unleavened. For even Christ, our Passover, has been sacrificed for us.”1 Corinthians 5:7

And although John in Revelation doesn’t use the precise term, nonetheless he too describes Christ as the Passover lamb:

“I saw a Lamb (arnion) in the midst of the throne and of the four living creatures, and in the midst of the elders, standing as though it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God, sent out into all the earth. He came and took the scroll out of the right hand of Him who sat on the throne. When He had taken the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each one having a harp, and golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of saints. And they sang a new song, saying: ‘You are worthy to take the scroll, and to open its seals; for You were slain, and have redeemed us to God by Your blood out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation, and have made us kings and priests unto our God; and we shall reign on the earth.'” Revelation 5:6-10

The word employed here, arnion, refers to a little young lamb. The fact that John depicts Christ as a slain young lamb is clearly meant to portray the risen Lord as the Passover of a new Exodus of a (re)new(ed) covenant community consisting of both ethnic Jews and Gentiles.

The significance of Jesus’ being likened to the Passover becomes clear when we examine the reason why YHVH God ordered his people to observe it:

“Now the LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying: This month shall be the beginning of months to you. It shall be the first month of the year to you. Speak to all the congregation of Israel, saying: On the tenth day of this month every man shall take a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for a household. And if the household be too little for the lamb, let him and his neighbor next to his house take it according to the number of the persons; according to what each man shall eat, divide the lamb. Your lamb shall be WITHOUT BLEMISH, a male of the first year. You shall take it out from the sheep, or from the goats. You shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month, and then the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening. They shall take some of the blood and put it on the two side posts and on the upper doorpost of the houses in which they shall eat it. They shall eat the flesh on that night, roasted with fire, and they shall eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs. Do not eat it raw, nor boiled at all with water, but roasted with fire, its head with its legs and its entrails. And you shall let nothing of it remain until the morning, but that of it which remains until the morning you shall burn with fire. In this way shall you eat it: with your waist girded, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand. So you shall eat it in haste. It is the LORD’s Passover. For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast, and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment. I am the LORD. THE BLOOD shall be to you for a sign on the houses where you are. And when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you when I smite the land of Egypt… You shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread. For on this very day I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt. Therefore you shall observe this day throughout your generations as an ordinance forever… Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel and said to them, ‘Draw out and take for yourselves a lamb according to your families and kill the Passover lamb. You shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and apply the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the basin, and none of you shall go out from the door of his house until the morning. For the LORD will pass through to kill the Egyptians. AND WHEN HE SEES THE BLOOD upon the lintel and on the two side posts, the LORD will pass over the door and will not permit the destroyer to come to your houses to kill you. And you shall observe this thing as an ordinance to you and to your sons forever. When you enter the land which the LORD will give you, according as He has promised, that you shall observe this service. And when your children shall say to you, “What does this service mean to you?” that you shall say, “It is the sacrifice of the Lord’s Passover, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when He smote the Egyptians, and delivered our households.”’  And the people bowed down and worshipped. Then the children of Israel went and did so. Just as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did… Now the sojourning of the children of Israel who lived in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years. And at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, on the very day, all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt. It is a night to be observed to the LORD for bringing them out from the land of Egypt. This is that night for the LORD to be observed by all the children of Israel in their generations… And that same day the LORD brought the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their hosts.” Exodus 12:1-13 17, 21-28, 40-43, 51

The sacrifice of a young unblemished male lamb, whose flesh is to be eaten, and whose blood was to placed on the lintel and sides of the door, protected the firstborn in the house from death and resulted in Israel being freed from their enslavement, from their bondage to the Egyptians.

The Israelites were commanded to commemorate this event as a reminder of how YHVH their God ransomed them from being slaves in Egypt:

“Then Moses said to the people, ‘Commemorate this day, the day you came out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery, because the LORD brought you out of it with a mighty hand. Eat nothing containing yeast.’” Exodus 13:3 New International Version (NIV)

“And God spoke all these words: ‘I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery.’” Exodus 20:1-2 NIV

“I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, that you should not be their slaves, and I have broken the bars of your yoke and made you walk upright.” Leviticus 26:13

“But it is because the LORD loved you and because He kept the oath which He swore to your fathers. The LORD brought you out with a mighty hand and redeemed you out of the house of slavery, from the hand of Pharaoh, king of Egypt.” Deuteronomy 7:8

“For I have brought you up from the land of Egypt, and from the house of slaves I have redeemed you; and I sent before you Moses, Aaron, and Miriam.” Micah 6:4

Here is where the connection with Christ’s death lies.

Like the Passover lamb, the Lord Jesus died on the cross at a young age for the specific purpose of offering his soul/life as an unblemished sacrifice to God:

“how much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself without blemish to God, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?” Hebrews 9:14

“For you know that you were not redeemed from your vain way of life inherited from your fathers with perishable things, like silver or gold, but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot. He was foreordained before the creation of the world, but was revealed in these last times for you.” 1 Peter 1:18-20

And similar to the Passover lamb, those eating Christ’s flesh and drinking his blood are redeemed from their bondage to sin and Satan, having escaped death, since death will pass over them and they will live forever:

“Truly, truly I say to you, whoever hears My word and believes in Him who sent Me has eternal life and shall not come into condemnation, but has passed from death into life.” John 5:24

“Jesus said to them, ‘Truly, truly I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink His blood, you have no life in you. Whoever eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life. And I will raise him up on the last day… As the living Father sent Me, and I live because of the Father, so whoever feeds on Me also will live because of Me.’” John 6:53-54, 57

“As He spoke these words, many believed in Him. Then Jesus said to those Jews who believed Him, ‘If you remain in My word, then you are truly My disciples. You shall know the truth, and the truth shall set you free.’ They answered Him, ‘We are Abraham’s seed and have never been in bondage to anyone. Why do You say, “You shall be set free”?’ Jesus answered them, ‘Truly, truly I say to you, whoever commits sin is a slave of sin. Now a slave does not remain in the house forever, but a son remains forever. Therefore if the Son sets you free, you shall be free indeed.’” John 8:30-36

“‘Truly, truly I say to you, if anyone keeps My word, he shall never see death.’ Then the Jews said to Him, ‘Now we know that You have a demon. Abraham and the prophets died, and You say, “If a man keeps My word, he shall never taste death.” Are You greater than our father Abraham, who died? The prophets are dead! Who do You make Yourself out to be?” John 8:51-53

“Jesus said to her, ‘Your brother will rise again.’ Martha said to Him, ‘I know that he will rise again in the resurrection on the last day.’ Jesus said to her, ‘I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in Me, though he may die, yet shall he live. And whoever lives and believes in Me shall never die. Do you believe this?’ She said to Him, ‘Yes, Lord, I believe that You are the Christ, the Son of God, who is to come into the world.’” John 11:23-27

“‘Let not your heart be troubled. You believe in God. Believe also in Me. In My Father’s house are many dwelling places. If it were not so, I would have told you. I am going to prepare a place for you. And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and receive you to Myself, that where I am, you may be also. You know where I am going, and you know the way.’ Thomas said to Him, ‘Lord, we do not know where You are going. How can we know the way?’ Jesus said to him, ‘I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me… I will not leave you fatherless. I will come to you. Yet a little while and the world will see Me no more. But you will see Me. Because I live, you will live also.’” John 14:1-6, 18-19

“Do you not know that to whom you yield yourselves as slaves to obey, you are slaves of the one whom you obey, whether of sin leading to death, or of obedience leading to righteousness? But thanks be to God, for you were slaves of sin, but you have obeyed from the heart that form of teaching to which you were entrusted, and having been freed from sin, you became the slaves of righteousness. I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh, for just as you have yielded your members as slaves to impurity and iniquity leading to more iniquity, even so now yield your members as slaves to righteousness unto holiness. For when you were the slaves of sin, you were free from righteousness. What fruit did you have then from the things of which you are now ashamed? The result of those things is death. But now, having been freed from sin and having become slaves of God, you have fruit unto holiness, and the end is eternal life. For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.” Romans 6:16-23

“Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ, who gave Himself for our sins, that He might deliver us from this present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father,” Galatians 1:3-4

“For the grace of God that brings salvation has appeared to all men, teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly desires, we should live soberly, righteously, and in godliness in this present world, as we await the blessed hope and the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ, who gave Himself for us, that He might redeem us from all lawlessness and purify for Himself a special people, zealous of good works.” Titus 2:11-14

“We also were once foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving various desires and pleasures, living in evil and envy, filled with hatred and hating each other. But when the kindness and the love of God our Savior toward mankind appeared, not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to His mercy He saved us, through the washing of rebirth and the renewal of the Holy Spirit, whom He poured out on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Savior, so that, being justified by His grace, we might become heirs according to the hope of eternal life.” Titus 3:3-7

“So then, as the children share in flesh and blood, He likewise took part in these, so that through death He might destroy him who has the power of death, that is, the devil, and deliver those who through fear of death were throughout their lives subject to bondage.” Hebrews 2:14-15

“We know that we have passed from death to life, because we love the brothers. Whoever does not love his brother remains in death.” 1 John 3:14

Another point of similarity is that, much like the Passover lamb,

“In one house shall it be eaten. You shall not carry any of the flesh outside of the house, nor shall you break a bone of it.” Exodus 12:46

“They will leave none of it until the morning, nor break any of its bones. According to all the ordinances of the Passover they will keep it.” Numbers 9:12

None of Christ’s bones were broken when he was beaten, whipped, and nailed to the cross:

“When Jesus had received the sour wine, He said, ‘It is finished.’ And He bowed His head and gave up His spirit. Since it was the Day of Preparation, to prevent bodies from remaining on the cross on the Sabbath day (for that Sabbath day was a high day), the Jews asked Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away. Therefore the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first and of the other who was crucified with Him. But when they came to Jesus and saw that He was dead already, they did not break His legs. However, one of the soldiers pierced His side with a spear, and immediately blood and water came out. He who saw it has testified, and his testimony is true. He knows that he is telling the truth, that you may believe. For these things happened so that the Scripture should be fulfilled, ‘Not one of His bones shall be broken,’” John 19:30-36

Finally, God’s purpose in the slaying of the Passover was to force the Pharaoh to set his sons and daughters free, since YHVH God chose Israel to be his firstborn son that would worship him:

“You shall say to Pharaoh, ‘Thus says the LORD: Israel is My son, even My firstborn. So I say to you, “Let My son go, that he may serve Me. And if you refuse to let him go, I will slay your son, even your firstborn.”’” Exodus 4:22-23

You are the sons of the LORD your God. You shall not cut yourselves or make any baldness between your eyes for the dead. For you are a holy people to the LORD your God, and the LORD has chosen you to be a peculiar people to Himself, treasured above all the nations that are on the earth.” Deuteronomy 14:1-2

Likewise, Jesus’ death procured the redemption of the sons and daughters of the living God:

“Yet to all who received Him, He gave the power to become sons of God, to those who believed in His name, who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.” John 1:12-13

“Then one of them named Caiaphas, who was the high priest that year, said to them, ‘You know nothing at all, nor do you consider that it is expedient for us that one man should die for the people, that the whole nation should not perish.’ He did not say this on his own authority. But being the high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus would die for the nation, and not for the nation only, but that He might also gather together in unity the children of God who were scattered abroad.” John 11:49-52

“For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are the sons of God. For you have not received the spirit of slavery again to fear. But you have received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, ‘Abba, Father.’ The Spirit Himself bears witness with our spirits that we are the children of God, and if children, then heirs: heirs of God and joint-heirs with Christ, if indeed we suffer with Him, that we may also be glorified with Him. For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed to us. The eager expectation of the creation waits for the appearance of the sons of God. For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but by the will of Him who subjected it, in hope that the creation itself also will be set free from its slavery to corruption into the glorious freedom of the children of God. We know that the whole creation groans and travails in pain together until now. Not only that, but we also, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, groan within ourselves while eagerly waiting for adoption, the redemption of our bodies. For we are saved through hope, but hope that is seen is not hope, for why does a man still hope for what he sees? But if we hope for what we do not see, we wait for it with patience.” Romans 8:14-25

You are all sons of God by faith in Christ Jesus. For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ. There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, and there is neither male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus. If you are Christ’s, then you are Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise.” Galatians 3:26-29

“But when the fullness of time came, God sent forth His Son, born from a woman, born under the law, to redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive the adoption as sons. And because you are sons, God has sent forth into our hearts the Spirit of His Son, crying, ‘Abba, Father!’ Therefore you are no longer a servant, but a son, and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.” Galatians 4:4-7

There’s more to the sacrifice of the Lord Jesus, which we will unveil in the next segment of our discussion.

