CHALLENGES FOR ONE MESSAGE FOUNDATION PT. 5

I continue from where I previously left off: CHALLENGES FOR ONE MESSAGE FOUNDATION PT. 4.

ALLAH MURDERS WOMEN, CHILDREN AND ANIMALS

Contrary to the assertions of the Muhammadan polemicists, the Quran NOWHERE forbids the killing of women or children. The opposite is true since it speaks of Allah destroying whole places such as Noah’s people by the flood, and wiping out Sodom and Gomorrah. The Quran even states that Allah makes sure his destruction of people is terribly painful:

Such is the seizing of thy Lord, when He seizes the cities that are evildoing; surely His seizing IS PAINFUL, TERRIBLE. S. 11:102 Arberry

In fact, the supposed sound ahadith proclaim that when Allah decides to destroy or kill a people he does so indiscriminately:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar: Allah’s Apostle said, “If Allah sends punishment upon a nation then it befalls upon the WHOLE population INDISCRIMINATELY and then they will be resurrected (and judged) according to their deeds.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 88, Number 224 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=88&translator=1&start=0&number=224)

Here is another English version of this particular narration:

XVIII. When Allah sends down a punishment on a people

6691. Hamza ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar related that he heard Ibn ‘Umar say, “The Messenger of Allah said, ‘When Allah sends down a punishment on a people, the punishment will strike ALL THOSE WHO ARE AMONG THEM, and then they will be resurrected commensurate with their actions.’” (Aisha Bewley, The Sahih Collection of al-Bukhari96. Book of Trials)

These same allegedly sound narrations even Muhammad himself didn’t know whether the children of believers or unbelievers would go to hell or not. Muhammad further stated the reason he didn’t know is because Allah may have destined such infants to hell.

‘A’isha, the mother of the believers, said that Allah’s Messenger was called to lead the funeral prayer of a child of the Ansar. I said: Allah’s Messenger, there is happiness for this child who is a bird from the birds of Paradise for it committed no sin nor has he reached the age when one can commit sin. He said: ‘A’isha, per adventure, IT MAY BE OTHERWISE, because God created for Paradise those who are fit for it WHILE THEY WERE YET IN THEIR FATHER’S LOINS and created for Hell those who are to go to Hell. He created them for Hell WHILE THEY WERE YET IN THEIR FATHER’S LOINS. (Sahih Muslim, Book 033, Number 6436 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=033&translator=2&start=0&number=6436)

Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger as saying: No babe is born but upon Fitra. It is his parents who make him a Jew or a Christian or a Polytheist. A person said: Allah’s Messenger, what is your opinion if they were to die before that (before reaching the age of adolescence when they can distinguish between right and wrong)? He said: It is Allah alone Who knows what they would be doing. (Sahih Muslim, Book 033, Number 6426 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=033&translator=2&start=0&number=6426)

Abu Huraira reported from Allah’s Messenger many ahadith and one amongst them is that he is reported to have said: An infant is born according to his (true) nature. It is his parents who make him a Jew, a Christian, just as a she-camel gives birth to its young ones. Do you find any deficiency in their limbs? You cut their ears (i. e. after birth). They (the Companions of the Holy Prophet) said: What is your opinion about him who dies in infancy? Thereupon Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: It is Allah alone Who knows best what they would be doing. (Sahih Muslim, Book 033, Number 6428 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=033&translator=2&start=0&number=6428)

Abu Huraira reported that Allah’s Messenger was asked about the children of the polytheists who die young. Thereupon Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: It is Allah Who knows what they would be doing. (Sahih Muslim, Book 033, Number 6432 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=033&translator=2&start=0&number=6432)

ALLAH WORSHIPED AS THE BEST OF ALL DECEIVERS

The Quran not only states that Allah is a deceiver but that he is actually the best of all deceivers, even better than the Devil himself!

But they were deceitful/deceptive (Wa’makaroo), and Allah was deceitful/deceptive (wa’makara Allahu), for Allah is the best of all deceivers (wa’Allahu khayru al-makireena)! S. 3:54 – cf. Q. 8:30; 27:50

Satan himself accused Allah of being a deceitful pervert:

(Allah) said: “O Iblis (Satan)! What is your reason for not being among the prostrators?” [Iblis (Satan)] said: “I am not the one to prostrate myself to a human being, whom You created from sounding clay of altered black smooth mud.” (Allah) said: “Then, get out from here, for verily, you are Rajim (an outcast or a cursed one).” [Tafsir At-Tabari] “And verily, the curse shall be upon you till the Day of Recompense (i.e. the Day of Resurrection).” [Iblis (Satan)] said: “O my Lord! Give me then respite till the Day they (the dead) will be resurrected.” Allah said: “Then, verily, you are of those reprieved, Till the Day of the time appointed.” [Iblis (Satan)] said: “O my Lord! Because YOU MISLED ME, I shall indeed adorn the path of error for them (mankind) on the earth, and I shall mislead them all. Except Your chosen, (guided) slaves among them.” (Allah) said: “This is the Way which will lead straight to Me. Certainly, you shall have no authority over My slaves, except those who follow you of the Ghawin (Mushrikun and those who go astray, criminals, polytheists, and evil-doers, etc.). And surely, Hell is the promised place for them all. It (Hell) has seven gates, for each of those gates is a (special) class (of sinners) assigned.” S. 15:32-44

What makes this exchange rather shocking is that Satan accuses Allah of deceiving or misleading him! Here is what the text in question exactly says:

[Iblis (Satan)] said: “O my Lord! Because you misled me (aghwaytanee), I shall indeed adorn the path of error for them (mankind) on the earth, and I shall mislead (walaoghwiyannahum) them all. S. 15:39

Note the various translations of this specific text by the different versions of the Quran:

Said he, ‘My Lord, for Thy perverting me …’ Arberry

[Satan said]: “My Lord, since you misguided me, …” Majid Fakhry – An Interpretation of the Qur’an (approved by Al-Ahzar University)

‘Lord,’ said Satan, ‘since You have thus seduced me, …’ N.J. Dawood

“My Lord, since you have misled me, …” Thomas Cleary

He said, “O my Lord! because thou hast beguiled me, …” Rodwell

He said, ‘O my Lord! for that Thou hast seduced me …’ Palmer

[The devil] replied, o Lord, because thou hast seduced me, … Sale

The parallel version of this story reads similarly:

(Iblîs) said: “Because You have sent me astray (aghwaytanee), …” S. 7:16

Here is how various versions translate this passage:

Said he, ‘Now, for Thy perverting me, …’ Arberry

Satan said: “Because You have misled me, …” Fakhry

‘Because You led me into sin …’ N.J. Dawood

He said: Now, because Thou hast sent me astray, … Pickthall

He said: “Because thou hast thrown me out of the way, …” Y. Ali

He said, “Since You have willed that I go astray, …” Thomas Cleary

He said, “Now, for that thou hast caused me to err, …” Rodwell

said he, ‘For that Thou hast led me into error, …’ Palmer

The devil] said, because thou hast depraved me, … Sale

And this is how some Muslim commentators explained S. 7:16:

(He) Iblis (said: Now, because Thou hast sent me astray) just as You made me err from guidance, (verily I shall lurk in ambush for them) for the children of Adam (on Thy Right Path) the religion of Islam. (Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs source; bold emphasis mine)

Said he, ‘Now, because You have sent me astray (fa-bi-ma aghwaytani means bi-ighwa’ik, ‘for Your sending me astray’: the ba‘ is for oaths, and the response of the oath is [the following]) verily I shall sit in ambush for them, that is, for the Children of Adam, on Your straight path, that is, on the path that leads to You. (Tafsir al-Jalalayn source; bold emphasis mine)

And because Allah misled Satan the devil will now mislead others!

[Iblis (Satan)] said: “By Your Might, then I will surely mislead (laoghwiyannahum) them all,” S. 38:82

That’s not all. The Quran even goes so far as to say that no one can outdo Allah when it comes to deceiving and misleading others:

The hypocrites would deceive God, but He will deceive them! When they stand up for prayer, they stand carelessly, to be seen of men, and they remember God but little: S. 4:142 Rodwell

And when We make people taste of mercy after an affliction touches them, lo! they devise deception (makrun) against Our communication. Say: Allah is quicker to deceive (makran); surely Our apostles write down what you plan. S. 10:21

The Quran further attests that only the disbelievers are naïve enough to feel safe from Allah’s deceit and lies, since the believers know better than to trust Allah:

Are they then secure from Allah’s deception (makra Allahi)? None deemeth himself secure from Allah’s deception (makra Allahi) save folk that perish. S. 7:99

The Muslim scripture even boasts that all deception and deceit belong entirely to Allah!