Endnotes

 (1) The fact that none of Christ’s bones were broken also fulfilled the Psalms, which states that YHVH will not permit the bones of the righteous to be broken:

“Many are the afflictions of the righteous, but the LORD delivers him out of them all. A righteous one keeps all his bones; not one of them is broken.” Psalm 34:19-20

Since Jesus is perfectly righteous, being absolutely holy and pure from his virginal conception,

“Then Mary said to the angel, ‘How can this be, since I do not know a man?’ The angel answered her, ‘The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Highest will overshadow you. Therefore the Holy One who will be born will be called the Son of God.’” Luke 1:34-35

“In their synagogue there was a man with an unclean spirit. And he cried out, ‘Leave us alone! What do You have to do with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who You are, the Holy One of God.’” Mark 1:23-24

“Simon Peter answered him, ‘Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life. We have come to believe and to know that you are the Holy One of God.’” John 6:68-69 NIV

“He who speaks on his own authority seeks his own glory. But He who seeks the glory of Him who sent Him is true, and no unrighteousness is in Him.” John 7:18

“So Jesus said to them, ‘When you lift up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am He, and I do nothing of Myself. But I speak these things as My Father taught Me. He who sent Me is with Me. The Father has not left Me alone, for I always do those things that please HimWhich of you convicts Me of sin? If I speak the truth, why do you not believe Me?’” John 8:28-29, 46

“You denied the Holy and Righteous One and asked for a murderer to be granted to you, and you killed the Creator of Life, whom God has raised from the dead, of which we are witnesses.” Acts 3:14-15

“Which of the prophets have your fathers not persecuted? They have even killed those who foretold the coming of the Righteous One, of whom you have now become the betrayers and murderers,” Acts 7:52

“Then he said, ‘The God of our fathers has appointed you to know His will and to see the Just One and to hear His voice,’” Acts 22:14

“God made Him who knew no sin to be sin for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.” 2 Corinthians 5:21

“For we do not have a High Priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but One who was in every sense tempted like we are, yet without sin.” Hebrews 4:15

“For such a High Priest was fitting for us, for He is holy, innocent, undefiled, separate from sinners, and is higher than the heavens.” Hebrews 7:26

“My little children, I am writing these things to you, so that you do not sin. But if anyone does sin, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the Righteous One.” 1 John 2:1

“Dear friends, now we are children of God, and what we will be has not yet been made known. But we know that when Christ appears, we shall be like him, for we shall see him as he is. All who have this hope in him purify themselves, just as he is pure… But you know that he appeared so that he might take away our sins. And in him is no sin… Dear children, do not let anyone lead you astray. The one who does what is right is righteous, just as he is righteous.” 1 John 3:2-3, 5, 7 NIV

“To the angel of the church in Philadelphia write: ‘He who is holy, He who is true, He who has the key of David, He who opens and no one shuts, and shuts and no one opens, says these things:” Revelation 3:7

It only makes sense that this Psalm would find its perfect fulfillment in him.

Commanding Jihad Against Those Who Believe Differently

The Quran emphatically orders Muhammadans to fight, murder and/or subdue peoples of other faiths, especially Jews and Christians, unless and until they pay a sum of money (jizyah) as a sign of their degradation and humiliation:

Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allah, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger (4) and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islam) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued. And the Jews say: ‘Uzair (Ezra) is the son of Allah, and the Christians say: Messiah is the son of Allah. That is a saying from their mouths. They imitate the saying of the disbelievers of old. Allah’s Curse be on them, how they are deluded away from the truth! They (Jews and Christians) took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allah (by obeying them in things which they made lawful or unlawful according to their own desires without being ordered by Allah), and (they also took as their Lord) Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary), while they (Jews and Christians) were commanded [in the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)) to worship none but One Ilah (God – Allah) La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He). Praise and glory be to Him, (far above is He) from having the partners they associate (with Him).” They (the disbelievers, the Jews and the Christians) want to extinguish Allah’s Light (with which Muhammad has been sent – Islamic Monotheism) with their mouths, but Allah will not allow except that His Light should be perfected even though the Kafirun (disbelievers) hate (it). It is He Who has sent His Messenger (Muhammad) with guidance and the religion of truth (Islam), to make it superior over all religions even though the Mushrikun (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah) hate (it). S. 9:29-33 Hilali-Khan

Some Muslims try to get around this by claiming that these passages were “revealed” against those Jews and Christians that attacked and waged war against the Muslims.

The problem with such a desperate interpretation is that this is not what the verses say. The plain reading of the passage is that Muhammad’s followers were ordered to attack these people simply because they were not Muslims and followed a religion other than Islam.

This is not simply an “Islamophobic” reading of these references but has been the traditional view of Sunni Islamic scholarship for centuries.

For instance, the following extract comes from a renowned Muslim scholar and commentator who unashamedly admits that these verses are commanding Muhammadans to attack and subdue people of other faiths, particularly Jews and Christians, not because they have attacked or waged war against Muhammad’s followers, but because they believe a religion other than Islam:

This verse contains instructions to fight the disbelievers among the Jews and Christians, {those who do not believe in Allah and the Last Day} in the sense of sound belief that is confirmed by deeds and actions

{and do not regard as forbidden that which Allah and His Messenger have forbidden}, so they do not follow His law with regard to what was forbidden

{and do not follow the religion of truth} that is, they do not follow the true religion. Even if they do claim to follow a religion, then it is not the correct religion because either it is a false religion that Allah did not prescribe in the first place, or it is an abrogated religion that Allah did prescribe, but He superseded it with the religion of Muhammad, therefore adhering to it after it has been abrogated is not permissible.

Hence Allah instructed the Muslims to fight these people and encouraged them to do so, BECAUSE they call people to the religion that they follow and cause a great deal of harm to people, as people may be deceived by them, because of their being People of the Book.

Then Allah defines the aim of that fighting: {until they pay the jizyah} that is, wealth that is given in return for the Muslims not fighting them and allowing them to stay among the Muslims, granting them safety for their lives and their property. The jizyah is to be taken from them every year, each according to his situation, and is to be taken from rich and poor and everyone in between, as was done by Ameer al-Mu’mineen ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab and other caliphs.

{readily} that is, until they give it when they are subdued and have no power to resist, and they give it themselves, not sending it with a servant or anyone else; rather it can only be accepted from their own hands

{and feel themselves subdued}

If they are like this, and they ask the Muslims to let them give the jizyah and live under Muslim rule and control, and there is no fear of their evil or turmoil, and they agree to the conditions stipulated by the Muslims, then it is obligatory for the Muslim ruler or his deputy to give them this deal.

This verse is quoted as evidence by the majority of scholars who say that the jizyah can only be accepted from the People of the Book, because Allah did not mention taking the jizyah from anyone except them.

The Magians are included with the People of the Book with regard to taking the jizyah from them and allowing them to live in the Muslim lands, because the Prophet took the jizyah from the Magians of Hajar, then Ameer al-Mu’mineen ‘Umar took it from the Persian Magians.

It was also said that jizyah may be taken from all the disbelievers, People of the Book and others, because this verse was revealed after the Muslims had finished fighting with the polytheist Arabs and had begun to fight the People of the Book and their ilk, so this condition is describing the real situation and is not meant to impose a restriction on accepting jizyah from the People of the Book only.

This is supported by the fact that the jizyah was taken from the Magians, who were not People of the Book, and the fact that it is narrated in mutawatir reports from the Sahabah and those who came after them that they called those whom they were about to fight to choose one of three options: either to become Muslim or to give the jizyah or to fight, without differentiating between those who were People of the Book and others.

When Allah issued the command to fight the People of the Book, He mentioned some of their evil notions SO AS TO ENCOURAGE THE BELIEVERS who care about their Lord and His religion TO FIGHT THEM, striving and doing their utmost… Allah sent him with guidance and the true religion, {so that He may cause it to prevail over all other religions, even though the polytheists hate it} that is, so that He may make it prevail over all religions, by means of proof and evidence, AND BY MEANS OF FIGHTING, even though the polytheists hate it and try to defeat it and plot against it, for evil plots harm no one but their authors. Allah will inevitably fulfil His promise and do that which He has guaranteed to do. (Abdur-Rahman Nasir as-Sa’di, Tafseer As-Sa’di, translated by Nasiruddin al-Khattab, edited by Huda Khattab [International Islamic Publishing House, 2018], Volume 4 (Juz’ 10-12), pp. 75-77, 80 https://www.kalamullah.com/Books/Tafseer-As-Sadi-Volume-4-Juz-10-12.pdf; capital and underline emphasis mine)

Further Reading

Is Islam a Religion of Peace? (https://answeringislam.net/Shamoun/na_debate.htm)

Muhammad and the Meccans: Who Antagonized Whom? (https://answeringislam.net/Shamoun/antagonizing.htm)

 

 

 

 

Muhammad Did it Again! More Proof that Jesus is God Incarnate Pt. 2

I continue from where I left off previously (https://answeringislamblog.wordpress.com/2020/03/31/muhammad-did-it-again-more-proof-that-jesus-is-god-incarnate-pt-1/).

Muhammad stated that prayers and invocations are acts of worship, which his Lord requires from his followers:

 And said your Lord, “Call upon Me; I will respond to you. Indeed, those who (are) proud to worship Me will enter Hell (in) humiliation.”… He (is) the Ever-Living; (there is) no god but He, so call Him, (being) sincere to Him (in) the religion. All praise (be) to Allah, (the) Lord (of) the worlds. S. 40:60, 65

He further taught his followers how to pray to receive forgiveness:

II. The best way of asking for forgiveness

The words of the Almighty, “Ask forgiveness of your Lord. Truly He is Endlessly Forgiving. He will send heaven down on you in abundant rain and reinforce you with more wealth and sons, and grant you gardens and grant you waterways.” (71:10-12) 

“Those who, when they act indecently or wrong themselves, remember Allah and ask forgiveness for their bad actions – and who can forgive bad actions EXCEPT Allah – and do not knowingly persist in what they were doing.” (3:135)

5947. Bushayr ibn Ka’b al-‘Adawi related from Shaddad ibn Aws that the Prophet said, “The master of prayers for forgiveness is to say, ‘O Allah, You are my Lord. There is no god but You, You created me and I am Your slave. I observe Your covenant and promise as much as I can. I seek refuge with You from the evil of what I have done, I acknowledge Your blessing to me and I acknowledge my wrong action to You, so forgive me. None forgives wrong actions BUT YOU.’ Whoever says it in the day with certainty in it and dies on that day before the evening will be one of the people of the Garden. Whoever says it in the night with certainty in it and dies on that before morning will be one of the people of the Garden.'” (Aisha Bewley, The Sahih Collection of al-Bukhari, Chapter 83. Book of Supplications https://bewley.virtualave.net/bukhari43.html; capital and underline emphasis mine)

The following gives us the Arabic of this prayer:

Narrated Shaddad bin Aus: The Prophet said, “The most superior way of asking for forgiveness from Allah is: ‘Allahumma anta Rabbi la ilaha illa anta, Khalaqtani wa ana `Abduka, wa ana `ala `ahdika wa wa`dika mastata`tu, A`udhu bika min Sharri ma sana`tu, abu’u Laka bini`matika `alaiya, wa abu’u laka bidhanbi faghfir lee fa innahu la yaghfiru adhdhunuba illa anta.” The Prophet added. “If somebody recites it during the day with firm faith in it, and dies on the same day before the evening, he will be from the people of Paradise; and if somebody recites it at night with firm faith in it, and dies before the morning, he will be from the people of Paradise.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 75, Number 318 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=75&translator=1&start=0&number=318)

Interestingly, the hadith that immediately follows highlights Muhammad’s praying for forgiveness for his own sins:

Narrated Abu Huraira: I heard Allah’s Apostle saying, “By Allah! I ask for forgiveness from Allah and turn to Him in repentance more than seventy times a day.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 75, Number 319 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=75&translator=1&start=0&number=319)

Other reports mention Muhammad’s seeking forgiveness up to 100 times a day!(1)

Al-Agharr al-Muzani who was from amongst the Companions of Allah’s Apostle reported that Ibn ‘Umar stated to him that Allah’s Messenger said: O people, seek repentance from Allah. Verily, I seek repentance from Him a hundred times a day. (Sahih Muslim, Book 035, Number 6523)

Muhammad stands in contrast to Jesus, who is not only absolutely pure and sinless but also possesses the ability to forgive sins:

“And he said to her, ‘Your sins are forgiven.’ Then those who were at table with him began to say among themselves, ‘Who is this, who even forgives sins?’ And he said to the woman, ‘Your faith has saved you; go in peace.” Luke 7:48-50

“And when he returned to Capernaum after some days, it was reported that he was at home. And many were gathered together, so that there was no more room, not even at the door. And he was preaching the word to them. And they came, bringing to him a paralytic carried by four men. And when they could not get near him because of the crowd, they removed the roof above him, and when they had made an opening, they let down the bed on which the paralytic lay. And when Jesus saw their faith, he said to the paralytic, ‘Son, your sins are forgiven.’ Now some of the scribes were sitting there, questioning in their hearts, ‘Why does this man speak like that? He is blaspheming! Who can forgive sins but God alone?’ And immediately Jesus, perceiving in his spirit that they thus questioned within themselves, said to them, ‘Why do you question these things in your hearts? Which is easier, to say to the paralytic, “Your sins are forgiven,” or to say, “Rise, take up your bed and walk”? But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins’—he said to the paralytic—‘I say to you, rise, pick up your bed, and go home.’ And he rose and immediately picked up his bed and went out before them all, so that they were all amazed and glorified God, saying, ‘We never saw anything like this!’” Mark 2:1-12

Christ exhibits the characteristics, which the Hebrew Bible attributes to YHVH God alone, namely, knowing the inner thoughts of men’s hearts/minds, healing diseases, and pardoning transgressions:

“then hear in heaven your dwelling place and forgive and act and render to each whose heart you know, according to all his ways (for you, you only, know the hearts of all the children of mankind),” 1 King 8:39

“would not God discover this? For he knows the secrets of the heart.” Psalm 44:21

“Bless the LORD, O my soul, and forget not all his benefits, who forgives all your iniquity, who heals all your diseases, who redeems your life from the pit, who crowns you with steadfast love and mercy,” Psalm 103:2-4

Christ further instructed his followers to pray directly to him, making their requests known to him personally, and that he would then answer all their invocations:

“Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever believes in me will also do the works that I do; and greater works than these will he do, because I am going to the Father. Whatever you ask in my name, this I will do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. If you ask me anything in my name, I will do it.” John 14:12-14

This is precisely what the first Christians, most of whom were Jews living in Jerusalem, did:

“But he, full of the Holy Spirit, gazed into heaven and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God. And he said, ‘Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God.’ But they cried out with a loud voice and stopped their ears and rushed together at him. Then they cast him out of the city and stoned him. And the witnesses laid down their garments at the feet of a young man named Saul. And as they were stoning Stephen, he called out, ‘Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.’ And falling to his knees he cried out with a loud voice, ‘Lord, do not hold this sin against them.’ And when he had said this, he fell asleep.” Acts 7:55-60

Stephen, the first martyr of the faith, prays to the risen Christ to receive his spirit as he dies and to forgive his murderers for their crime.

Remarkably, Stephen invokes Jesus in the same way that the Psalm prays to YHVH God!

Into your hand I commit my spirit; you have redeemed me, O LORD, faithful God.” Psalm 31:5

By entrusting his departing spirit to Christ, Stephen was testifying that Jesus is God in the flesh, since the spirits of all men return to the God who created them when their bodies return to the dust:

“Remember also your Creator in the days of your youth, before the evil days come and the years draw near of which you will say, ‘I have no pleasure in them’… and the dust returns to the earth as it was, and the spirit returns to God who gave it. Vanity of vanities, says the Preacher; all is vanity.” Ecclesiastes 12:1, 7

Christians even became known for their practice of calling upon/invoke the risen Christ in their prayers and worship:

“To the church of God that is in Corinth, to those sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints together with all those who in every place call upon the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, both their Lord and ours:” 1 Corinthians 1:2

In fact, this was precisely one of the chief reasons why Paul persecuted the church before the risen Lord confronted and converted him to the true faith:

“Now there was a disciple at Damascus named Ananias. The Lord said to him in a vision, ‘Ananias.’ And he said, ‘Here I am, Lord.’ And the Lord said to him, ‘Rise and go to the street called Straight, and at the house of Judas look for a man of Tarsus named Saul, for behold, he is praying, and he has seen in a vision a man named Ananias come in and lay his hands on him so that he might regain his sight.’ But Ananias answered, ‘Lord, I have heard from many about this man, how much evil he has done to YOUR saints at Jerusalem. And here he has authority from the chief priests to bind all who call on YOUR name.” But the Lord said to him, ‘Go, for he is a chosen instrument of mine to carry MY name before the Gentiles and kings and the children of Israel. For I will show him how much he must suffer for the sake of MY name.’ So Ananias departed and entered the house. And laying his hands on him he said, ‘Brother Saul, the Lord Jesus who appeared to you on the road by which you came has sent me so that you may regain your sight and be filled with the Holy Spirit.’ And immediately something like scales fell from his eyes, and he regained his sight. Then he rose and was baptized; and taking food, he was strengthened. For some days he was with the disciples at Damascus. And immediately he proclaimed Jesus in the synagogues, saying, ‘He is the Son of God.’ And all who heard him were amazed and said, ‘Is not this the man who made havoc in Jerusalem of those who called upon this name? And has he not come here for this purpose, to bring them bound before the chief priests?’” Acts 9:10-21

“‘Brothers and fathers, hear the defense that I now make before you.’ And when they heard that he was addressing them in the Hebrew language, they became even more quiet. And he said: ‘I am a Jew, born in Tarsus in Cilicia, but brought up in this city, educated at the feet of Gamaliel according to the strict manner of the law of our fathers, being zealous for God as all of you are this day. I persecuted this Way to the death, binding and delivering to prison both men and women, as the high priest and the whole council of elders can bear me witness. From them I received letters to the brothers, and I journeyed toward Damascus to take those also who were there and bring them in bonds to Jerusalem to be punished. As I was on my way and drew near to Damascus, about noon a great light from heaven suddenly shone around me. And I fell to the ground and heard a voice saying to me, “Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me?” And I answered, “Who are you, Lord?” And he said to me, “I am Jesus of Nazareth, whom you are persecuting.” Now those who were with me saw the light but did not understand the voice of the one who was speaking to me. And I said, “What shall I do, Lord?” And the Lord said to me, “Rise, and go into Damascus, and there you will be told all that is appointed for you to do.” And since I could not see because of the brightness of that light, I was led by the hand by those who were with me, and came into Damascus. And one Ananias, a devout man according to the law, well spoken of by all the Jews who lived there, came to me, and standing by me said to me, “Brother Saul, receive your sight.” And at that very hour I received my sight and saw him. And he said, “The God of our fathers appointed you to know his will, to see the Righteous One and to hear a voice from his mouth; for you will be a witness for HIM to everyone of what you have seen and heard. And now why do you wait? Rise and be baptized and wash away your sins, calling on HIS name.” When I had returned to Jerusalem and was praying in the temple, I fell into a trance and saw HIM saying to me, “Make haste and get out of Jerusalem quickly, because they will not accept your testimony about ME.” And I said, “Lord, they themselves know that in one synagogue after another I imprisoned and beat those who believed in YOU. And when the blood of Stephen YOUR witness was being shed, I myself was standing by and approving and watching over the garments of those who killed him.” And he said to me, “Go, for I will send you far away to the Gentiles.”’” Acts 22:1-21

The foregoing shows that the historical Jesus claimed the power to forgive sins and ordered true believers to invoke him in their prayers and worship.

Therefore, in light of what Muhammad is reported to have said, this means that Jesus was essentially making himself out to be God in the flesh since no one besides God has the power to forgive and is to be invoked.

So much for the Muslim assertion that nowhere in the Gospels does Jesus ever claim to be God or demand to be worshiped as God.

Endnotes

(1) Muhammad definitely needed to pray for forgiveness since the Quran acknowledges that he was an imperfect transgressor whose deity often threatened to punish and/or kill him for his moral failures:

And seek forgiveness of Allah. Lo! Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful. And plead not on behalf of (people) who deceive themselves. Lo! Allah loveth not one who is treacherous and sinful. S. 4:106-107 Pickthall

O Messenger! Make known that which hath been revealed unto thee from thy Lord, for if thou do it not, thou wilt not have conveyed His message. Allah will protect thee from mankind. Lo! Allah guideth not the disbelieving folk. S. 5:67 Pickthall

Allah forgive thee (O Muhammad)! Wherefor didst thou grant them leave ere those who told the truth were manifest to thee and thou didst know the liars? S. 9:43 Pickthall

This is (part) of that wisdom wherewith thy Lord hath inspired thee (O Muhammad). And set not up with Allah any other god, lest thou be cast into hell, reproved, abandoned. S. 17:39 Pickthall

And they indeed strove hard to beguile thee (Muhammad) away from that wherewith We have inspired thee, that thou shouldst invent other than it against Us; and then would they have accepted thee as a friend. And if We had not made thee wholly firm thou mightest almost have inclined unto them a little. Then had we made thee taste a double (punishment) of living and a double (punishment) of dying, then hadst thou found no helper against Us. 17:73-75 Pickthall

Or thou have a house of gold; or thou ascend up into heaven, and even then we will put no faith in thine ascension till thou bring down for us a book that we can read. Say (O Muhammad): My Lord be Glorified! Am I aught save a mortal messenger? S. 17:93 Pickthall

Say: I am only a mortal like you. My Lord inspireth in me that your God is only One God. And whoever hopeth for the meeting with his Lord, let him do righteous work, and make none sharer of the worship due unto his Lord. S. 18:110 Pickthall

O Prophet! Keep thy duty to Allah and obey not the disbelievers and the hypocrites. Lo! Allah is Knower, Wise. S. 33:1 Pickthall

And verily it hath been revealed unto thee as unto those before thee (saying): If thou ascribe a partner to Allah thy work will fail and thou indeed wilt be among the losers. S. 39:65 Pickthall

Then have patience (O Muhammad). Lo! the promise of Allah is true. And ask forgiveness of thy sin, and hymn the praise of thy Lord at fall of night and in the early hours. S. 40:55 Pickthall

Say (unto them O Muhammad): I am only a mortal like you. It is inspired in me that your God is One God, therefor take the straight path unto Him and seek forgiveness of Him. And woe unto the idolaters, S. 41:6 Pickthall

Say: I am no new thing among the messengers (of Allah), nor know I what will be done with me or with you. I do but follow that which is inspired in me, and I am but a plain warner. S. 46:9 Pickthall

So know (O Muhammad) that there is no God save Allah, and ask forgiveness for thy sin and for believing men and believing women. Allah knoweth (both) your place of turmoil and your place of rest. S. 47:19 Pickthall

Lo! We have given thee (O Muhammad) a signal victory, That Allah may forgive thee of thy sin that which is past and that which is to come, and may perfect His favour unto thee, and may guide thee on a right path, S. 48:1-2 Pickthall

And if he had invented false sayings concerning Us, We assuredly had taken him by the right hand And then severed his life-artery, And not one of you could have held Us off from him. S. 69:44-47 Pickthall

Say (unto them, O Muhammad): I pray unto Allah only, and ascribe unto Him no partner. Say: Lo! I control not hurt nor benefit for you. Say: Lo! none can protect me from Allah, nor can I find any refuge beside Him. (Mine is) but conveyance (of the Truth) from Allah, and His messages; and whoso disobeyeth Allah and His messenger, lo! his is fire of hell, wherein such dwell for ever. Till (the day) when they shall behold that which they are promised (they may doubt); but then they will know (for certain) who is weaker in allies and less in multitude. Say (O Muhammad, unto the disbelievers): I know not whether that which ye are promised is nigh, or if my Lord hath set a distant term for it. S. 72:20-25 Pickthall

Then hymn the praises of thy Lord, and seek forgiveness of Him. Lo! He is ever ready to show mercy. S. 110:3 Pickthall

Contrast this with the Lord Jesus Christ:

“And they made his grave with the wicked and with a rich man in his death, although he had done no violence, and there was no deceit in his mouth… Out of the anguish of his soul he shall see and be satisfied; by his knowledge shall the righteous one, my servant, make many to be accounted righteous, and he shall bear their iniquities.” Isaiah 53:9, 11

“And a voice came from heaven, ‘You are my beloved Son; with you I am well pleased.’” Mark 1:11

“And immediately there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit. And he cried out, ‘What have you to do with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are—the Holy One of God.’” Mark 1:23-24

“Simon Peter answered him, ‘Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life, and we have believed, and have come to know, that you are the Holy One of God.’” John 6:68-69

“The one who speaks on his own authority seeks his own glory; but the one who seeks the glory of him who sent him is true, and in him there is no falsehood.” John 7:18

“And he who sent me is with me. He has not left me alone, for I always do the things that are pleasing to himWhich one of you convicts me of sin? If I tell the truth, why do you not believe me?” John 8:19, 46

“But you denied the Holy and Righteous One, and asked for a murderer to be granted to you, and you killed the Author of life, whom God raised from the dead. To this we are witnesses.”