And verily, those before them did plot deception (makara), but all deception (al-makru) is Allah’s. He knows what every person earns, and the disbelievers will know who gets the good end. S. 13:42

The word for deception/deceiver/scheme in Q. 3:54 and 8:30 is makr. The lexical sources define the term as:

Miim-Kaf-Ra = To practice deceit or guile or circumvention, practice evasion or elusion, to plot, to exercise art or craft or cunning, act with policy, practice stratagem.

makara vb. (1)
perf. act. 3:54, 3:54, 7:123, 13:42, 14:46, 16:26, 16:45, 27:50, 40:45, 71:22
impf. act. 6:123, 6:123, 6:124, 8:30, 8:30, 8:30, 10:21, 12:102, 16:127, 27:70, 35:10
n.vb. 7:99, 7:99, 7:123, 10:21, 10:21, 12:31, 13:33, 13:42, 14:46, 14:46, 14:46, 27:50, 27:50, 27:51, 34:33, 35:10, 35:43, 35:43, 71:22
pcple. act. 3:54, 8:30

LL, V7, p: 256 (Source)

He practised DECEIT, GUILE, or CIRCUMVENTION, desiring to do another a foul, an abominable, or an evil action, clandestinely or without his knowing whence it proceeded. (Lane’s Arabic-English Lexiconsource)

Lest Muslims accuse these lexicons of bias or distortion notice what Muslim scholar Dr. Mahmoud M. Ayoub writes after asking,

“how the word makr (scheming or plotting), which implies deceitfulness or dishonesty, could be attributed to God.” (The Quran and Its Interpreters – The House of Imran [State University of New York Press [SUNY], Albany, NY 1992], Volume II, p. 165; bold emphasis mine)

Ayoub later quotes renowned Muslim expositor named ar-Razi who stated that,

“scheming (makr) is actually an act of deception aiming at causing evil. It is not possible to attribute deception to God. Thus the word is one of the muttashabihat [multivalent words of the Quran].” (Ibid., p. 166; bold emphasis mine)

Ayoub also sources one Muslim who actually boasted of Allah being the best conniver/deceiver/schemer etc.,

“Qurtubi observes that some scholars have considered the words ‘best of schemers’ to be one of God’s beautiful names. Thus one would pray, ‘O Best of Schemers, scheme for me!’ Qurtubi also reports that the Prophet used to pray, ‘O God, scheme for me, and do not scheme against me!’ (Qurtubi, IV, pp. 98-99; cf. Zamakhshari, I, p. 366).” (Ibid., p. 166)

And here, also, is how one of the earliest sources on the life of Muhammad interprets Q. 8:30:

Then he reminds the apostle of His favour towards him when the people plotted against him ‘to kill him, or to wound him, or to drive him out; and they plotted and God plotted, and is the best of plotters.’ i.e. I DECEIVED them with My firm GUILE so that I delivered you from them. (The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq’s Sirat Rasul Allah, with introduction and notes by Alfred Guillaume [Oxford University Press, Karachi, Tenth impression 1995], p. 323; capital emphasis mine)

ALLAH AS THE MOST CORRUPT MISLEADER OF THEM ALL

According to the Quran, Allah misleads people in order to pervert and condemn them to hell:

Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties about the hypocrites? Allah has cast them back (to disbelief) because of what they have earned. Do you want to guide him whom Allah has made to go astray? And he whom Allah has made to go astray, you will never find for him any way (of guidance). S. 4:88 Hilali-Khan

And whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He opens his breast to Islam, and whomsoever He wills to send astray, He makes his breast closed and constricted, as if he is climbing up to the sky. Thus Allah puts the wrath on those who believe not. S. 6:125 Hilali-Khan

And We sent not a Messenger except with the language of his people, in order that he might make (the Message) clear for them. Then Allah misleads whom He wills and guides whom He wills. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise. S. 14:4 Hilali-Khan

If you (O Muhammad) covet for their guidance then verily Allah guides not those whom He makes to go astray (or none can guide him whom Allah sends astray). And they will have no helpers. S. 16:37 Hilali-Khan

And when We desire to destroy a city, We command its men who live at ease, and they commit ungodliness therein, then the Word is realized against it, and We destroy it utterly. S. 17:16 Arberry

Allah goes as far as to send devils from among spirit creatures and human beings for the express purpose of tempting mankind to sin:

So have we made for every prophet an enemy, – devils of men and ginns; some of them inspire others with specious speech to lead astray; but had thy Lord pleased they would not have done it; so leave them with what they do devise. S. 6:112 Palmer

Do you not notice? WE SEND the Shaitans upon the disbelievers, and they continually incite and instigate them. S. 19:83 (Dr. Munir Munshey https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/19/st41.htm)

That HE MAY MAKE that which the devil proposeth a temptation for those in whose hearts is a disease, and those whose hearts are hardened – Lo! the evil-doers are in open schism – S. 22:53 Pickthall

indeed ate food and walked in the markets. And We have made some of you to be a temptation for (some) others. “Will you (endure) patiently?” And your Lord has been Ever-Beholding. S. 25:20 (Muhammad Mahmoud https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/25/st21.htm)

FURTHER READING

Incompleteness and Incoherence of the Qur’an

Introduction — a discussion of the quranic references claiming completeness

CHALLENGES FOR ONE MESSAGE FOUNDATION PT. 4

We have arrived at the final part of my rebuttal: CHALLENGES FOR ONE MESSAGE FOUNDATION PT. 3.

CHALLENGE REGARDING THE TORAH

The Muhammadans at One Message Foundation believe that the Quran only confirms the original Torah given to Moses, and not the Pentateuch followed by Jews and Christians today. Therefore, my challenge to these polemicists is rather simple. Quote a single verse where the Quran explicitly claims that the Torah was given to Moses.

Appealing to the Islamic tradition won’t help these Muhammadans since the Muslim sources teach that the term Torah was used more loosely to refer to all of the scriptures of the Jews and Christians.

For instance, here’s what Ibn Kathir stated in respect to Q. 7:157:

… Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-Muthanna said that `Ata’ bin Yasar said, “I met `Abdullah bin `Amr and asked him, `Tell me about the description of Allah’s Messenger in the Tawrah.’ He said, `Yes, by Allah! He is described in the Tawrah, just as he is described in the Qur’an …

(O Prophet! Verily, We have sent you as a witness, and a bearer of glad tidings, and a warner.) [33:45] as a safe refuge for the unlettered ones. “You are My servant and Messenger. I have called you ‘Al-Mutawakkil’ (who trusts in Allah), not hard or harsh.’ Neither uttering foul speech in the markets nor returning evil deed with one in kind. Rather, he forgives and forgoes. Allah will not end his life until He straightens through him the crooked religion, so that they might proclaim, ‘There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.’ He will open through him sealed hearts, deaf ears and blind eyes.”’’ `Ata’ then said, “I also met Ka`b and asked him the same question, and his answer did not differ from `Abdullah’s answer, even concerning one letter.” Al-Bukhari recorded it from ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr. It was also recorded by Al-Bukhari [up to the word] forgoes. And he mentioned the narration of ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr then he said: “It was COMMON in the speech of our Salaf that they describe the Books of the People of the Two Scriptures AS THE TAWRAH, as some Hadiths concur. Allah knows best.” (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged), Volume 4, (Surat Al-Ar’af to the end of Surah Yunus), abridged by a group of scholars under the supervision of Shaykh Safiur-Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri [Darussalam Publishers & Distributors, Riyadh, Houston, New York, Lahore; First Edition: May 2000], p. 179 http://www.alim.org/library/quran/AlQuran-tafsir/TIK/7/157; bold and capital emphasis mine)

And here is what he wrote elsewhere:

And it should be recognized that many of our forebears used to apply the word “Torah” to the books of the peoples of the scriptures. These are in their view more comprehensive than those God revealed to Moses. This fact is attested from the hadith. (The Life of the Prophet Muhammad (Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya), translated by professor Trevor Le Gassick, reviewed by Dr. Ahmed Fareed [Garnet Publishing Limited, 8 Southern Court, south Street Reading RG1 4QS, UK; The Center for Muslim Contribution to Civilization, 1998], Volume I, p. 237; bold emphasis mine)

The translator of the English version of Sahih al-Bukhari included the words Old Testament within parentheses next to the word Torah in the following narration, which seems to be citing Isaiah 42:

Narrated Ata bin Yasar:

I met Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin Al-‘As and asked him, “Tell me about the description of Allah’s Apostle which is mentioned in Torah (i.e. Old Testament).” He replied, “Yes. By Allah, he is described in Torah with some of the qualities attributed to him in the Quran as follows:

‘O Prophet! We have sent you as a witness (for Allah’s True religion) and a giver of glad tidings (to the faithful believers), and a warner (to the unbelievers) and guardian of the illiterates. You are My slave and My messenger (i.e. Apostle). I have named you “Al-Mutawakkil” (who depends upon Allah). You are neither discourteous, harsh Nor a noise-maker in the markets And you do not do evil to those Who do evil to you, but you deal With them with forgiveness and kindness. Allah will not let him (the Prophet) Die till he makes straight the crooked people by making them say: “None has the right to be worshipped but Allah,” with which will be opened blind eyes and deaf ears and enveloped hearts.’” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 34, Number 335 https://sunnah.com/bukhari/34/77)

Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan realized that in this particular context Torah could not be a reference to Moses’ book and would have been fully aware that the Salaf taught, he could see that Abdullah was clearly using it in relation to the other prophetic writings found in the Old Testament.