“Which of the prophets did your fathers not persecute? And they killed those who announced beforehand the coming of the Righteous One, whom you have now betrayed and murdered,” Acts 7:52

“And he said, ‘The God of our fathers appointed you to know his will, to see the Righteous One and to hear a voice from his mouth;’” Acts 22:14

“For our sake he made him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.” 2 Corinthians 5:21

“For we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but one who in every respect has been tempted as we are, yet without sin.” Hebrews 4:15

“For it was indeed fitting that we should have such a high priest, holy, innocent, unstained, separated from sinners, and exalted above the heavens.” Hebrews 7:26

“how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify our conscience from dead works to serve the living God.” Hebrews 9:14

“knowing that you were ransomed from the futile ways inherited from your forefathers, not with perishable things such as silver or gold, but with the precious blood of Christ, like that of a lamb without blemish or spot.” 1 Peter 1:18-19

“For to this you have been called, because Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, so that you might follow in his steps. He committed no sin, neither was deceit found in his mouth. When he was reviled, he did not revile in return; when he suffered, he did not threaten, but continued entrusting himself to him who judges justly. He himself bore our sins in his body on the tree, that we might die to sin and live to righteousness. By his wounds you have been healed. For you were straying like sheep, but have now returned to the Shepherd and Overseer of your souls.” 1 Peter 2:21-25

“For Christ also suffered once for sins, the righteous for the unrighteous, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh but made alive in the spirit,” 1 Peter 3:18

“My little children, I am writing these things to you so that you may not sin. But if anyone does sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous.” 1 John 2:1

“Beloved, we are God’s children now, and what we will be has not yet appeared; but we know that when he appears we shall be like him, because we shall see him as he is. And everyone who thus hopes in him purifies himself as he is pure… You know that he appeared in order to take away sins, and in him there is no sin… Little children, let no one deceive you. Whoever practices righteousness is righteous, as he is righteous.” 1 John 3:2-3, 5, 7

“And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write: ‘The words of the holy one, the true one, who has the key of David, who opens and no one will shut, who shuts and no one opens.’” Revelation 3:7

 

Muhammad Did it Again! More Proof that Jesus is God Incarnate Pt. 1

The ahadith report that Muhammad sought protection in the perfect, eternal words of his deity:

 42 Model Behavior of the Prophet (Kitab Al-Sunnah)

(1698) Chapter: The Qur’an, The Word Of Allah

Ibn ‘Abbas said:

The Prophet used to seek refuge in Allah for al-Hasan and al-Husain, saying; I seek refuge for both of you in the perfect words of Allah from every devil and every poisonous thing and from the evil eye which influences. He would then say; your father sought refuge in Allah by them for Ismail and Ishaq.

Abu Dawud said; this is a proof of the fact that the Quran IS NOT CREATED.

 Grade: SAHIH (Al-Albani)

 Reference: Sunan Abi Dawud 4737

In-book reference: Book 42, Hadith 142

English translation: Book 41, Hadith 4719 (sunnah.com https://sunnah.com/abudawud/42/142; capital and underline emphasis mine)

The translator says in a note that:

4127. The Prophet called the Qur’an the perfect words of Allah. A perfect word cannot be a created thing. (Sunan Abu Dawud, English translation with explanatory notes by Prof. Ahmad Hasan [Sh. Muhammad Ashraf Publishers, Booksellers & Exporters; Lahore, Pakistan, 1984], XXXV. Kitab al-Sunnah [Book of Model Behaviour (of the Prophet)], Chapter 1698: The Qur’an, The Word of Allah, pp. 1325-26; bold emphasis mine)

And:

6. The sixth proof

It was narrated that Khawlah bint Hakeem said: I heard the Messenger of Allah say: “Whoever stops at a place and says: I seek refuge in the perfect words of Allah from the evil of that which He has created, nothing will harm him until he moves on from that place.”. Narrated by Muslim (2708). 

If His words were created, then seeking refuge in them would be shirk, because that would be seeking refuge in something that is created. It is well-known that seeking refuge in anything other than Allah, may He be exalted, and His names and attributes is shirk, so how could the Prophet have taught his ummah something that is obviously shirk, when he is the one who came to teach them pure Tawheed?

This indicates that the words of Allah, may He be exalted, are not created.

Na‘eem ibn Hammaad said: Refuge is not to be sought in anything that is created, or in the words of people, jinn, humans or angels.

Al-Bukhaari said, after quoting that: This indicates that the words of Allah are not created, and that everything other than Him is created.

See: Khalq Af‘aal al-‘Ibaad (p. 143) (Islam Question & Answer, “Ten textual and rational proofs that the Qur’an is the word of Allah and is not created” https://islamqa.info/en/answers/219613/ten-textual-and-rational-proofs-that-the-quran-is-the-word-of-allah-and-is-not-created; bold emphasis mine)

What makes this so remarkable is that Muhammad testified that Jesus is the perfect Word of his deity!

For instance, the Quran states that Christ was absolutely pure and faultless from his conception:

He said: I am only a messenger of thy Lord, that I may bestow on thee a faultless son. S. 19:19 Pickthall

He said, “I am the messenger of your Lord, to grant you a pure son.” Khalifa

The Islamic scripture further teaches that Yahya, i.e. John the Baptist, was sent to bear witness to a Word from Allah, namely Jesus the Christ:

Then the angels called to him as he stood praying in the sanctuary: That Allah gives you the good news of Yahya verifying a Word from Allah, and honorable and chaste and a prophet from among the good ones. S. 3:39 Shakir

Here is how the Muslim expositors explained this particular text:

Mention when the angels namely Gabriel said ‘O Mary God gives you good tidings of a Word from Him that is a boy whose name is the Messiah Jesus son of Mary He addresses her attributing him to her in order to point out that she will give birth to him without a father for the custom is to attribute the child to its father honoured shall he be in this world through prophethood and the Hereafter through his intercession and the high stations al-darajāt al-‘ulā cf. Q. 2075 and of those brought close to God. (Tafsir al-Jalalayn https://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=74&tSoraNo=3&tAyahNo=45&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=2; bold and underline emphasis mine)

(believing in the Word from Allah) Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said, and also Al-Hasan, Qatadah, `Ikrimah, Mujahid, Abu Ash-Sha`tha, As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Ad-Dahhak, and several others said that the Ayah…

(believing in the Word from Allah) means, “Believing in `Isa, son of Maryam.” (Tafsir Ibn Kathir http://www.alim.org/library/quran/AlQuran-tafsir/TIK/3/38; bold and underline emphasis mine)

Note that Jesus is expressly said to be the Word from Allah.

The fact that Christ is a Word from Allah implies his prehuman existence, that he preexisted with Allah as his very own Word. This point is brought out more clearly in the following passage:

“Behold,” the angels told Mary, “God has given you the glad news of the coming birth of a son whom He calls His Word, whose name will be Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, who will be a man of honor in this life and the life to come, and who will be one of the ones nearest to God.” S. 3:45 Muhammad Sarwar

According to this verse, the Word is not a mere abstraction or command, but an actual person. This is due to the fact that the Word is given a personal name, i.e., the Messiah Jesus, son of Mary.

This in itself refutes the oft-repeated Muslim argument that Jesus is only called the Word of Allah because he is a by-product of Allah’s Word, being brought into existence by the creative command of Allah. The text emphatically affirms that the Word didn’t make Jesus, but rather the Word IS Jesus himself.

Jesus is, therefore, the perfect uncreated Word of Allah come down from heaven, a fact confirmed by Q. 4:171:

O People of the Book! Commit no excesses in your religion: Nor say of Allah aught but the truth. Christ Jesus the son of Mary was (no more than) a messenger of Allah, and His Word, which He bestowed on Mary, and a spirit proceeding from Him: so believe in Allah and His messengers. Say not ‘Trinity’: desist: it will be better for you: for Allah is one Allah: Glory be to Him: (far exalted is He) above having a son. To Him belong all things in the heavens and on earth. And enough is Allah as a Disposer of affairs.” Yusuf Ali

Christ is the Word of Allah, not just a word from him, that proceeded as a Spirit from him and entered into Mary to become human. This is precisely why Islamic tradition calls Jesus both Kalimatullah (“the Word of Allah”) and Ruhullah (“the Spirit of Allah”):

Ruh-Ullah – Spirit of God, A special title given by Prophet Muhammad to Jesus (A. A.) (M. A. Qazi, Concise Dictionary of Islamic Terms [Kazi Publications, Chicago IL, 1979], p. 57; bold emphasis mine)

“… They will go to ‘Isa and say, ‘O ‘Isa! You are the Messenger of Allah and His Word which He cast to Maryam and a spirit from Him. You spoke to people while in the cradle. Intercede with your Lord on our behalf. Do you not see what we are suffering?’ ‘Isa will say, ‘My Lord is angry today with such anger as has never existed before nor will again,’ AND HE DID NOT MENTION A SIN. ‘O my soul! My soul! My soul! Go to someone else. Go to Muhammad.’ (Aisha Bewley, The Sahih Collection of al-BukhariChapter 68. Book of Tafsir; bold, capital and underline emphasis ours)

It is narrated on the authority of Ubadah b. Samit that the messenger of Allah observed: HE WHO SAID: “There is no god but Allah, He is One and there is no associate with Him, that Muhammad is his servant and His messenger, that Christ is servant and the son of His slave-girl and he (Christ) HIS WORD which He communicated to Mary and is HIS SPIRIT, that Paradise is a fact and Hell is a fact,” Allah would make him (he who affirms these truths enter Paradise through any one of its eight doors which he would like. (Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Number 0043)

This is the closest the Quran comes in affirming the prologue of John’s Gospel since this passage clearly teaches that Jesus is God’s Word who was an immaterial Spirit that descended into the sanctified and blessed womb of Mary in order to take on human flesh:

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made. In him was life, and that life was the light of all mankind… The true light that gives light to everyone was coming into the world. He was in the world, and though the world was made through him, the world did not recognize him… The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth.” John 1:1-4, 9-10, 14

“That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked at and our hands have touched—this we proclaim concerning the Word of life. The life appeared; we have seen it and testify to it, and we proclaim to you the eternal life, which was with the Father and has appeared to us. We proclaim to you what we have seen and heard, so that you also may have fellowship with us. And our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son, Jesus Christ.” 1 John 1:1-3

“He is dressed in a robe dipped in blood, and his name is the Word of God.” Revelation 19:13

 Hence, if we were to apply Muhammad’s invocation then Christ is the perfect uncreated Word of God whose protection true believers can invoke and seek after!

Note the logic behind this argument:

  1. Muhammad sought shelter in the perfect words of Allah.
  2. Allah’s words must be uncreated in order for them to be perfect.
  3. Muhammad taught that Jesus is the perfect Word of Allah who became flesh.
  4. Jesus must, therefore, be uncreated by nature even though the physical body he took on was created.
  5. Since Jesus is the perfect Word of Allah Muslims can, therefore, seek his protection and shelter.

With that said, I am ready to proceed to the next part of the discussion (https://answeringislamblog.wordpress.com/2020/04/01/muhammad-did-it-again-more-proof-that-jesus-is-god-incarnate-pt-2/).

 

The Hadith of the Goat and Adult Suckling

In this post, I am going to address the feeble attempt by certain Muhammadan scholars and apologists to undermine the report from Aisha that a sheep devoured the only copy which contained the verses of stoning adulterers, and of women breastfeeding men. I already wrote a post on this specific issue, which can be accessed here: (https://answeringislamblog.wordpress.com/2019/09/28/a-docile-beast-falsifies-the-quran-how-a-sheep-trumped-allah-and-his-messenger/).

Here is what a very popular online Salafi website claims with respect to the hadith of the goat eating the sheet that contained the verses of adult breastfeeding and stoning:

 Question

There is this hadith that a Christian is posting in Internet forums. It is hadith no. 1944 in Sunan Ibn Maajah, Kitaab an-Nikaah, which has to do with a goat eating the Qur’an. It was posted in a forum for discussion between Muslims and Christians. I would like to know the whole story about this matter and its history…

All versions of the hadith are based on the following chain of narrators:

Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr ibn Hazm, from ‘Amrah bint ‘Abd ar-Rahmaan, from ‘Aa’ishah. The isnaad ends with her and does not go back to the Prophet.

The hadith was taken from ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr by a number of narrators and their narrations are as follows…

It was narrated by Imam Maalik. His version says: Among that which was revealed of the Qur’an was the ruling that those ten definite breastfeedings are required to establish the relationship of mahram, then that was abrogated and replaced with five definite breastfeedings. When the Messenger of Allah died this was among the things that were recited in the Qur’an.

This was narrated by Maalik in al-Muwatta’ (Kitaab ar-Ridaa‘, hadith no. 17), and via him by Imam Muslim (1452) and others. We may note here that the report of Imam Maalik from ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr also does not include any mention of the story of the goat or tame sheep eating anything of the Mus-haf. Rather one sentence is added to it at the end: When the Messenger of Allah died this was among the things that were recited in the Qur’an.

3.

It was narrated by Muhammad ibn Ishaaq. His version says: The verse of stoning and breastfeeding of an adult ten times was revealed, and it was written on a leaf that was kept beneath a bed in my [‘Aa’ishah’s] house. When the Messenger of Allah fell sick, we were preoccupied with his situation, and a little animal of ours came in and ate it.

This was narrated by Imam Ahmad in al-Musnad (43/343), and Ibn Maajah in as-Sunan (no. 1944); the latter version says: When the Messenger of Allah died, we were preoccupied with his death, and a tame sheep came in and ate it.

As you can see, this version does mention the odd phrase that is additional to what was narrated by the two great imams, Yahya ibn Sa‘eed al-Ansaari and Maalik ibn Anas. This is what the questioner referred to in his question. In this version of the hadith it says that a tame sheep – which is a sheep that people feed in their homes – came in and ate the page that contained the verse of stoning and the verse of breastfeeding an adult.

This difference was sufficient for the scholars of hadith to rule that the version narrated by Muhammad ibn Ishaaq was da‘eef (weak), and that it was to be rejected and regarded as odd. In their view, the odd hadith is any hadith in which a trustworthy narrator differed with that which was narrated by other trustworthy narrators who were more accurate than him in the narration or were greater in number. This is a sound academic principle, because how can one narrator have additional wording in a hadith that others also narrated from the original narrators, when the latter are greater in number, more accurate in memory and narration, and of higher status in knowledge of hadith? Why didn’t they also narrate this additional or different material? Is there any other way to understand what happened, except by referring to that rule in order to know where some narrators differed in their narration and included some odd material in it? If that is not the case (and you do not want to refer to that rule), then how could this debater convince us that Muhammad ibn Ishaaq learned of the hadith of ‘Aa’ishah that which both Yahya ibn Sa‘eed al-Ansaari and Maalik ibn Anas had forgotten, when they were both leading scholars and senior figures in their field? In fact Sufyaan ath-Thawri said: Yahya ibn Sa‘eed al-Ansaari was, in the view of the people of Madinah, of a higher standard in the field of hadith than az-Zuhri. ‘Ali ibn al-Madeeni regarded him as one of the most authentic and trustworthy narrators of hadith, and one of those concerning whom one would have no sense of unease with their hadith at all. Ahmad ibn Hanbal said concerning him: He is one of the most accurate in narration. Wuhayb said: I came to Madinah and I did not see anyone but you might feel comfortable with some of what they narrated and have reservations about other reports of theirs, except Maalik and Yahya ibn Sa‘eed (i.e., all of their reports could be accepted without reservation).

See: Tahdheeb at-Tahdheeb (11/223)…

Yahya ibn Ma‘een classed him as da‘eef in one report narrated from him. An-Nasaa’i said: He is not qawiy (strong). Ad-Daaraqutni said: The leading scholars differed concerning him, and he is not an authority; rather his narration may be taken into consideration (alongside others)

See: Tahdheeb at-Tahdheeb (9/45)…

What will make the matter clearer is the fact that al-Qaasim ibn Muhammad, like ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr, narrated the hadith without the additional material of Muhammad ibn Ishaaq.

At-Tahhaawi narrated in Sharh Mushkil al-Athaar (11/486): Muhammad ibn Khuzaymah told us: al-Hajjaaj ibn Minhaal told us: Hammaad ibn Salamah told us, from ‘Abd ar-Rahmaan ibn al-Qaasim, from al-Qaasim ibn Muhammad, from ‘Amrah, that ‘Aa’ishah said: Among the things that were revealed in the Qur’an, then abrogated, was that the relationship of mahram cannot be established except by ten breastfeedings, then after that it was revealed: or five breastfeedings.

To sum up, the story of the sheep eating a page of the Holy Qur’an in the house of ‘Aa’ishah is da‘eef (weak) and is not proven…

End quote from Ta’weel Mukhtalif al-Hadith (p. 443)

The commentators on the Musnad of Imam Ahmad said:

Its isnaad is da‘eef because the only one who narrated it was Muhammad ibn Ishaaq, and its text contains something odd.

End quote from the Mu’sasat ar-Risaalah edn (43/343)

Al-Aloosi said:

With regard to the additional material having been on a page that was kept with ‘Aa’ishah and was eaten by the tame sheep, it is a fabrication and lie of the heretics that this was lost as the result of being eaten by a tame sheep without being abrogated. This is what it says in al-Kashshaaf.

End quote from Rooh al-Ma‘aani (11/140)  (Islam Question & Answer, “The hadith about the sheep eating the page containing the verse about stoning and breastfeeding in the house of ‘Aa’ishah is not saheeh” https://islamqa.info/en/answers/175355/the-hadith-about-the-sheep-eating-the-page-containing-the-verse-about-stoning-and-breastfeeding-in-the-house-of-aaishah-is-not-saheeh; underline emphasis mine)

The three main objections against the authenticity of Ibn Ishaq’s report of a tame goat devouring the only written copy of the verses of stoning and the breastfeeding of adults are:

  1. The narration is said to be weak or fabricated.
  2. Ibn Ishaq is questionable when it comes to narrating ahadith.
  3. Other more reliable hadith transmitters and Muslim scholars did not mention or include this addition when referring to Aisha’s hadith about breastfeeding.

I will address each of these points so as to show that none of what these authorities claim suffices to refute the veracity of this tradition, nor does this solve the problem this raises on the preservation of the Quran.

In the first place, contrary to the assertion that this report is graded daif (“weak”), or even false, there are specific Muslim scholars that classified it as sahih (“sound”) and hasan (“good”). Note, for instance, what this next ahadith states:

Sunan Ibn Majah

The Chapters on Marriage

 It was narrated that ‘Aishah said:

“The Verse of stoning and of breastfeeding an adult ten times was revealed1, and the paper was with me under my pillow. When the Messenger of Allah died, we were preoccupied with his death, and a tame sheep came in AND ATE IT.”

1These verses were abrogated in recitation but not ruling. Other ahadith establish the number for fosterage to be 5.

Grade: HASAN (Darussalam)

English reference: Vol. 3, Book 9, Hadith 1944

Arabic reference: Book 9, Hadith 2020 (sunnah.com https://sunnah.com/urn/1262630; capital and underline emphasis mine)

The following is an English translation of an online Arabic fatwa that addresses the issue of this particular narration:

Question:

Abu Salamah Yahya bin Khalaf told us, Abdul al-Ali told us about Muhammad ibn Ishaq on the authority of Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr on the authority of Amrah on the authority of Aisha and Abd al-Rahman bin Qasim from his father from Aisha. She said, “The verse of stoning and adult breastfeeding ten times was revealed, and it was in the sheet under my bed when the Messenger of Allah died. And we were concerned with his death. Poultry (dajin) entered and ate it.”

I want a grading of this hadith and an explanation of it, as a non-Muslim person sent it to me as evidence that the Qur’an is incomplete and unreliable. May Allah reward you.

Fatwa:

This hadith was narrated by Imam Ibn Majah 1/625 and Al-Darqutni: 4/179, Abu Ali in his Musnad 8/64, and al-Tabarani in his dictionary 8/12, and Ibn Qutaybah in his interpretation of questionable hadiths, and its origin is in Al-Sahihayn, and Ibn Hazm mentioned it in Al-Mahli 11/236 and he said this is a SOUND (SAHIH) hadith

And her saying: (And it was…), that is, the Qur’an after it was copied from recitation (in a sheet under my bed) and the poultry (dajin): The sheep whom people feed from their homes, and it may be something other than a sheep that frequents in homes, from birds and others…

Ibn Qutaybah said…

And if the wonder is about the sheep – the sheep is best of cattle, so it is not surprising that the sheep ate the page. And the mouse is the worst among the insects of the earth, gnawing the pages and urinating on them. And if the fire had burnt the page or the hypocrites had taken it away – the wonder would have been less. (Islamweb https://www.islamweb.net/ar/fatwa/12905/)

And here’s their answer from the English version of the site:

Fatwa Title : Two abrogated verses about breastfeeding and stoning
Fatwa No. : 182309
Fatwa Date : 26/06/2012

Question: 

Al salam Alikom, I was this reading this article when it mentioned the following hadeeth, Sunan Ibn Majah, Book of Nikah, Hadith # 1934. This hadeeth mentions that there were verses from the quran written down on a piece of paper that Aisha had placed under her bed and a goat came in and ate that paper containing the verses and they were lost. My question is, is this hadeeth true?

Fatwa:

This Hadeeth was reported by Ibn Maajah and others and Shaykh Al-Albaani classified it AS HASAN [GOOD].

It should be noted here that some callers to misguidance provide this Hadeeth as evidence that the Quran is incomplete. As mentioned in the Hadeeth, the paper contained two verses: the verse about breastfeeding and the verse about stoning. So, these callers to misguidance have an evil purpose in providing this Hadeeth as evidence that the Quran is incomplete; but their purpose has failed, praise be to Allah.

Indeed, the scholars refuted such misconceptions; for instance Ibn Hazm said: “It is confirmed that the wordings of these two verses were abrogated and the paper on which they were written was eaten by the goat, as stated by ‘Aa’ishah. Indeed, there was no need for it….” Then he said: “The evidence for this is that they had learnt them (the two verses) by heart and were it known to them that they were still from the Quran, then the fact that this paper was eaten by the goat would not have prevented them from writing them in the compiled copy of the Quran.

However, the two mentioned verses were abrogated: the verse about breastfeeding was abrogated both in terms of its recitation and its ruling, and the verse about stoning, its recitation was abrogated and its ruling remained in effect. It is for this reason that the Companions did not write them in the compiled copy of the Quran. This is what Ibn Hazm meant.

Allaah Knows best.

Fatwa answered by: The Fatwa Center at Islamweb

http://www.islamweb.net (https://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/PrintFatwa.php?lang=E&Id=182309&lang=E&Id=182309; capital and underline emphasis mine)

Ironically, Ibn Hazm is also cited by Islam Question & Answer in their discussion of this narration:

Ibn Hazm said:

It was proven that the wording was abrogated, but the sheet on which it was written remained, as ‘Aa’ishah said – then it was eaten by the tame sheep; but no one needs it (that verse). Something similar may be said with regard to the verse on breastfeeding, and there is no difference between the two. The proof of that is that they memorised (the verse) as we have mentioned. So if it was confirmed as being part of the Qur’an, the fact that the sheep ate it would not have changed the fact that it was part of the Qur’an, based on the fact that they had memorised it.

Thus we may conclude with certainty that no two Muslims differ concerning the fact that Allah, may He be exalted, enjoined upon His Messenger the conveying of the message, and that he conveyed it as he had been instructed to do. … And we may conclude, with regard to the verses that were lost, that if the Messenger of Allah had been instructed to convey them, he would have done so, and if he had conveyed them they would have been memorised, and if they had been memorised then the death of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) would not affect the matter at all, just as the fact that he died did not affect anything else of what he had conveyed of the Qur’an.

End quote from al-Muhalla (12/177) (Islam Question & Answer)

I will address Ibn Hazm’s claims shortly.

Secondly, even though Ibn Ishaq may have been deemed weak he wasn’t completely unreliable, which is why the Muslim scholars never rejected him outright or refused to narrate anything from him.

This is a fact that the Islam Question & Answer website itself acknowledges:

3. His scholarly status

Ibn Ishaaq was held in high esteem among the scholars of his own time, because of the vastness of his knowledge. Imam adh-Dhahabi said of him: He was the first one to write down knowledge in Madinah; that was before Maalik and Dhawayh. He was like a wondrous ocean of knowledge, but he was not as precise as he should have been.

Therefore scholarly praise of him was persistent from the earliest times.

‘Ali ibn al-Madeeni said: The hadith of the Messenger of Allah was mainly conveyed by six – and he mentioned them, then he said: And knowledge of the six ended up with twelve, one of whom is Muhammad ibn Ishaaq.

Imam az-Zuhri said: There is a great deal of knowledge in Madinah so long as Ibn Ishaaq remains among them.

4. His vast knowledge of maghaazi (Prophet’s military campaigns) and siyar (Prophet’s biography)

Muhammad ibn Ishaaq is famous for his intense interest in knowledge of maghaazi (Prophet’s military campaigns), as he was the first one to compile the reports of maghaazi into a book. Imam ash-Shaafa‘i said concerning him: Whoever wants to acquire detailed knowledge of maghaazi has no choice but to rely on Muhammad ibn Ishaaq. Ibn ‘Adiyy said: If Ibn Ishaaq had no virtue other than the fact that he diverted rulers from focusing on books from which nothing may be learned to focusing on the military campaigns of the Messenger of Allah, how his mission began, and the beginning of creation, this virtue would be enough to put him ahead of others. Imam adh-Dhahabi said: He was a great scholar of maghaazi

6. Scholarly praise for his hadith

Shu‘bah ibn al-Hajjaaj said concerning him: He was the ameer al-mu’mineen in hadith.