In fact, here is what he and another Salafi scholar wrote in in the comments to Q. 7:157 found in their Quranic translation:

(1) (V. 7:157) There is in the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel), even after the original text has been distorted, clear prophecies indicating the coming of Prophet Muhammad, e.g. Deut. 18:18, 21:21; Psl. 118:22-23; Isa. 42:1-13; Hab. 3:3-4; Matt. 21:42-43; Jn. 14:12-17, 26-28, 16:7-14. (Dr. Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din Al-Hilali and Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, Interpretation of the Meanings of the Noble Qur’an in the English Language From Surah 6 to 9 [Darussalam Publishers & Distributors, Riyadh, Lahore, Houston and New York], Part 2, p. 221)

Another hadith translator concurs with this broader use of the term Torah:

(4a) Chapter: Belief in the Divine Decree – Section 1

Abu Huraira reported that God’s messenger told of Adam and Moses holding a disputation in their Lord’s presence and of Adam getting the better of Moses in argument. Moses said, “You are Adam whom God created with His hand, into whom He breathed of His spirit, to whom He made the angels do obeisance, and whom He caused to dwell in His garden; then because of your sin you caused mankind to come down to the earth.” Adam replied, “And you are Moses whom God chose to deliver His messages and to address, to whom He gave the tablets on which everything was explained, and whom He brought near as a confidant. How long before I was created did you find that God has written the Torah?” 1 Moses said, “Forty years.” Adam asked, “Did you find in it, ‘And Adam disobeyed his Lord and erred’?” 2 On being told that he did, he said, “Do you then blame me for doing a deed which God had decreed that I should do forty years before He created me?” God’s messenger said, “So Adam got the better of Moses in argument.”

Muslim transmitted it.

1 At-Taurat, a general name for the first five books of the Old Testament.

2 These words are in Quran, xx, 121.

Grade: Sahīh (Zubair `Aliza’i)

Reference: Mishkat al-Masabih 81

In-book reference: Book 1, Hadith 75 (sunnah.com https://sunnah.com/mishkat/1/75; underline emphasis mine)

I now reference a list of Quranic translators who were/are honest to admit that the Taurat could refer to all of OT prophetic writings, some of whom even identify the Injil as the New Testament/Bible!

*5:44 The Torah is a collection OF ALL THE SCRIPTURES revealed through all the prophets of Israel prior to Jesus Christ, i.e., TODAY’S OLD TESTAMENT. NOWHERE in the Quran do we find THAT THE TORAH WAS GIVEN TO MOSES. (Rashad Khalifa, Quran: The Final Testament https://www.masjidtucson.org/quran/frames/ch5fn.html#44; capital emphasis mine)

005:044 The Torah is known as the name of the book given to Moses. However, this common knowledge might be wrong. The Quran nowhere mentions that the Torah was given to Moses. The word Torah occurs 18 times in the Quran and it refers to the collection of books given to Jewish prophets excluding the Injeel delivered by Jesus. Though the name of the book(s) given to Moses is not mentioned, it is described with various adjectives such as Furqan (the distinguisher), Emam (the leader), Rahma (mercy), Noor (light) and Huda (guidance).

There is ample scholarly work indicating that current books of the Old Testament were extensively tampered with and written by Ezra and other rabbis. See 2:59; 2:79; 9:30-31. Also, see the Old Testament, Jeremiah 8:8. (Quran: A Reformist Translation, Translated and Annotated by Edip Yuksel, Layth Saleh al-Shaiban Martha Schulte-Nafeh [Brainbrow Press, 2007], p. 121 http://www.studyquran.org/resources/Quran_Reformist_Translation.pdf; underline emphasis mine)

We had Jesus, the son of Mary, follow in their footsteps in order to confirm what had come before him from the Torah and We gave him the Gospel which contains guidance and Light, to confirm what he already had in the Old Testament, and as guidance and a lesson for those who do their duty. S. 5:46 (T. B. Irving https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/5/st47.htm; bold emphasis mine)

God has bought up their persons and their property from believers, so they may have the Garden [instead). They fight for God’s sake; they kill and are killed as a rightful promise from Him [to be found] in the Old Testament, the Gospel and the Quran. Who is more Trustworthy with His word than God? … S. 9:111 (Irving https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/9/st47.htm; bold emphasis mine)

So Jesus the son of Mary said: “Children of Israel, I am God’s messenger to you, confirming whatever came before me in the Testament and announcing a messenger coming after me whose name will be Ahmad.” Yet when he brought them explanations, they said: “This is sheer magic!” S. 61:6 (Irving https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/61/st47.htm; bold emphasis mine)

Those who are laden with the Old Testament, yet do not carry it out may be compared to a donkey who is carrying scriptures. S. 62:5 (Irving https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/62/st47.htm; bold emphasis mine emphasis mine)

He descended on you The Book with the truth, confirming to what (is) BETWEEN HIS HANDS, and He descended the Torah and the New Testament/Bible. From before guidance to the people, and He descended the Separator of Right and Wrong/Koran, that those who disbelieved with God’s verses, for them (is) a strong (severe) torture, and God (is) glorious/mighty, (owner) of a revenge/punishment. S. 3:3-4 (Muhammad Ahmed – Samira https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/3/st19.htm; bold emphasis mine)

And how (do) they ask you to judge/rule, and at them (is) the Torah/OLD TESTAMENT, in it (is) God’s judgment/rule, then they turn away from after that, and those are not with the believing. That We descended the Torah/OLD TESTAMENT, in it (is) guidance and light, the prophets those who submitted/surrendered, judge/rule with it, to those who guided/Jews, and the knowledgeable Lord worshippers, and the religious scholars with what they memorized/safe kept (learned) from God’s Book, and they were not on it witnessing/present; so do not fear the people and fear Me, and do not buy/volunteer with My signs/verses a small price, and who does not judge/rule with what God descended, so those, they are the disbelievers. And We wrote/decreed on them in it, that the self (is) with the self, and the eye (is) with the eye, and the nose (is) with the nose, and the ear (is) with the ear, and the tooth (is) with the tooth, and the wounds/cuts (are) equal revenge/punishment equal to crime, so who gave charity (forgave) with it, so it is cover/substitution for him, and who does not judge/rule with what God descended, so those, those are the unjust/oppressors. And We sent after (following) on their tracks with Jesus, Mary’s son confirming for what (is) BETWEEN HIS HANDS from the Torah/OLD TESTAMENT, and We gave him the NEW TESTAMENT/BIBLE in it (is) guidance and light, and confirming to what (is) BETWEEN HIS HANDS from the Torah/OLD TESTAMENT, and guidance and a sermon/advice/warning to the fearing and obeying. And the NEW TESTAMENT’S/BIBLE’S people should judge/rule with what God descended in it, and who does not judge/rule with what God descended, so those, they are the debauchers. S. 5:43-47 (Ahmed – Samira https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/5/st19.htm; bold emphasis mine)

“Those who follow the messenger, the prophet the illiterate/belonging to a nation, whom they find him written at them in the Torah/OLD TESTAMENT, and the NEW TESTAMENT/BIBLE…” S. 7:157 (Ahmed – Samira https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/7/st19.htm; bold emphasis mine)

“THE FOLLOWERS of THE OLD TESTAMENT demand of thee [O Prophet] that thou cause a revelation to be sent down to from heaven…” S. 4:153 (Muhammad Asad, The Message of the Quran https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/4/st20.htm; bold emphasis mine)

MUHAMMAD’S IMMORALITY

The Islamic tradition depicts Allah and Muhammad as sexual perverts and deviants that make Satan blush.

ALLAH PREDESTINES ADULTERY AND RAPE

According to the sunni ahadith, the following passage was composed to justify the raping of female captives, including married ones:

Also (prohibited are) women already married, except those whom your right hands possess: Thus hath God ordained (Prohibitions) against you: Except for these, all others are lawful, provided ye seek (them in marriage) with gifts from your property, – desiring chastity, not lust, seeing that ye derive benefit from them, give them their dowers (at least) as prescribed; but if, after a dower is prescribed, agree Mutually (to vary it), there is no blame on you, and God is All-knowing, All-wise. S. 4:24 Y. Ali

Abu Said al-Khudri said: The apostle of Allah sent a military expedition to Awtas on the occasion of the battle of Hunain. They met their enemy and fought with them. They defeated them and took them captives. Some of the Companions of the Apostle of Allah were reluctant to have intercourse with the female captives in the presence of their husbands who were unbelievers. So Allah, the Exalted, sent down the Quranic verse, ‘And all married women (are forbidden) unto you save those (captives) whom your right hands possess’. That is to say, they are lawful for them when they complete their waiting period.

Grade: SAHIH (Al-Albani) (Sunan Abu Dawud, Volume 2, Number 2150 https://sunnah.com/abudawud/12/110; emphasis mine)

(3) 3016. Abu Sa‘eed Al-Khudri said: “On the Day of Awtas, we captured some women who had husbands among the idolaters. SO SOME OF THE MEN DISLIKED THAT, so Allah, Most High, revealed: ‘And women already married, except those whom your right hands possess….’” (Sahih)

[Abu ‘Eisa said:] This Hadith is Hasan. (https://sunnah.com/urn/740150)

(4) 3017. Abu Sa‘eed Al-Khudri said: “we captured some women on the Day of Awtas and they had husbands among their people. That was mentioned to the Messenger of Allah so Allah revealed: ‘…And women already married, except those whom your right hands possess….” (Sahih)

[Abu ‘Eisa said:] This Hadith is Hasan.