Abu Mu‘aawiyah ad-Dareer said: Ibn Ishaaq was one of the people with the best memory. If a man had fifty hadiths or more, and he left them with Ibn Ishaaq, he would say: Memorise them for me, then if I forget them, you will have preserved them for me.

Sufyaan ath-Thawri said: I sat with Ibn Ishaaq seventy-odd years ago, and none of the people of Madinah made any accusations against him or said anything bad about him.

‘Ali ibn ‘Abdullah said: I looked in the books of Ibn Ishaaq and I did not find anything about which I had any reservations, apart from two hadiths, but they may still have been sound and saheeh…

Ya‘qoob ibn Shaybah said: I asked ‘Ali – i.e., ibn al-Madeeni –: How is the hadith of Ibn Ishaaq in your view –is it saheeh?

He said: Yes, his hadith is saheeh in my view

Imam adh-Dhahabi said: We do not claim that the leading scholars of al-jarh wa’t-ta‘deel (evaluation of hadith narrators) were infallible and did not occasionally make mistakes or speak harshly about those with whom there was some ill feeling or animosity. It is known that much of what peers say about one another is to be ignored and does not count for anything, especially if the man is regarded as trustworthy by a group of scholars who sound fair-minded in what they say. These two men – i.e., Maalik and Ibn Ishaaq – each criticised the other, but what Maalik said about Muhammad being somewhat imprecise in narration had an impact of Ibn Ishaaq’s reputation, whereas what Muhammad said concerning Maalik did not have any impact. Maalik rose to high status and became like a star, and the other one – i.e., Ibn Ishaaq – also attained relatively high status, especially in the field of biography

Ibn ‘Adiyy said: I examined his hadith a great deal, and I did not find any of his hadith that would lead one to state categorically that he is da‘eef. But he may make mistakes, or be confused sometimes, as others also made mistakes, but trustworthy narrators and leading scholars did not refrain from narrating from him, and there is nothing wrong with him. (Ibid., Status of Muhammad ibn Ishaaq, the narrator of al-Maghaazi, in the view of hadith scholars https://islamqa.info/en/answers/148009/status-of-muhammad-ibn-ishaaq-the-narrator-of-al-maghaazi-in-the-view-of-hadith-scholars; bold emphasis mine)

With that said, even if we were to set aside the addition of Ibn Ishaq, Aisha’s report is still damning nonetheless since her words conclusively prove that the Quran has indeed been corrupted.

Note, again, what Muhammad’s child bride is reported to have said:

’A’isha reported that it had been revealed IN the Holy Qur’an that ten clear sucklings make the marriage unlawful, then it was abrogated (and substituted) by five sucklings and Allah’s Apostle died and it was before that time (found) IN THE HOLY QUR’AN (and recited by the Muslims). (Sahih Muslim, Book 008, Number 3421 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=008&translator=2&start=0&number=3421; bold, capital and italicized emphasis mine)

‘Amra reported that she beard ‘A’isha discussing fosterage which (makes marriage) unlawful; and she (‘A’isha) said: There was revealed IN the Holy Qur’an ten clear sucklings, and then five clear (sucklings). (Sahih Muslim, Book 008, Number 3422 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=008&translator=2&start=0&number=3422; bold, capital and italicized emphasis mine)

Yahya related to me from Malik from Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr ibn Hazm from Amra bint Abd ar-Rahman that A’isha, the wife of the Prophet, said, “Amongst what was sent down of the Qur’an was ‘ten known sucklings make haram’ – then it was abrogated by ‘five known sucklings’. When the Messenger of Allah died, it was what is now recited of the Qur’an.” Yahya said that Malik said, “One does not act on this.” (Malik’s Muwatta, Book 30, Number 30.3.17 https://sunnah.com/urn/413120)

Bulugh al-Maram

8 Book of Marriage

Narrated [‘Aishah]:

In what was sent down in the Qur’an was ‘ten known sucklings made marriage unlawful’. Afterwards, they were abrogated by ‘five known ones.’ Then, when Allah’s Messenger died these words were among what was recited in the Qur’an. [Reported by Muslim].

Sunnah.com reference: Book 8, Hadith 195

English reference: Book 8, Hadith 1142

Arabic reference: Book 8, Hadith 113 (sunnah.com https://sunnah.com/bulugh/8/195; underline emphasis mine)

Sunan Ibn Majah

The Chapters on Marriage

It was narrated that ‘Aishah said:

“One of the things that Allah revealed IN the the Qur’an and then abrogated was that nothing makes marriage prohibited except ten breastfeedings or five well-known (breastfeedings).”

Grade: Sahih (Darussalam)

English reference: Vol. 3, Book 9, Hadith 1942

Arabic reference: Book 9, Hadith 2018 (sunnah.com https://sunnah.com/urn/1262610; capital and underline emphasis mine)

Aisha expressly states that the Quran originally contained the command to suckle a grown man ten times as well as the subsequent injunction which reduced the number to five sucklings. And yet neither of these verses are to be found in any extant copy of the Quran. In fact, unlike the stoning verse which is actually cited in the hadith literature,

Sunan Ibn Majah

The Chapters on Legal Punishments

It was narrated from Ibn`Abbas that `Umar bin Khattab said:

“I fear that after a long time has passed, some will say: ‘I do not find (the sentence of) stoning in the Book of Allah,’ and they will go astray by abandoning one of the obligations enjoined by Allah. Rather stoning is a must if a man is married (or previously married) and proof is established, or if pregnancy results or if he admits it. I have read it (in the Quran). “And if an old man and an old woman commit adultery, stone them both.” The Messenger of Allah stoned (adulterers) and we stoned (them) after him.’”

Grade: Sahih (Darussalam)

English reference: Vol. 3, Book 20, Hadith 2553

Arabic reference: Book 20, Hadith 2650 (sunnah.com https://sunnah.com/urn/1268700; underline emphasis mine)

No Muslim can tell us what the precise wording of the abrogating and abrogated texts happens to be since no trace of them has survived.

These narrations turn out to be quite embarrassing for Muslims since it isn’t merely the abrogated verse that has disappeared, but even that which abrogated it is gone as well!

We must, therefore, ask, where did all those copies which contained these conjunctions disappear to? Why weren’t the codices that included these verses preserved? Did they simply vanish or were they destroyed? If they were destroyed, who exactly destroyed them and for what reason?

The simple fact of the matter is that these narratives from Aisha prove that Allah has not preserved these injunctions permitting women to suckle grown men. At the very least, Allah should have kept the abrogating text intact so others could read it for themselves, especially when Aisha emphatically testified that these commands were found within the Islamic scripture itself and were being recited by the Muslims.

Furthermore, nothing in Ibn Ishaq’s report contradicts anything stated by the other muhaddithun (hadith compilers/scholars). It is simply the case that the other compilers didn’t include this part of the narrative, either because they weren’t aware of it or because they were embarrassed by it (the latter being more likely).

This brings me to my next point. It is obvious why the story of the tame animal devouring a part of the Quran wasn’t included in all the versions of the report from Aisha. As the objections of the Islam Question & Answer site demonstrate, this narration raises a major problem for the Quran’s supposed perfect preservation.

In other words, the Muslims didn’t reject this tradition because of its lack of historical veracity. Rather, it was discarded because it shows that the Islamic scripture hasn’t been preserved completely since there are commands and injunctions that have long since disappeared without a trace.

Therefore, contrary to the objections of the Muslim scholars such as Ibn Hazm, Aisha’s statements show that the Muslim deity has failed to preserve his so-called revelation, which in turn means that the following statement of the Quran,

Verily We: It is We Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e. the Qur’an) and surely, We will guard it (from corruption). S. 15:9 Hilali-Khan

Is blatantly false.

As such, Allah cannot be God, and the Muslim scripture cannot be the revealed word of the true God, and Muhammad could not have been a true prophet.

 

 

How Muhammad Ended Up Proving That Jesus Is God… Again!

In the Quran, Muhammad rhetorically asks whether the unbelievers, including the Jews, want Allah to show up on the clouds with his angels, and therefore hasten the judgment day:

What do they look for, but that God shall come to them in the cloud — shadows, and the angels? The matter is determined, and unto God all matters are returned. S. 2:210

What, do they look for the angels to come to them, nothing less, or that thy Lord should come, or that one of thy Lord’s signs should come? On the day that one of thy Lord’s signs comes it shall not profit a soul to believe that never believed before, or earned some good in his belief. Say: ‘Watch and wait; We too are waiting.’ S. 6:158

Muhammad further spoke of Allah showing up with the blast of the trumpet and the host of his angels, eight of whom would be carrying his throne, to judge the earth, which would be lit up with Allah’s light:

For the Trumpet shall be blown, and whosoever is in the heavens and whosoever is in the earth shall swoon, save whom God wills. Then it shall be blown again, and lo, they shall stand, beholding. And the earth shall shine with the light of its Lord, and the Book shall be set in place, and the Prophets and witnesses shall be brought, and justly the issue be decided between them, and they not wronged. Every soul shall be paid in full for what it has wrought; and He knows very well what they do. Then the unbelievers shall be driven in companies into Gehenna till, when they have come thither, then its gates will be opened and its keepers will say to them, ‘Did not Messengers come to you from among yourselves, reciting to you the signs of your Lord and warning you against the encounter of this your day?’ They shall say, ‘Yes indeed; but the word of the chastisement has been realized against the unbelievers.’ It shall be said, ‘Enter the gates of Gehenna, to dwell therein forever.’ How evil is the lodging of those that are proud! Then those that feared their Lord shall be driven in companies into Paradise, till, when they have come thither, and its gates are opened, and its keepers will say to them, ‘Peace be upon you! Well you have fared; enter in, to dwell forever.’ And they shall say, ‘Praise belongs to God, who has been true in His promise to us, and has bequeathed upon us the earth, for us to make our dwelling wheresoever we will in Paradise.’ How excellent is the wage of those that labour! And thou shalt see the angels encircling about the Throne proclaiming the praise of their Lord; and justly the issue shall be decided between them; and it shall be said, ‘Praise belongs to God, the Lord of all Being S. 39:68-75

So, when the Trumpet is blown with a single blast and the earth and the mountains are lifted up and crushed with a single blow, then, on that day, the Terror shall come to pass, and heaven shall be split, for upon that day it shall be very frail, and the angels shall stand upon its borders, and upon that day eight shall carry above them the Throne of thy Lord. On that day you shall be exposed, not one secret of yours concealed. S. 69:13-18

No indeed! When the earth is ground to powder, and thy Lord comes, and the angels rank on rank, and Gehenna is brought out, upon that day man will remember; and how shall the Reminder be for him? S. 89:21-23

This is confirmed by the following hadith:

36 Chapters On Zuhd

(48) Chapter: What Has Been Related About Showing Off And The Desire To Be Heard Of

Al-Walid bin Abi Al-Wald abu ‘Uthman Al-Mada’ini narrated that ‘Uqbah bin Muslim narrated to him, that Shufaiy Al-Asbahi narrated that he entered Al-Madinah and saw a man around whom the people had gathered. He asked:

“Who is this?” They said: “Abu Hurairah.” (He said): “So I got close to him until I was sitting in front of him as he was narrating to the people. When he was silent and alone, I said to him: “I ask you absolute truth if you would narrate to me a Hadith which you heard from the Messenger of Allah, that you understand and know.” So Abu Hurairah said: “You want me to narrate a Hadith to you which the Messenger of Allah narrated to me that I understand and know.” Then Abu Hurairah began sobbing profusely. We sat for a while, then he recovered and said: “I shall narrate to you a Hadith which the Messenger of Allah (narrated in this House, while there was no one with us other than he and I.” Then, again, Abu Hurairah began sobbing severely. Then he recovered, and wiped his face, and said: “You want me to narrate to you a Hadith which the Messenger of Allah narrated while he and I were sitting in this House, and no one was with us but he and I.” Then Abu Hurairah began sobbing severely. Then he bent, falling on his face, so I supported him for a long time. Then he recovered and said: “The Messenger of Allah narrated to me that on the Day of Judgement, Allah, Most High, will descend to His slaves to judge between them. Every nation shall be kneeling. The first of those who will be called before him will be a man who memorized the Qur’an, and a man who was killed in Allah’s cause, and a wealthy man. Allah will say to the reciter: ‘Did I not teach you what I revealed to My Messenger?’ He says: ‘Of course O Lord!’ He says: ‘Then what did you do with what you learned?’ He said: ‘I would stand (in prayer reciting) with it during all hours of the night and all hours of the day.’ Then Allah would say to him: ‘You have lied.’ And the angels will say: ‘You have lied.’ Allah will say to him: ‘Rather, you wanted it to be said that so-and-so is a reciter. And that was said.’ The person with the wealth will be brought, and Allah will say to him: ‘Was I not so generous with you, such that I did not leave you having any need from anyone?’ He will say: ‘Of course O Lord!’ He says: ‘Then what did you do with what I gave to you?’ He says: ‘I would nurture the ties of kinship and give charity.’ Then Allah will say to him: ‘You have lied.’ And the angels will say to him: ‘You have lied.’ Allah, Most High, will say: ‘Rather, you wanted it to be said that so-and-so is so generous, and that was said.’ Then the one who was killed in Allah’s cause shall be brought, and Allah will say to him: ‘For what were you killed?’ So he says: ‘I was commanded to fight in Your cause, so I fought until I was killed.’ Allah [Most High] will say to him: ‘You have lied.’ And the angels will say to him: ‘You have lied.’ Allah [Most High] will say: ‘Rather, you wanted it be said that so-and-so is brave, and that was said.’ Then the Messenger of Allah hit me on my knees and said: ‘O Abu Hurairah! These first three are the creatures of Allah with whom the fire will be enflamed on the Day of Judgement.'” Al-Walid Abu ‘Uthman Al-Mada’ini said: “So ‘Uqbah bin Muslim informed me that Shufaiy, is the one who entered upon Mu’awiyah to inform him about this.” Abu Uthman said: ‘This has been done with these people, then how about with those who remain among the people?” Then Mu’awiyah began weeping so intensely, that we thought that he will kill himself with excessive weeping. We said: “This man came to us to cause evil.” Then Mu’awiyah recovered, wiped off his face and said: “Allah and His Messenger told the truth: Whosoever desires the life of the world and its glitter, then we shall pay in full (the wages of) their deeds therein, and they shall have no diminution therein. They are those for whom there is nothing in the Hereafter Fire, and vain are the deeds they did therein. And of no effect is that which they used to do.”

Grade: SAHIH (Darussalam)

Reference: Jami` at-Tirmidhi 2382

In-book reference: Book 36, Hadith 79

English translation: Vol. 4, Book 10, Hadith 2382 (sunnah.com https://sunnah.com/tirmidhi/36/79; capital, italicized and underline emphasis mine)

Note carefully the following part of Muhammad reported words:

“… The Messenger of Allah narrated to me that on the Day of Judgement, Allah, Most High, will descend to His slaves to judge between them…”

Hence, according to Muhammad, it is Allah himself who will descend to the earth with his angels at the blast of a trumpet to judge mankind.

And yet Jesus taught that he is the Son of Man that rides the clouds of heaven and who will descend with his angels with a trumpet blast to judge the entire earth:

“For the Son of Man is going to come with HIS angels in the glory of HIS Father, and then he will repay each person according to what he has done.” Matthew 16:27

“Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light, and the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken. Then will appear in heaven the sign of the Son of Man, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. And he will send out his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.” Matthew 24:29-31

“For whoever is ashamed of me and of my words, of him will the Son of Man be ashamed when he comes in his glory and the glory of the Father and of the holy angels.” Luke 9:26

“And to the angel of the church in Thyatira write: ‘The words of the Son of God, who has eyes like a flame of fire, and whose feet are like burnished bronze. “I know your works, your love and faith and service and patient endurance, and that your latter works exceed the first. But I have this against you, that you tolerate that woman Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess and is teaching and seducing my servants to practice sexual immorality and to eat food sacrificed to idols. I gave her time to repent, but she refuses to repent of her sexual immorality. Behold, I will throw her onto a sickbed, and those who commit adultery with her I will throw into great tribulation, unless they repent of her works, and I will strike her children dead. And all the churches will know that I am he who searches mind and heart, and I will give to each of you according to your works.”’” Revelation 2:18-23

“‘Behold, I am coming soon, bringing my recompense with me, to repay each one for what he has done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end.’ Blessed are those who wash their robes, so that they may have the right to the tree of life and that they may enter the city by the gates. Outside are the dogs and sorcerers and the sexually immoral and murderers and idolaters, and everyone who loves and practices falsehood. ‘I, JESUS, have sent my angel to testify to you about these things for the churches. I am the root and the descendant of David, the bright morning star.’… He who testifies to these things says, ‘Surely I am coming soon.’ Amen. Come, Lord Jesus!” Revelation 22:12-16, 20

Jesus’ inspired emissaries taught the same:

“on that day when, according to my gospel, God judges the secrets of men by Christ Jesus.” Romans 2:16

“For to this end Christ died and lived again, that he might be Lord both of the dead and of the living. Why do you pass judgment on your brother? Or you, why do you despise your brother? For we will all stand before the judgment seat of God; for it is written, ‘As I live, says the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to God.’ So then each of us will give an account of himself to God.” Romans 14:9-12

For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, so that each one may receive what is due for what he has done in the body, whether good or evil. Therefore, knowing the fear of the Lord, we persuade others. But what we are is known to God, and I hope it is known also to your conscience.” 2 Corinthians 5:10-11

“so that he may establish your hearts blameless in holiness before our God and Father, at the coming of our Lord Jesus with all his saints.” 1 Thessalonians 3:13

“But we do not want you to be uninformed, brothers, about those who are asleep, that you may not grieve as others do who have no hope. For since we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so, through Jesus, God will bring with him those who have fallen asleep. For this we declare to you by a word from the Lord, that we who are alive, who are left until the coming of the Lord, will not precede those who have fallen asleep. For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a cry of command, with the voice of an archangel, and with the sound of the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so we will always be with the Lord. Therefore encourage one another with these words.” 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18

“This is evidence of the righteous judgment of God, that you may be considered worthy of the kingdom of God, for which you are also suffering— since indeed God considers it just to repay with affliction those who afflict you, and to grant relief to you who are afflicted as well as to us, when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with his mighty angels in flaming fire, inflicting vengeance on those who do not know God and on those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus. They will suffer the punishment of eternal destruction, away from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his might, when he comes on that day to be glorified in his saints, and to be marveled at among all who have believed, because our testimony to you was believed. To this end we always pray for you, that our God may make you worthy of his calling and may fulfill every resolve for good and every work of faith by his power, so that the name of our Lord Jesus may be glorified in you, and you in him, according to the grace of our God and the Lord Jesus Christ.” 2 Thessalonians 1:5-12

“I charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, WHO IS TO JUDGE the living and the dead, and by HIS appearing and HIS kingdom… For I am already being poured out as a drink offering, and the time of my departure has come. I have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept the faith. Henceforth there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which THE LORD, THE RIGHTEOUS JUDGE, will award to me on that day, and not only to me but also to all who have loved HIS appearing… At my first defense no one came to stand by me, but all deserted me. May it not be charged against them! But the Lord stood by me and strengthened me, so that through me the message might be fully proclaimed and all the Gentiles might hear it. So I was rescued from the lion’s mouth. The Lord will rescue me from every evil deed and bring me safely into HIS heavenly kingdom. To him be the glory forever and ever. Amen.” 2 Timothy 4:1, 6-8, 16-18

“It was also about these that Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied, saying, ‘Behold, the Lord comes with ten thousands of his holy ones, to execute judgment on all and to convict all the ungodly of all their deeds of ungodliness that they have committed in such an ungodly way, and of all the harsh things that ungodly sinners have spoken against him.’… But you, beloved, building yourselves up in your most holy faith and praying in the Holy Spirit, keep yourselves in the love of God, waiting for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ that leads to eternal life.” Jude 1:14-15, 20-21

“They will make war on the Lamb, and the Lamb will conquer them, for he is Lord of lords and King of kings, and those with him are called and chosen and faithful.”” Revelation 17:14

“Then I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse! The one sitting on it is called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he judges and makes war. His eyes are like a flame of fire, and on his head are many diadems, and he has a name written that no one knows but himself. He is clothed in a robe dipped in blood, and the name by which he is called is The Word of God. And the armies of heaven, arrayed in fine linen, white and pure, were following him on white horses. From his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations, and he will rule them with a rod of iron. He will tread the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God the Almighty. On his robe and on his thigh he has a name written, King of kings and Lord of lords.” Revelation 19:11-16

As if this weren’t remarkable enough, Muhammad plagiarized the following words of the Lord Jesus,

“‘When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, then he will sit on his glorious throne. Before him will be gathered all the nations, and he will separate people one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. And he will place the sheep on his right, but the goats on the left. Then the King will say to those on his right, ‘Come, you who are blessed by MY Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. For I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me drink, I was a stranger and you welcomed me, I was naked and you clothed me, I was sick and you visited me, I was in prison and you came to me.’ Then the righteous will answer him, saying, ‘Lord, when did we see you hungry and feed you, or thirsty and give you drink? And when did we see you a stranger and welcome you, or naked and clothe you? And when did we see you sick or in prison and visit you?’ And the King will answer them, ‘Truly, I say to you, as you did it to one of the least of these my brothers, you did it TO ME.’ Then he will say to those on his left, ‘Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels. For I was hungry and you gave me no food, I was thirsty and you gave me no drink, I was a stranger and you did not welcome me, naked and you did not clothe me, sick and in prison and you did not visit me.’ Then they also will answer, saying, ‘Lord, when did we see you hungry or thirsty or a stranger or naked or sick or in prison, and did not minister to you?’ Then he will answer them, saying, ‘Truly, I say to you, as you did not do it to one of the least of these, you did not do it to me.’ And these will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.’ When Jesus had finished all these sayings, he said to his disciples, “You know that after two days the Passover is coming, and the Son of Man will be delivered up to be crucified.’” Matthew 25:31-46; 26:1-2

And ascribed them to his deity:

40 Hadith Qudsi

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah, who said that the Messenger of Allah said:

Allah (mighty and sublime be He) will say on the Day of Resurrection: O son of Adam, I fell ill and you visited Me not. He will say: O Lord, and how should I visit You when You are the Lord of the worlds? He will say: Did you not know that My servant So-and-so had fallen ill and you visited him not? Did you not know that had you visited him you would have found Me with him? O son of Adam, I asked you for food and you fed Me not. He will say: O Lord, and how should I feed You when You are the Lord of the worlds? He will say: Did you not know that My servant So-and-so asked you for food and you fed him not? Did you not know that had you fed him you would surely have found that (the reward for doing so) with Me? O son of Adam, I asked you to give Me to drink and you gave Me not to drink. He will say: O Lord, how should I give You to drink when You are the Lord of the worlds? He will say: My servant So-and-so asked you to give him to drink and you gave him not to drink. Had you given him to drink you would have surely found that with Me. It was related by Muslim.

Arabic/English book reference: Hadith 18 (sunnah.com https://sunnah.com/qudsi40/18; italicized and underline emphasis mine)

In so doing, Muhammad provided tacit confirmation that Jesus was claiming to be God when he stated that he would come with his angels and sit upon his glorious throne to determine where every human being would eventually spend their afterlife.

All biblical citations taken from the English Standard Version (ESV) of the Holy Bible.

All quranic verses taken from Arthur J. Arberry’s English version.

 

 

Refuting A Muslim Pseudo-Scholar Pt. 6

In this part of my response to Muhammadan Tim Winter (https://answeringislamblog.wordpress.com/2020/03/18/refuting-a-muslim-pseudo-scholar-pt-5/), I address his misuse of John 5:19. Winter erroneously assumes that Jesus’ statement that he cannot do a single thing on his own initiative is a clear indication that he is nothing more than a human messenger of God.

Here is the immediate context of that particular verse:

“Now there is in Jerusalem by the Sheep Gate a pool, in Hebrew called Beth-za′tha, which has five porticoes. In these lay a multitude of invalids, blind, lame, paralyzed. One man was there, who had been ill for thirty-eight years. When Jesus saw him and knew that he had been lying there a long time, he said to him, ‘Do you want to be healed?’ The sick man answered him, ‘Sir, I have no man to put me into the pool when the water is troubled, and while I am going another steps down before me.’ Jesus said to him, ‘Rise, take up your pallet, and walk’. And at once the man was healed, and he took up his pallet and walked. Now that day was the sabbath. So the Jews said to the man who was cured, ‘It is the sabbath, it is not lawful for you to carry your pallet.’ But he answered them, ‘The man who healed me said to me, “Take up your pallet, and walk.”’ They asked him, ‘Who is the man who said to you, “Take up your pallet, and walk”?’ Now the man who had been healed did not know who it was, for Jesus had withdrawn, as there was a crowd in the place. Afterward, Jesus found him in the temple, and said to him, ‘See, you are well! Sin no more, that nothing worse befall you.’ The man went away and told the Jews that it was Jesus who had healed him. And this was why the Jews persecuted Jesus, because he did this on the sabbath. But Jesus answered them, ‘MY Father is working still, and I am working.’ This was why the Jews sought all the more to kill him, because he not only broke the sabbath but also called God his own Father, making himself equal with God.” John 5:2-18

Christ heals a paralytic on the Sabbath, to the ire of the Jewish religious establishment. Jesus justifies what he did by stating that his Father doesn’t cease from his activities on the sabbath, but continues to work on this day. And being God’s Son he too doesn’t refrain from performing his activities on the sabbath, but faithfully carries out the work that the Father sent him to do.