This is how it was reported by Ath-Thawri, from ‘Uthman Al-Batti, from Abu Al-Khalil, from Abu Sa‘eed Al-Khudri from the Prophet and it is similar. “From Abu ‘Alqamah” is not in this Hadith and I do not know of anyone who mentioned Abu ‘Alqamah in this Hadith except in what Hammam mentioned from Qatadah. Abu Al-Khalil’s name is Salih bin Abi Mariam. (English Translation of Jami‘ At-Tirmidhi, Compiled by Imam Hafiz Abu ‘Eisa Mohammad Ibn ‘Eisa At-Tirmidhi, From Hadith No. 544 to 1204, translated by Abu Khaliyl (USA), ahadith edited and referenced by Hafiz Tahir Zubair ‘Ali Za’i [Darussalam Publishers & Distributors, First Edition: November 2007], Volume 5, From Hadith No. 2606 to 3290, Chapter 4. Regarding Surat An-Nisa’, pp. 331-332: https://sunnah.com/urn/740160; emphasis mine)

The allegedly sound ahadith further report that Muhammad taught that Allah has predestined the amount of adultery a person must necessarily commit: 

Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:

I did not see anything so resembling minor sins as what Abu Huraira said from the Prophet, who said, “Allah has written for the son of Adam his INEVITABLE share of adultery whether he is aware of it or not: The adultery of the eye is the looking (at something which is sinful to look at), and the adultery of the tongue is to utter (what it is unlawful to utter), and the innerself wishes and longs for (adultery) and the private parts turn that into reality or refrain from submitting to the temptation.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 77, Number 609)

Verily Allah has fixed the very portion of adultery which a man will indulge in, and which he OF NECESSITY MUST COMMIT (or there would be no escape from it). (Sahih Muslim, Book 033, Number 6421; see also Number 6422)

This brings me to my next point.

MUTA: ISLAMIC PROSTITUTION

The hadiths of Muhammad claim that Q. 4:24 and 5:87 were sent down to sanction temporary marriages, which is nothing other than prostitution:

Narrated Abdullah:
We used to participate in the holy wars carried on by the Prophet and we had no women (wives) with us. So we said (to the Prophet). “Shall we castrate ourselves?” But the Prophet forbade us to do that and thenceforth he allowed us to marry a woman (temporarily) by giving her even a garment, and then he recited: “O you who believe! Do not make unlawful the good things which Allah has made lawful for you.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, Number 139)

Narrated Abdullah:
We used to participate in the holy battles led by Allah’s Apostle and we had nothing (no wives) with us. So we said, “Shall we get ourselves castrated?” He forbade us that and then allowed us to marry women with a temporary contract and recited to us: — ‘O you who believe! Make not unlawful the good things which Allah has made lawful for you, but commit no transgression.’ (5.87) (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 62, Number 13o)

“‘Mut’ah marriage involves a man hiring a woman for a specific amount of money, for a certain period of time, to have sex with her. The scholars agree that this Mut’ah marriage was authorized in the beginning of Islam. It is reported that when the Prophet came to Mecca to perform ‘umrah, the women of Mecca dressed up and adorned themselves. The companions complained to the Prophet that they had not had sex for a long time, so he said to them: ‘Enjoy these women.’” (Ar-Razi, At-tafsir al-kabir, Q. 4:24)

“No Muslim disputes that Mut’ah marriage was allowed in early Islam, the difference is whether it has been abrogated or not.” (Ibid.)

The hadith collections confirm that there was debate regarding whether this practice had been abrogated, since it was being practiced all the way to the time of Umar’s caliphate:

Narrated Abu Jamra:

I heard Ibn Abbas (giving a verdict) when he was asked about the Mut’a with the women, and he permitted it (Nikah-al-Mut’a). On that a freed slave of his said to him, “That is only when it is very badly needed and women are scarce.” On that, Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Yes.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 62, Number 51)

Ibn Uraij reported: ‘Ati’ reported that Jabir b. Abdullah came to perform ‘Umra, and we came to his abode, and the people asked him about different things, and then they made a mention of temporary marriage, whereupon he said: Yes, we had been benefiting ourselves by this temporary marriage during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet and during the time of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. (Sahih Muslim, Book 008, Number 3248)

Abu Nadra reported: While I was in the company of Jabir b. Abdullah, a person came to him and said that Ibn ‘Abbas and Ibn Zubair differed on the two types of Mut’a (Tamattu’ of Hajj 1846 and Tamattu’ with women), whereupon Jabir said: We used to do these two during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him). Umar then forbade us to do them, and so we did not revert to them. (Sahih Muslim, Book 008, Number 3250)

‘Urwa b. Zubair reported that ‘Abdullah b. Zubair (Allah be pleased with him) stood up (and delivered an address) in Mecca saying: Allah has made blind the hearts of some people as He has deprived them of eyesight that they give religious verdict in favour of temporary marriage, while he was alluding to a person (Ibn ‘Abbas). Ibn Abbas called him and said: You are an uncouth person, devoid of sense. By my life, Mut’a was practised during the lifetime of the leader of the pious (he meant Allah’s Messenger, may peace be upon him), and Ibn Zubair said to him: Just do it yourselves, and by Allah, if you do that I will stone you with your stones. Ibn Shihab said. Khalid b. Muhajir b. Saifullah informed me: While I was sitting in the company of a person, a person came to him and he asked for a religious verdict about Mut’a and he permitted him to do it. Ibn Abu ‘Amrah al-Ansari (Allah be pleased with him) said to him: Be gentle. It was permitted in the early days of Islam, (for one) who was driven to it under the stress of necessity just as (the eating of) carrion and the blood and flesh of swine and then Allah intensified (the commands of) His religion and prohibited it (altogether). Ibn Shihab reported: Rabi’ b. Sabra told me that his father (Sabra) said: I contracted temporary marriage with a woman of Banu ‘Amir for two cloaks during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him); then he forbade us to do Mut’a. Ibn Shihab said: I heard Rabi’ b. Sabra narrating it to Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Aziz and I was sitting there. (Sahih Muslim, Book 008, Number 3261)

One narration even says that, during the caliphate of Umar, a woman got pregnant as a result of Muta:

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Urwa ibn az-Zubayr that Khawla ibn Hakim came to Umar ibn al-Khattab and said, “Rabia ibn Umayya made a temporary marriage with a woman and she is pregnant by him.” Umar ibn al-Khattab went out in dismay dragging his cloak, saying, “This temporary marriage, had I come across it, I would have ordered stoning and done away with it!” (Malik’s Muwatta, Book 28, Number 28.18.42)

Renowned Sunni exegete and historian al-Tabari claimed that Umar rescinded his prohibition:

According to Muhammad b. Ishaq – Yahya b. Ma’in – Ya’qub b. Ibrahim – ‘Isa b. Yazid b. Da’b – ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Zayd – ‘Imran b. Sawdah: I said the morning prayer with ‘Umar, and he recited the Subhan chapter and one other. Then he left. I went off with him, and he asked if there was anything he could do. I told him there was, so he asked me to join him. I did so and, when he entered [his house], he gave me permission [to enter]. There he was on a bed with nothing on it. I told him I wanted to give him some advice. His reply was, “The person giving good advice is welcome anytime.” I said, “Your community finds fault with you on four counts.” (‘Umar) put the top of his whip in his beard and the lower part on his thigh. Then he said, “Tell me more.” I continued, “It has been mentioned that you declared the lesser pilgrimage forbidden during the months of the [full] pilgrimage. The Messenger of God did not do this, nor did Abu Bakr, though it is permitted.” He answered, “It is permitted. If they were to perform the lesser pilgrimage during the months of the pilgrimage, they would regard it as being in lieu of the full pilgrimage, and (Mecca) would be a deserted place that year, and the pilgrimage would be celebrated by no one, although it is part of God’s greatness. You are right.” I continued, “It is also said that you have forbidden temporary marriage, although it was a license (rukhsah) given by God. We enjoy temporary marriage for a handful [of dates], and we can separate after three nights.” He replied, “The Messenger of God permitted it at a time of necessity. Then people regained their life of comfort. I do not know of any Muslim who has practiced this or gone back to it. Now anyone who wishes can marry for a handful [of dates] and separate after three nights. You are right.” I continued, “You emancipate a slave girl if she gives birth, without her master’s [consent to] the emancipation.” He replied, “I added one thing that is forbidden to another, intending only to do some good. I ask God’s forgiveness.” I continued, “There have been complaints of your raising your voice against your subjects and your addressing them harshly.” He raised his whip, then ran his hand down it right to the end. Then he said, “I am Muhammad’s traveling companion”- he [in fact] sat behind him at the raid on Qarqarat al-Kudr… (The History of al-Tabari: The Conquest of Iran, translated by G. Rex Smith [State University of New York Press, Albany, 1994], Volume XIV, pp. 139-140; bold emphasis mine)

I have one final installment left: CHALLENGES FOR ONE MESSAGE FOUNDATION PT. 5.

CHALLENGES FOR ONE MESSAGE FOUNDATION PT. 3

I proceed with more challenges for Muhammadan Sheikh Umar: CHALLENGES FOR ONE MESSAGE FOUNDATION PT. 2.