The Jews correctly reasoned that Jesus was making himself equal with God since God alone is exempt from sabbath restrictions, and yet Christ claims that he is as well.

What the Lord went on to say only reinforced his claim of essential coequality with God:

“Jesus said to them, ‘Truly, truly, I say to you, the Son can do nothing of his own accord, but only what he sees the Father doing; for WHATEVER he does, that the Son does likewise. For the Father loves the Son, and shows him all that he himself is doing; and greater works than these will he show him, that you may marvel. For as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, so also the Son gives life to whom he will… Truly, truly, I say to you, he who hears MY WORD and believes him who sent me, has eternal life; he does not come into judgment, but has passed from death to life. Truly, truly, I say to you, the hour is coming, and now is, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live. For as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself, and has given him authority to execute judgment, because he is the Son of man. Do not marvel at this; for the hour is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear HIS [the Son’s] VOICE and come forth, those who have done good, to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil, to the resurrection of judgment. I can do nothing on my own authority; as I hear, I judge; and my judgment is just, because I seek not my own will but the will of him who sent me.’” John 5:19-30

Here Christ didn’t simply say he could do nothing of himself. Rather his point is that he could only do whatever the Father does, and can do all that the Father does in the same way that the Father does them. A more explicit claim to Deity can hardly be found!

No creature can say that s/he can only do what God does since creatures do all sorts of things that God does not and will never do. Moreover, a creature is incapable of doing whatever God does since God alone is Almighty whereas creation is not.

And yet Jesus says he can only do what his Father does such as judging all mankind, giving life to whomever he chooses, and raising the dead both spiritually and physically by the power of his sovereign voice. Christ even states that he shall personally resurrect the dead from their graves at the appointed hour!

This isn’t the only time where Jesus claims to be the One who personally raises the dead at the last day:

“‘All that the Father gives me will come to me; and him who comes to me I will not cast out. For I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will, but the will of him who sent me; and this is the will of him who sent me, that I should lose nothing of all that he has given me, but raise it up at the last day. For this is the will of my Father, that every one who sees the Son and believes in him should have eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day.’ … So Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, you have no life in you; he who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day.’” John 6:37-40, 53-54

As if this weren’t remarkable enough, Jesus identifies himself as the Resurrection and the Life,

“Jesus said to her, ‘Your brother will rise again.’ Martha said to him, ‘I know that he will rise again in the resurrection on the last day.’ Jesus said to her, “I AM THE RESURECTION AND THE LIFE. Whoever believes in me, though he die, yet shall he live, and everyone who lives and believes in me shall never die. Do you believe this?’ She said to him, ‘Yes, Lord; I believe that you are the Christ, the Son of God, who is coming into the world.’” John 11:23-27

As well as the Truth:

“‘Let not your hearts be troubled. Believe in God; believe also in me. In my Father’s house are many rooms. If it were not so, would I have told you that I go to prepare a place for you? And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and will take you to myself, that where I am you may be also. And you know the way to where I am going.’ Thomas said to him, ‘Lord, we do not know where you are going. How can we know the way?’ Jesus said to him, ‘I am the way, and THE TRUTH, and THE LIFE; no one comes to the Father, but by me.’” John 14:1-6

Suffice it say Christ has just described himself in the manner that Islamic theology describes God.

For example, it is Allah who is the truth that gives life, and who will raise the dead from their graves at the last hour:

That is because God — He is the Truth, and brings the dead to life, and is powerful over everything, and because the Hour is coming, no doubt of it, and God shall raise up whosoever is within the tombs. S. 22:6-7 Arberry

In fact, not only is Allah called the truth, but he is also said to be the Resurrection and the Life:

Al-Haqq: The Truly Real

The Truth, the Real, the Really-existing, He whose existence and divinity are true, the One who creates according to the requirements of wisdom, justice, right, rightness, the Necessarily-existing by His own Essence, He whose existence is undeniable. Every reality exists from His essence and nothing has any intrinsic reality except Him.

Al-Haqq is one of the Ninety-Nine Names…

 Al-Muhyî, Al-Mumît: The One Who Gives Life, The One who Makes Die

The Life-Giver or Quickener who makes something alive, to be a living thing; He quickens him or endues him with life or revives him. He revives the earth with rain and endues with intelligence. Al-Mumit is the One who causes to die.

Al-Muhyi and Al-Mumit are two of the Ninety-Nine Names…

Al-Bâ’ith: The Raiser

The Raiser, Resurrector. To re-create, like Mu’id; revive; also to send. The One who Quickens mankind after death. To cause something to be.

Al-Ba’ith is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. (Aisha Bewley, Divine Names)

 Christ further claims to be the Shepherd who gives everlasting life to the flock that is within his care, and who along with the Father ensures that they shall never perish:

“‘My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me. I give them eternal life, and they will never perish, and no one will snatch them out of my hand. My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all, and no one is able to snatch them out of the Father’s hand. I and the Father are one.’ The Jews picked up stones again to stone him. Jesus answered them, ‘I have shown you many good works from the Father; for which of them are you going to stone me?’ The Jews answered him, ‘It is not for a good work that we are going to stone you but for blasphemy, because you, being a man, make yourself God.” Jesus answered them, ‘Is it not written in your Law, “I said, you are gods”? If he called them gods to whom the word of God came—and Scripture cannot be broken— do you say of him whom the Father consecrated and sent into the world, “You are blaspheming,” because I said, ‘I am the Son of God”?’” John 10:27-36

The reason the Jews again thought that Jesus, though being a man, was making himself out to be God by claiming to be God’s unique Son, is because Christ described himself in the language which the Hebrew Bible reserves for God alone:

“See now that I, even I, am he, and there is no god beside me; I kill and I make alive; I wound and I heal; and there is none that can deliver out of my hand.” Deuteronomy 32:39

“Oh come, let us worship and bow down; let us kneel before the LORD, our Maker! For he is our God, and we are the people of his pasture, and the sheep of his hand. Today, if you hear his voice, do not harden your hearts, as at Meribah, as on the day at Massah in the wilderness,” Psalm 95:6-8

It is Yahweh who gives life with no one being able to deliver out of his hand. Yahweh is also the Shepherd whose voice the flock within in his hand of protection is to obey. And yet Jesus applies all of these divine functions and characteristics to himself!

The foregoing explains why the Jews tried to get Christ killed for claiming to be the Son of God:

“The Jews answered him, ‘We have a law, and according to that law he ought to die because he has made himself the Son of God.’” John 19:7

They perceived that Jesus wasn’t claiming to be a son of God in the sense of a righteous servant who sought to maintain covenant faithfulness with the God of Israel. Rather, they correctly understood that Christ was making himself ought to be God’s Son in the sense of being equal with God in essence, power, glory, majesty, and honor, and was, therefore, claiming to be the God-Man.

Where these Jews were mistaken was in their assumption that Jesus was blaspheming for making such a claim, since they erroneously thought (much like Muhammadans such as Tim Winter still do) that Christ was nothing more than a flesh and blood human being.

John brings all these points together when one of Jesus’ disciples finally sees the risen Lord in his physical body that still bore the marks of the crucifixion:

Now Thomas, one of the twelve, called the Twin, was not with them when Jesus came. So the other disciples told him, ‘We have seen the Lord.’ But he said to them, ‘Unless I see in his hands the mark of the nails, and place my finger into the mark of the nails, and place my hand into his side, I will never believe.’ Eight days later, his disciples were inside again, and Thomas was with them. Although the doors were locked, Jesus came and stood among them and said, ‘Peace be with you.’ Then he said to Thomas, ‘Put your finger here, and see my hands; and put out your hand, and place it in my side. Do not disbelieve, but believe.’ Thomas answered him, My Lord and my God (ho Kyrios mou kai ho Theos mou)!’ Jesus said to him, “Have you believed because you have seen me? Blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed.” The Purpose of This Book Now Jesus did many other signs in the presence of the disciples, which are not written in this book; but these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.” John 20:24-31

Thomas worships Jesus in the exact same way the Psalmist worships Yahweh Almighty:

“Awake and rouse yourself for my vindication, for my cause, my God and my Lord (elohay wadonay)!” Psalm 35:23

“Awake, O Lord, and attend to my judgment, [even] to my cause, my God and my Lord (ho Theos mou kai ho Kyrios mou).” Psalm 34:23 LXX

Since the only God that a monotheistic Jew can ever worship is Yahweh, Jesus must, therefore, be Yahweh Almighty in the flesh in order for him to accept Thomas’ confession. Otherwise, both Christ and Thomas would be guilty of idolatry and blasphemy.

Thomas’ worship of the risen Lord was a fulfillment of what Christ had previously said in one of his discussions with the Jews. Jesus stated that, as God’s unique beloved Son, he not only judges everyone but he does so for the express purpose of getting mankind to realize that they are to honor him in the exact same way that they are to honor God the Father:

“The Father judges no one, but has given all judgment to the Son, that all may honor the Son, even as they honor the Father. He who does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent him.” John 5:22-23

This is precisely what Thomas did when he worshiped the resurrected and glorified Christ as his Lord and God.

After all, as God’s unique Son Jesus is co-equal with the Father in essence, glory, majesty, and honor, and therefore worthy to receive the worship that the Father receives for being the only true God.

What makes this all the more astonishing is that God himself glorifies his Son in the same way that the Son glorifies him!

“When he had gone out, Jesus said, ‘Now is the Son of Man glorified, and God is glorified in him. If God is glorified in him, God will also glorify him in himself, and glorify him at once.’” John 13:31-32

“When Jesus had spoken these words, he lifted up his eyes to heaven, and said, ‘Father, the hour has come; GLORIFY YOUR SON that the Son may glorify you, since you have given him authority over all flesh, to give eternal life to all whom you have given him. And this is eternal life, that they know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent. I glorified you on earth, having accomplished the work that you gave me to do. And now, Father, GLORIFY ME IN YOUR OWN PRESENCE with the glory that I had with you BEFORE THE WORLD EXISTED… Father, I desire that they also, whom you have given me, may be with me where I am, to see my glory that you have given me because you loved me BEFORE THE FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD.’” John 17:1-5, 24

Remarkably Jesus states that the only true God glorifies him in the same way that he, his unique Son, glorifies God, something that no mere creature could dare say.

Christ further attests that he has been given rule over all flesh and has been appointed to grant everlasting life to all the beings that the Father has entrusted to his care. And since the false prophet Muhammad and all Muslims are flesh, this means that Jesus rules over all of them including Tim Winter.

As if this weren’t astonishing enough, Christ then goes on to claim to have personally existed alongside the Father in the same glory, and that he has been the personal object of the Father’s love, from before the creation of the world!

And ye the Hebrew Bible is clear that there is no heavenly being that shares in God’s glory. On the contrary, God’s heavenly host ascribe glory to God, they do not possess it!

“Ascribe to the LORD, O heavenly beings, ascribe to the LORD glory and strength. Ascribe to the LORD the glory due his name; worship the LORD in the splendor of holiness.” Psalm 29:1-2

“Ascribe to the LORD, O families of the peoples, ascribe to the LORD glory and strength! Ascribe to the LORD the glory due his name; bring an offering, and (M)come into his courts! Worship the LORD in the splendor of holiness; tremble before him, all the earth! Say among the nations, ‘The LORD reigns! Yes, the world is established; it shall never be moved; he will judge the peoples with equity.’ Let the heavens be glad, and let the earth rejoice; let the sea roar, and all that fills it; let the field exult, and everything in it! Then shall all the trees of the forest sing for joy before the LORD, for he comes, for he comes to judge the earth. He will judge the world in righteousness, and the peoples in his faithfulness.” Psalm 96:7-13

In light of the foregoing, I challenge Winter and any other Muhammadan to cite a single example of any mere human prophet making such assertions.

So much for Murad’s shameless manhandling of John 5:19.

 There’s more to come in the next segment.

Further Reading 

How Can Jesus be God when He denies being All-Powerful? (https://answeringislam.net/Shamoun/q_can_do_nothing.htm)