CONTRADICTIONS IN THE QURAN

Muhammad made gross factual errors. Some examples include:

1. Which Came First: Heaven or Earth?

The Quran claims that the earth and everything in were created before the heavens:

It is He Who hath created for you ALL THINGS that are on earth; THEN (thumma) He turned to the heavens, and made them into seven firmaments; and of all things He hath perfect knowledge. S. 2:29

Say: Is it that ye deny Him Who created the earth in two Days? And do ye join equals with Him? He is the Lord of (all) the Worlds. He set on the (earth), mountains standing firm, high above it, and bestowed blessings on the earth, and measure therein its sustenance, in four Days, alike for (all) who ask. THEN (thumma) He turned to the sky, and it had been (as) smoke: He said to it and to the earth: “Come ye together, willingly or unwillingly.” They said: “We do come (together), in willing obedience.” So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days, and He assigned to each heaven its duty and command. And We adorned the lower heaven with lights, and (provided it) with guard. Such is the Decree of (Him) the Exalted in Might, Full of Knowledge. S. 41:9-12

Traditions attributed to Muhammad and his first followers claim that the Arabic word thumma refers to a sequential act, that the heavens came after the earth:

“Abu Huraira reported that Allah’s Messenger took hold of my hands and said: Allah the Exalted and Glorious, created the clay on Saturday and He created the mountains on Sunday and He created the trees on Monday and He created the things entailing labour on Tuesday and created light on Wednesday and He caused animals to spread on Thursday and created Adam after ‘Asr on Friday; the last creation at the last hour of the hours of Friday, i.e. Between afternoon and night.” (Sahih Muslim, Book 039, Number 6707 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=039&translator=2&start=0&number=6707)

This hadith places the creation of light on Wednesday, after the creation of the earth and its provisions. Light presumably refers to the sun. If so, this would be in clear contradiction with modern scientific theories on the origin of the universe which places the creation of the sun before vegetation.

The following traditions are taken from The History of al-Tabari: General Introduction and from the Creation to the Flood (translated by Franz Rosenthal, State University of New York Press (SUNY), Albany NY 1989), Volume 1, pp. 187-193. All bold and capital emphasis mine:

“We have stated before that time is but hours of night and day and that the hours are but traversal by the sun and the moon of the degrees of the sphere. Now then, this being so, there is (also) a sound tradition from the Messenger of God told us by Hannad b. al-Sari, who also said that he read all of the hadith (to Abu Bakr) – Abu Bakr b. ‘Ayyash – Abu Sa’d al-Baqqal- ‘Ikrimah – IBN ABBAS: The Jews came to the Prophet and asked him about the creation of the heavens and the earth. He said: God created the earth on Sunday and Monday. He created the mountains and the uses they possess on Tuesday. On Wednesday, He created trees, water, cities and the cultivated barren land. These are four (days). He continued (citing the Qur’an): ‘Say: Do you really not believe in the One Who created the earth in two days, and set up others like Him? That is the Lord of the worlds. He made it firmly anchored (mountains) above it and blessed it and decreed that it contain the amount of food it provides, (all) in four days, equally for those asking’- for those who ask. On Thursday, He created heaven. On Friday, He created the stars, the sun, the moon, and the angels, until three hours remained. In the first of these three hours He created the terms (of human life), who would live and who would die. In the second, He cast harm upon everything that is useful for mankind. And in the third, (He created) Adam and had him dwell in Paradise. He commanded Iblis to prostrate himself before Adam, and He drove Adam out of Paradise at the end of the hour. When the Jews asked: What then, Muhammad? He said: ‘Then He sat straight upon the Throne.’ The Jews said: You are right, if you had finished, they said, with: Then He rested. Whereupon the Prophet got very angry, and it was revealed: ‘We have created the heavens and the earth and what is between them in six days, and fatigue did not touch Us. Thus be patient with what you say.’”

And:

“According to al-Muthanna- al-Hajjaj- Hammad- ‘Ata’ b. al-Sa’ib- ‘Ikrimah: The Jews asked the Prophet: What about Sunday? The Messenger of God replied: On it, God created the earth and spread it out. They asked about Monday, and he replied: On it, He created Adam. They asked about Tuesday, and he replied: On it, He created the mountains, water, and so on. They asked about Wednesday, and he replied: Food. They asked about Thursday, and he replied: He created the heavens. They asked about Friday, and he replied: God created night and day. Then, when they asked about Saturday and mentioned God’s rest(ing on it), he exclaimed: God be praised! God then revealed: ‘We have created the heavens and the earth and what is between them in six days, and fatigue did not touch Us.’”

Yet the this next Surah contradicts the foregoing narrations since it asserts that the earth’s provisions, such as water, were created only AFTER the heavens:

“Are ye the harder to create, or is the heaven that He built? He raised the height thereof and ordered it; And He made dark the night thereof, and He brought forth the morn thereof. AND AFTER THAT (bad’a) He spread the earth, And produced therefrom the water thereof and the pasture thereofAnd He made fast the hills, A provision for you and for your cattle.” S. 79:27-33

Al-Tabari writes in regards to the word ba’da that:

Someone might say: You realize that a number of interpreters have considered God’s word: “And it was the earth that He spread out thereafter,” to mean: “He spread out simultaneously” (attributing to the preposition ba’da “after” the meaning of ma’a “together [simultaneous] with”). Now, what is your evidence for the soundness of your statement that we have here the meaning of “after”, the opposite of “before”? The reply would be: The meaning of “after” generally known in Arabic speech, as we have said, is that of the opposite of “before,” and not “simultaneous with.” Now, word meanings considered applicable are those that are preponderant and generally known among speakers (of a language), and no others are. (Ibid., p. 216; bold emphasis mine)

Even the late Muslim translator Abdullah Yusuf Ali, while translating ba’da as “moreover” in Q. 79:30, candidly admitted that:

Moreover: or, more literally, AFTER THAT. See n. 4475 to xli. 11. (Ali, fn. 5937 https://www.alim.org/quran/translation/yusuf-ali/surah/79; bold italicized emphasis mine)

2. Night Journey

Glory to (Allah) Who did take His Servant for a Journey by night from the Sacred Mosque to the Farthest Mosque (Masjid al-Aqsa), whose precincts We did bless,- in order that We might show him some of Our Signs: for He is the One Who heareth and seeth (all things). S. 17:1

According to the Islamic traditions, Muhammad went to the Mosque in Jerusalem. The following is taken from Alfred Guillaume’s The Life of Muhammad (Oxford University Press Karachi, 1995 tenth impression), which is a translation of Ibn Ishaq’s Sirat Rasulullah:

Ziyad b. ‘Abdullah al-Bakka’i from Muhammad b. Ishaq told me the following: Then the apostle was carried by night from the mosque at Mecca to the Masjid al-Aqsa WHICH IS THE TEMPLE OF AELIA, when Islam had spread in Mecca among the Quraysh and all the tribes.

… His companion (Gabriel) went with him to see the wonders between heaven and earth, UNTIL HE CAME TO JERUSALEM’S TEMPLE

In his story al-Hasan said: ‘The apostle and Gabriel went their way until they arrived AT THE TEMPLE AT JERUSALEM’… (Ibid., pp. 181, 182; bold and capital emphasis mine)

And from Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Number 309 (https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=001&translator=2&start=0&number=0309):

It is narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: I was brought al-Buraq Who is an animal white and long, larger than a donkey but smaller than a mule, who would place his hoof a distance equal to the range of version. I mounted it and came to the Temple (Bait Maqdis in Jerusalem), then tethered it to the ring used by the prophets. I entered the mosque and prayed two rak’ahs in it, and then came out and Gabriel brought me a vessel of wine and a vessel of milk. I chose the milk, and Gabriel said: You have chosen the natural thing. Then he took me to heaven…

The problem with all of this is that the first Jerusalem Temple was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar’s Babylonian armies in 587 BC. Furthermore, General Titus and his Roman soldiers levelled the Second Temple in AD. 70, more than five centuries before this alleged night journey to Jerusalem took place. In fact, the Temple that eventually became Masjid al-Aqsa did not come into existence until AD. 691 when Amir Abd-ul-Malik built it.


3. Number of earths

According to the Quran Allah created exactly seven heavens and seven earths:

“It is Allah Who has created seven heavens, and earths as many…” S. 65:12, F. Malik’s translation

The so-called sound reports confirm that Muhammad actually believed that there were seven earths:

Narrated Muhammad bin Ibrahim bin Al-Harith:
from Abu Salama bin ‘Abdur-Rahman who had a dispute with some people on a piece of land, and so he went to ‘Aisha and told her about it. She said, “O Abu Salama, avoid the land, for Allah’s Apostle said, ‘Any person who takes even a span of land unjustly, his neck shall be encircled with it down seven earths.’” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 54, Number 417 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=54&translator=1&start=0&number=417; See also Numbers 418, 420; Volume 3, Book 43, Numbers 632-634)

Narrated Abu Hurayrah:
While Allah’s Prophet and his companions were sitting clouds came over them and Allah’s Prophet asked, “Do you know what these are?” On their replying that Allah and His Messenger knew best, he said, “These are the clouds (anan), these are the water-carriers of the Earth, which Allah drives to people who do not thank Him or call upon him.” He then asked, “Do you know what is above you?” On their replying that Allah and His Messenger knew best, he said, “It is the firmament, a ceiling which is guarded and waves which are kept back.” He then asked, “Do you know what is between you and it?” On their replying that Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) knew best, he said, “Between you and it are five hundred years.” He then asked, “Do you knew what is above that?” On their replying that Allah and His Messenger best he said, “Two heavens with a distance of five hundred years between them.” He went on speaking like that till he counted seven heavens, the distance between each pair being like between Heaven and Earth. He then asked, “Do you know what is above that?” On their replying that Allah and His Messenger knew best, he said, “Above that is the Throne, and the distance between it and the (seventh) heaven is the same as that between each pair of heavens.” He then asked, “Do you know what is below you?” On their replying that Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) knew best, he said, “It is the earth.” He then asked, “Do you know what is under that?” On their replying that Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) knew best, he said, “Under it there is another Earth with a journey of five hundred years between them,” and so on till he had counted seven earths with a journey of five hundred years between each pair. He then said, “By Him in Whose hand Muhammad’s soul is, if you were to drop a rope to the lowest earth it would not pass out of Allah’s knowledge.” He then recited, “He is the First and the Last, the Outward and the Inward, and He is omniscient.” (Tirmidhi commented that Allah’s Messenger’s recitation of the verse indicates that it would go down within Allah’s knowledge, power and authority, for Allah’s knowledge, power and authority are everywhere, while He is on the Throne, as He described Himself in His Book.)


Ahmad and Tirmidhi transmitted it. (Al-Tirmidhi, Number 1513 https://www.alim.org/hadith/tirmidi/1513/)

The Muslim expositors provide further substantiation that this is what Muhammad erroneously believed, and further add that these earths are actually flat! Some of these exegetes include the following.

Ibn Abbas

(Allah it is Who hath created seven heavens) one above the other like a dome, (and of the earth the like thereof) seven earths BUT THEY ARE FLAT. (The commandment cometh down among them slowly) He says: He sends the angels down from heaven with revelation, Scripture and calamities, (that ye may know) and acknowledge (that Allah is Able to do all things) relating to the dwellers of the heavens and the earths, (and that Allah surroundeth all things in knowledge) and that His knowledge encompasses everything’. (Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs https://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=73&tSoraNo=65&tAyahNo=12&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=2; bold and capital emphasis mine)

Al-Tabari

According to Muhammad b. Sahl b. ‘Askar-Isma’il b. ‘Abd al-Karim-Wahb, mentioning some of his majesty (as being described as follows): The heavens and the earth and the oceans are in the haykal, and the haykal is in the Footstool. God’s feet are upon the Footstool. He carries the Footstool. It became like a sandal on His feet. When Wahb was asked: What is the haykal? He replied: Something on the heavens’ extremities that surrounds the earth and the oceans like ropes that are used to fasten a tent. And when Wahb was asked how earths are (constituted), he replied: They are seven earths that are FLAT and islands. Between each two earths, there is an ocean. All that is surrounded by the (surrounding) ocean, and the haykal is behind the ocean. (History of Al-Tabari-General Introduction and From the Creation to the Flood, translated by Franz Rosenthal [State University of New York Press (SUNY), Albany, NY 1989], Volume 1, pp. 207-208; bold emphasis mine)

Ibn Kathir

<and of the earth the like thereof.> means, He created seven earths. In the Two Sahihs, there is a Hadith that states…

<<Whoever usurps the land of somebody unjustly, even if it was a mere hand span, then his neck will be encircled with it down to the seven earths.>>

And in Sahih Al-Bukhari the wording is…

<<…he will sink down to the seven earths.>>

In the beginning of my book, Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah, I mentioned the various narrations for this Hadith when I narrated the story of the creation of the earth. All the thanks and praise is due to Allah.

Those who explained this Hadith to mean the seven continents have brought an implausible explanation that contradicts the letter of the Qur’an and the Hadith without having proof. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Volume 10 (Surat At-Tagabun to the end of the Qur’an), abridged by a group of scholars under the supervision of Shaykh Safiur-Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri [Darussalam Publishers & Distributors, Riyadh, Houston, New York, London, Lahore; first edition, September 2000], pp. 55-56 https://www.alim.org/quran/tafsir/ibn-kathir/surah/65/12; bold emphasis mine)


4. The orbit and setting of the sun

The Quran and Muhammad’s Sunna teach that the sun descesnds into a muddy spring and then travels all the way to Allah’s throne where it prostrates and waits for permission to return to its course!

“and he followed a way until, WHEN HE REACHED THE SETTING OF THE SUN, HE FOUND IT SETTING IN A MUDDY SPRING, and he found nearby a people.” S. 18:86

One of the major signs of the Hour

91. Abu Dharr narrated, “Once I was with the Prophet (riding) a donkey on which there was a saddle or a (piece of) velvet. That was at sunset. He said to me, ‘O Abu Dharr, do you know where this (sun) sets?’ I said, ‘Allah and His Messenger know better.’ He said, ‘It sets in a spring of murky water, (then) it goes and prostrates before its Lord, the Exalted in Might and the Ever-Majestic, under the Throne. And when it is time to go out, Allah allows it to go out and thus it rises. But, when He wants to make it rise where it sets, He locks it up. The sun will then say, “O my Lord, I have a long distance to run.” Allah will say, “Rise where you have set.” That (will take place) when no (disbelieving) soul will get any good by believing then.’” (Ahmad) (The Translation of: The Meaning of the Fifty Hadith of Jame Al-uloom Wal-Hakim (“A Compilation of Knowledge and Wisdom”), compilation by Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali (736 H-795 H), translated and spotlights by Yaseen Ibrahim al-Sheikh (Vol. 1), A Selection of Authentic Qudsi (Sacred) Hadiths, translated by Muhammad M. ‘Abdul-Fattah, edited by Reima Youssif Shakeir (Vol. 2) [Dar Al-Manarrah for Translation, Publishing & Distribution], pp. 319-320)

And:

(3991) Abu Dharr said: I was sitting behind the Apostle of Allah who was riding a donkey while the sun was setting. He asked: Do you know where this sets? I replied: Allah and his Apostle know best. He said: IT SETS IN A SPRING OF WARM WATER (hamiyah).3408 (Prof. Ahmad Hasan, Sunan Abu Dawud – English Translation With Explanatory Notes [Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, Publishers, Lahore, 1984], Volume III. Chapters 1338-1890, XXV. Kitab Al-Ahruf Wa Al-Qira’at [Book of Dialects and Readings Of The Qur’an], Chapter 1498, p. 1120; bold and capital emphasis mine)

3408. Qur’an, xviii. 86. The word hami’ah in this verse has two readings. Abu Ja‘far, Abu ‘Amir, Hamzah, al-Kisa’i and Abu Bakr read it hamiyah with long vowel aHamiyah means warm water. The others read it hami’ah meaning musky water. (Ibid.)

Not only do we have a gross scientific error, we also have a variant reading. This shows that, contrary to Muslim propaganda, the Quran hasn’t been perfectly preserved since the extant manuscripts and the Islamic traditions show that it contains variant and conflicting readings.

And here’s a different translation of Abu Dawud’s report:

4002. It was narrated that Abu Dharr said: “I was riding behind the Messenger of Allah while he was on a donkey, and the sun was setting. He said: ‘Do you know where this (sun) sets?’ I said: ‘Allah and his Messenger know best.’ He said: ‘IT SETS IN A SPRING OF WATER (fa innaha taghrubu fi ‘ainin hamiyah).’” (SAHIH) (English Translation of Sunan Abu Dawud, Compiled by Imam Hafiz Abu Dawud Sulaiman bin Ash‘ath – From Hadith no. 3242 to 4350, ahadith edited and referenced by Hafiz Abu Tahir Zubair ‘Ali Za’i, translated by Nasiruddin al-Khattab (Canada), final review by Abu Khaliyl (USA) [Darussalam Publishers & Distributors, First Edition: July, 2008], Volume 4, 29. The Book Of The Recitations And Readings Of The Qur’an, p. 375 https://sunnah.com/abudawud:4002; capital emphasis mine)

Now notice what the following verse states in respect to the Sun’s orbit:

And the sun runneth on unto a resting-place for him. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Wise. S. 36:38 Pickthall

And here’s how Muhammad explained it:

Narrated Abu Dharr:
The Prophet asked me at sunset, “Do you know where the sun goes (at the time of sunset)?” I replied, “Allah and His Apostle know better.” He said, “It goes (i.e. travels) till it prostrates Itself underneath the Throne and takes the permission to rise again, and it is permitted and then (a time will come when) it will be about to prostrate itself but its prostration will not be accepted, and it will ask permission to go on its course but it will not be permitted, but it will be ordered to return whence it has come and so it will rise in the west. And that is the interpretation of the Statement of Allah: ‘And the sun runs its fixed course for a term (decreed). That is The Decree of (Allah) The Exalted in Might, The All-Knowing.’” (36.38) (Sahih al-Bukhari,Volume 4, Book 54, Number 421 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=54&translator=1&start=0&number=421)


5. The function of shooting stars

The Quran further claims that one of the purposes of the stars is to be hurled at satans or jinns:

And We have (from of old), adorned the lowest heaven with lamps, and We have made such (lamps as) missiles to drive away Satans … S. 67:5

We have indeed decked the lower heaven with beauty (in) the stars, (for beauty) and for guard against all obstinate rebellious Satans. (So) they should not strain their ears in the direction of the Exalted Assembly but be cast away from every side. S. 37:6-8 – Cf. Q. 15:16-18; 55:33-35

One Muslim named Abu Qatada stated that,

“The creation of these stars is for three purposes, i.e. as decoration of the (nearest) heaven, as missiles to hit the devils, and as signs to guide travelers. So, if anybody tries to find a different interpretation, he is mistaken and just wastes his efforts, and troubles himself with what is beyond his limited knowledge.” (Dr. Muhammad Taq-i-ud-Din Al-Hillai, Ph.D. [Berlin] & Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, Interpretation of the Meaning of the Noble Quran, pp. 214, 394-395; bold and italic emphasis ours)

It is quite possible that Muhammad believed that Satan was a material being since he also believed that Satan urinated on/in people:

Narrated ‘Abdullah:
A person was mentioned before the Prophet (p.b.u.h) and he was told that he had kept on sleeping till morning and had not got up for the prayer. The Prophet said, “Satan urinated in his ears.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 21, Number 245 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=21&translator=1&start=0&number=245 – see also Volume 4, Book 54, Number)

‘Abdullah (b. Mas’ud) reported that a mention was made of a man who slept the whole night till morning. He (the Holy Prophet) remarked: That is a man in whose ears (or in whose ear) the devil urinated. (Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Number 1700 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=004&translator=2&start=0&number=1591)

Read the following articles for more errors and to see how Allah narrates the exact same event with major verbal contradictions and variations:

Parallel Passages of the Quranic Text: CONCILIATION OR CONFLICT?

 Ipsissima Verba or Ipsissima Vox?

The Quran’s Fables, Myths and Conflicting Tales

The Quran’s Contradictory Creation Accounts

We are now ready to proceed to the final section of my challenges: CHALLENGES FOR ONE MESSAGE FOUNDATION PT. 4.

CHALLENGES FOR ONE MESSAGE FOUNDATION PT. 2

I continue with my challenges to Muhammad Uthman: CHALLENGES FOR ONE MESSAGE FOUNDATION PT. 1.

THE EMBARRASSING SITUATION OF THE QURAN’S AHRUF AND QIRAAT

According to the so-called authentic Islamic reports there wasn’t one standard way of reciting the Quran, but multiple ways, which caused confusion even among Muhammad’s closest companions!

Narrated by Umar bin Al Khattab: I heard Hisham bin Hakim bin Hizam reciting Surat-al-Furqan in a way different to that of mine. Allah’s Apostle had taught it to me (in a different way). So, I was about to quarrel with him (during the prayer) but I waited till he finished, then I tied his garment round his neck and seized him by it and brought him to Allah’s Apostle and said, “I have heard him reciting Surat-al-Furqan in a way different to the way you taught it to me.” The Prophet ordered me to release him and asked Hisham to recite it. When he recited it, Allah’s Apostle said, “It was revealed in this way.” He then asked me to recite it. When I recited it, he said, “It was revealed in this way. The Qur’an has been revealed in seven ahruf, so recite it in the way that is easier for you.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 041, Number 601 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=41&translator=1&start=0&number=601)

And:

Ubayy b. Ka’b reported: I was in the mosque when a man entered and prayed and recited (the Qur’an) in a style to which I objected. Then another man entered (the mosque) and recited in a style different from that of his companion. When we had finished the prayer, we all went to Allah’s Messenger and said to him: This man recited in a style to which I objected, and the other entered and recited in a style different from that of his companion. The Messenger of Allah asked them to recite and so they recited, and the Apostle of Allah expressed approval of their affairs (their modes of recitation). and there occurred in my mind a sort of denial which did not occur even during the Days of Ignorance. When the Messenger of Allah saw how I was affected (by a wrong idea), he struck my chest, whereupon I broke into sweating and felt as though I were looking at Allah with fear. He (the Holy Prophet) said to me: Ubayy, a message was sent to me to recite the Qur’an in one dialect, and I replied: Make (things) easy for my people. It was conveyed to me for the second time that it should be recited in two dialects. I again replied to him: Make affairs easy for my people. It was again conveyed to me for the third time to recite in seven dialects. And (I was further told): You have got a seeking for every reply that I sent you, which you should seek from Me. I said: O Allah! forgive my people, forgive my people, and I have deferred the third one for the day on which the entire creation will turn to me, including even Ibrahim (for intercession). (Sahih Muslim, Book 004, Number 1787 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=004&translator=2&start=0&number=1670)

Some Islamic polemicists assert that these refer to the various Arabic dialects which were in use at that time. However, this makes absolutely no sense since both Umar and Hisham belonged to the same tribe, namely the Quraish, and spoke the same exact dialect! Besides, according to the so-called authentic narratives the Quran was “revealed” in the Quraish dialect: 

II: The Qur’an was revealed in the language of Quraysh and the Arabs

“An Arabic Qur’an” (12:2) and “in clear Arabic language” (26:195)

4699. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, “‘Uthman commanded Zayd ibn Thabit, Sa’id ibn al-‘As, ‘Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr, and ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn al-Harith ibn Hisham to write out copies of the Qur’an. He told them, “When you and Zayd ibn Thabit disagree about the Arabic of the Qur’an, you should write it in the language of Quraysh. The Qur’an was revealed in their tongue.’ They did that.” (Aisha Bewley, The Sahih Collection of Al-BukhariChapter 69. Book of the Virtues of the Qur’an; underline emphasis ours)

And:

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman came to Uthman at the time when the people of Sham and the people of Iraq were waging war to conquer Arminya and Adharbijan. Hudhaifa was afraid of their (the people of Sham and Iraq) differences in the recitation of the Qur’an, so he said to ‘Uthman, “O chief of the Believers! Save this nation before they differ about the Book (Quran) as Jews and the Christians did before.” So ‘Uthman sent a message to Hafsa saying, “Send us the manuscripts of the Qur’an so that we may compile the Qur’anic materials in perfect copies and return the manuscripts to you.” Hafsa sent it to ‘Uthman. ‘Uthman then ordered Zaid bin Thabit, ‘Abdullah bin AzZubair, Said bin Al-As and ‘AbdurRahman bin Harith bin Hisham to rewrite the manuscripts in perfect copies. ‘Uthman said to the three Quraishi men, “In case you disagree with Zaid bin Thabit on any point in the Qur’an, then write it in the dialect of Quraish, the Qur’an was revealed in their tongue.” They did so, and when they had written many copies, ‘Uthman returned the original manuscripts to Hafsa. ‘Uthman sent to every Muslim province one copy of what they had copied, and ordered that all the other Qur’anic materials, whether written in fragmentary manuscripts or whole copies, be burnt. Said bin Thabit added, “A Verse from Surat Ahzab was missed by me when we copied the Qur’an and I used to hear Allah’s Apostle reciting it. So we searched for it and found it with Khuzaima bin Thabit Al-Ansari. (That Verse was): ‘Among the Believers are men who have been true in their covenant with Allah.’ (33.23)” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 61, Number 510 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=61&translator=1&start=0&number=510)

Therefore, whatever the differences were they must have been of major significance since it shocked Ubayy b. Kab, a close companion and reciter of the Quran, to the point that he started to doubt his faith and caused Umar to physically seize and drag Hisham by his garment which he wrapped around his neck!     

To make matters worse the third caliph Uthman ibn Affan decided to destroy six of these seven ahruf even though companions like Abdullah ibn Masud insisted that each respective Muslim community should continue reading the Quran according to harf taught to them by reciters such as himself!

Difference Between Ahrûf & Qirâ’ât

It is important to realize the difference between ahruf and Qirâ’ât. Before going into that it is interesting to know why the sevenahruf were brought down to one during ‘Uthmân’s time.

The Qur’an continued to be read according to the sevenahruf until midway through Caliph ‘Uthman’s rule when SOME CONFUSION arose in the outlying provinces concerning the Qur’an’s recitation. Some Arab tribes had began to boast about the superiority of their ahruf and a rivalry began to develop. At the same time, some new Muslims also began mixing the various forms of recitation out of ignorance. Caliph ‘Uthman decided to make official copies of the Qur’an according to the dialect of the Quraysh and send them along with the Qur’anic reciters to the major centres of Islam. This decision was approved by Sahaabah and all unofficial copies of the Qur’an were destroyed. Following the distribution of the official copies, all the other ahruf were dropped and the Qur’an began to be read in only one harf. Thus, the Qur’an which is available through out the world today is written and recited only according to theharf of Quraysh.[8] (M S M Saifullah, Islamic Awareness, Versions of The Qur’an?; capital and underline emphasis mine)

And:

“If it is asked what was the point of ‘Uthman unifying people under a single copy of the Qur’an when Abu Bakr had already achieved that, then the response is that the aim of ‘Uthman was not to gather people in order to compile the Qur’an. Do you not see that he sent to Hafsa to ask her to give him the copy of the Qur’an so that it could be copied out and then returned to her? ‘Uthman did that BECAUSE PEOPLE WERE DISAGREEING ABOUT THE VARIOUS RECITATIONS owing to the fact that the Companions had spread to different areas AND HAD BEGUN TO STRONGLY DISAGREE, such as the conflict that took place between the people of Iraq and the people of Syria according to Hudhayfa.

“They joined an expedition to Armenia and each group recited what had been transmitted to them. They disagreed and quarrelled AND SOME OF THEM CALLED THE OTHERS UNBELIEVERS, RENOUNCING THEM COMPLETELY, CURSING ONE ANOTHER. Hudhayfa WAS ALARMED at what he saw. As soon as he arrived back to Medina, according al-Bukhari and at-Tirmidhi, before returning to his house he went to ‘Uthman and said, ‘This Community has reached the stage where it will be destroyed!’ ‘Why?’ asked ‘Uthman. He said, ‘It is about the Book of Allah. I was on this expedition and some of the people of Iraq, Syria and the Hijaz came together.’ Then he described what had happened and said, ‘I fear that they will differ about their Book as the Jews and Christians differed.’

“This is the evidence of the falseness of those who say that the seven ahruf are the seven present readings, because there is no disagreement about them. Suwayd ibn Ghafala reported from ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib that ‘Uthman said, ‘What do you think about the copies of the Qur’an? The people have disagreed about the reciters until a man says, “My reading is better than your reading. My reading is better is more excellent than your reading.” This is equivalent to disbelief.’ He replied, ‘What is your view, Amr al-Mu’minin?’ He said, ‘I think that we people should agree on one reading. If you differ today, those after you will disagree more strongly.’ ‘Ali said, ‘The correct opinion is yours, Amr al-Mu’minin.’… ‘Uthman returned the pages to Hafsa and he sent a copy of what they had copied out to every region and commanded of what sheet or copy which had any form of the Qur’an should be burned. ‘Uthman did this after gathering the Muhajirin and Ansar and a group of Muslims and consulting them about it…

“Ibn Shihab said that he was told by ‘Ubaydullah ibn ‘Abdullah that ‘Abdullah ibn Mas‘ud disliked Zayd ibn Thabit copying out the Qur’an and said, ‘Company of Muslims, withdraw from making copies and entrusting it to one man. By Allah, I became Muslim while he was in the loins of an unbelieving father!’ meaning Zayd ibn Thabit. That is why ‘Abdullah ibn Mas‘ud said, ‘People of Iraq, CONCEAL THE COPIES OF THE QUR’AN YOU HAVE AND CONCEAL THEM. Allah says, “Those who misappropriate will arrive on the Day of Rising with what they have misappropriated.”’ (Tafsir al-Qurtubi: Classical Commentary of the Holy Qur’an, translated by Aisha Bewley [Dar Al-Taqwa Ltd. 2003], Volume I, Introduction: ‘Uthmani Codex, pp. 52-53: *; bold and capital emphasis mine)

Again:

“Narrated ‘Alqama al-Nakha’i: When ‘Abd Allah b. Mas’ud left Kufa his companions gathered around him. He took leave of them, and said: ‘Do not dispute about the Qur’an. It will not vary, nor will it dwindle or change because it is often repeated. The revealed law of Islam, its legal punishments, its religious obligations, exist in it in a single form. If something in one of the ahruf forbade something which another commanded, that would be a variation, but it combines all that; there are no variations in it regarding the legal punishments or the religious obligations, nor in anything else in the laws of Islam. I remember when we disputed about the Qur’an before the Messenger of God; he ordered us to recite before him, and told each of us we recited properly. If I were to come to know that someone knew more than I did about what God had sent down to His Messenger, I would seek him out in order to add his knowledge to mine. I learnt seventy suras from the tongue of the Messenger of God himself, and I knew that the Qur’an was read by him (by those companions chose to learn it by heart and recite to him so that he would check the recitation) every month of Ramadan, until the year his life was taken away, when it was recited twice. When that was finished, I recited myself before him, and he told me I had recited properly. HE WHO RECITES LIKE I RECITE MUST NOT ABANDON THAT RECITATION FOR ANOTHER, AND HE WHO RECITES ACCORDING TO ANOTHER HARF MUST NOT ABANDON THAT FOR ANOTHER, for he who rejects any verse rejects them all.” (The commentary on the Qur’an, by Abu Ja’far Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari; being an abridged translation of Jami’ al-bayan ‘an ta’wil ay al-Qur’an, Introduction and Notesby J. Cooper, general editors, W.F. Madelung & A. Jones [Oxford University Press, New York 1987], Volume 1, p.16; capital emphasis mine)

Finally:

“Narrated Ibn Mas’ud: ‘He who recites the Qur’an according to one harf MUST NOT CHANGE FROM IT TO ANOTHER.’

“It is quite clear that ‘Abd Allah b. Mas’ud did not mean by what he said: He who recites any command or prohibition in the Qur’an must not change from it to the recitation of any threat or promise in it, and he who recites any threat or promise in it must not change from it to the recitation of any narration or parable in it. What he meant, may God have mercy on him, was: He who recites with his harf must not change it to another just because he dislikes it – and his harf is his recitation, just as the Arabs call someone’s recitation his harf… AND HE WHO RECITES WITH UBAIY’S OR ZAID’S HARF, OR WITH THE HARF OF ANY OF THE COMPANIONS OF THE MESSENGER OF GOD WHO RECITED WITH ONE OF THE SEVEN AHRUF, must not change from it to another because he dislikes it. For unbelief in part of the Qur’an is unbelief in all of it, and unbelief in one of these ahruf is unbelief in all of it, meaning by harf the recitation of anyone who recited with one of the seven ahruf as we have described.” (Ibid., p. 29; capital emphasis ours)

And here is what a more recent Muslim author named Farid Esack noted in respect to the compilation of the Quran:

It is likely that Zayd was engaged in more than one process and in different periods; the first, during Abu Bakr’s reign, when he had undertaken the material collection of the suhuf, and another, during the period of ‘Uthman, when he undertook its arrangement and editing. The second process also commences with concern about human frailties –recollection, memory, pronunciation, retention, etc., – which became particularly acute as the Muslim empire began to spread and time moved on. This is reflected in the following statement attributed to Abu Qullabah on the authority of Malik ibn Anas, a Companion:

During the Caliphate of ‘Uthman, different teachers were teaching DIFFERENT READINGS to their students. Thus it used to happen that that[sic] the students would meet AND DISAGREE. The matter reached the point that they would take their dispute to their teachers, WHO WOULD DENOUNCE EACH OTHER AS HERETICS (kaffara ba’duhum ba’da). This situation reached ‘Uthman’s ears. He delivered an oration saying: “You are here by me, yet YOU DISAGREE on the reading and pronunciation of the Qur’an. Therefore, those who are far away from me in the provinces MUST BE IN GREATER DISPUTE… (ibn Abu Dawud, cited in Zarqani, 1996, 1:210).

This statement casts A FURTHER SHADOW around the putative finality of the earlier process which Zayd had engaged in and the notion of an official codex lodged with Hafsah. While a loose collection may have been completed then, the arrangement and editing seems to have taken place much later. During the time of ‘Uthman’s reign, a major impetus for this task was the concern expressed by Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman, who led the Muslim forces against the Armenians in Azerbaijan. He was deeply perturbed at the quarreling that had broken out among soldiers from different areas of the then Muslim world. Upon his return to Medina he urged the Caliph to ensure the proper collection of the Qur’an. ‘Uthman then selected Zayd for the task. Traditional Muslim scholarship holds that Zayd took the suhuf in Hafsah’s possession and, with the assistance of a group of scribes comprising ‘Abd Allah ibn Zubayr, ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Harith, and Sa’d ibn al-‘As, prepared a text faithful to the language/dialect of the Quraysh, the Prophet’s tribe (Zarkashi, 1972, 1:236). Copies of this new version were sent to Damascus, Basra, and Kufa and another copy was kept at Medina. Orders were given to destroy all other versions, and, as indicated earlier, the extent of compliance with these orders seems to vary in different places. Given the conflict ridden nature of ‘Uthman’s rule, it would seem somehow strange for such a process to be undertaken and completed in the neat manner that later Muslim writings hold. The vehemently apologetic nature with which Muslim scholars, even the earlier ones, present this account suggests that the battle for the authenticity of this process as well as its final product may have lasted longer than what traditional opinion may suggest… (Esack, The Qur’an A User’s Guide: A Guide to its Key Theme, History And Interpretation [Oneworld Publications, Oxford, 2005], pp. 87-88; capital and underline emphasis mine)

And:

THE EXISTENCE OF SEVERAL VARIANT CODICES

‘Uthman’s project to compile the Qur’an was clearly in response to the proliferation of “unauthorized copies” during his time – partly as a result of the problems of the Arabic script of that time. Early Muslim scholars such as Ibn Astah (d. 360/970-971), Ibn Abi Dawud (d. 316/928-929), and Ibn al-Anbari (d. 328/939-940) also dealt with these variant codices. Some of these codices seem to have been in use well after the official canon was produced and up to well into the fourth Islamic century. In Kufa, for example, the version of ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud remained in vogue for some time and there are indications that he refused instructions to stop teaching his versions and to destroy copies of it. Traditional Muslim scholars argue that the period of Ibn Mas’ud’s version’s persistence and its strength had been exaggerated and that the wisdom of ‘Uthman’s course of action had become apparent to Ibn Mas’ud fairly early (Zarqani, 1996, 1:214, cf. 224-228). The extra-canonical texts never gained approval and were viewed by Muslims as the personal copies of individuals worth retaining for their exegetical value. (Ibid., p. 93; underline emphasis mine)

The above sources provide conclusive evidence that the differences that existed between the competing codices produced by companions such as Ubayy and Abdullah ibn Masud were not minor. They were so great and so serious that the Muslims even started to attack and curse each other!

I am not done just yet since there’s more in part 3: CHALLENGES FOR ONE MESSAGE FOUNDATION PT. 3.