The following is taken from The Moody Handbook of Messianic Prophecies: Studies and Expositions of the Messiah in the Old Testament, eds. Michael Rydelnik & Edwin Blum, published by Moody Publishers, Chicago, IL 2019, pp. 747-756. All emphasis will be mine.
The Riddle of the Son
The identity of the Messiah revealed by the Old Testament prophets is central to faith in the Lord Jesus. 4uestions that often arise include: Where is His identity revealed in the Hebrew Scriptures? and What is His relationship with the Lord God Almighty? Clues to the identity of the promised Messiah appear throughout the Tanakh, but perhaps one of the most intriguing passages is the riddle of the Son’s identity in Prv 30:1-6.
This article will decipher that riddle by looking ﬁrst at the context of Prv 30, then at the author and message of the saying, 30:1-3. Next, it will examine the questions of Prv 30:4 involving both the description and the identity of the ﬁgures in this verse. Finally, it will look at the solution to the riddle as found in Prv 30:5-6.
THE CONTEXT OF PROVERBS 30
The book of Proverbs is a handbook for wise, godly living the heart of the wisdom literature of the Bible. The collected sayings were primarily from King Solomon, but the book also included other sources. Applying the principles of Proverbs will supply skill for life and a deeper knowledge of the Lord, as well as insight regarding the Messiah. 1 The book of Proverbs is not merely a random collection of wise sayings, but rather it has structure and indicates a speciﬁc purpose. The book opens with a prologue and an appeal to wisdom with a series of 12 exhortations (chaps. 19). The central teaching of the book (chaps. 10–29) comprises wise sayings for study and meditation. These include 375 proverbs of Solomon (10–22:16), and a smaller group of sayings of the wise (22:17–24:34), along with proverbs collected by King Hezekiah (25–29). The book concludes with words from Agur and King Lemuel presenting application of wisdom in speciﬁc situations (30–31). 2
The last two chapters of Proverbs, the sayings of Agur and Lemuel, serve as an appendix to the book. The theme of Proverbs is: “The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom and the knowledge of the Holy One is understanding” (9:10). The riddle of the son, found in 30:16, speaks to this core issue as Agur expresses his “knowledge of the Holy One” (30:3) before presenting the riddle of the Son (30:4-5).
THE WRITER OF PROVERBS 30
The identity of Agur is often debated. His name means “to gather,” and it has been suggested that this is a pseudonym for Solomon, who wrote the majority of the book of Proverbs. 3 Just as Solomon identiﬁed himself as 4oheleth, the “teacher/caller/preacher,” in Ecclesiastes (Ecc 1:1, 12), here it is suggested Solomon is using Agur to identify his work of gathering wise sayings. Seeing Agur as a pseudonym for Solomon is one of the ancient Jewish understandings from the Midrash, which sees an allusion to Solomon; he was called Agur because he stored up knowledge of the Torah.4 This tradition of authorship was followed by the early Christian traditions from Jerome, but the majority of modern Christian and Jewish commentators reject this idea and take the name Agur to be a proper name of an individual, the son of Jakeh, meaning “obedient or pious.” Neither of these names is used elsewhere in Scripture, but they are found as proper names in cognate Semitic languages. 5 Perhaps Agur was a wise man and a contemporary of King Solomon, similar to Ethan or Heman (1Kg 4:31; Ps 89). Anything beyond this is mere speculation regarding his identity. However, far more important than his identity is the content of his message.
THE MESSAGE OF PROVERBS 30
The opening words of Prv 30 give a preview of the signiﬁcance of the message to follow. First, Agur identiﬁes his words as “the oracle” (ha-massa, “the burden”) at the start of the verse (30:1a). This term is frequently used of the message of a prophet given by God (e.g., Prv 31:1; Isa 13:1; 14:28; Jer 23:33; Nah 1:1; Hab 1:1; Zch 12:1). However, the translation of this word has caused some speculation. Rather than translating this as “the oracle,” a few commentators have suggested Agur was a Massaite because one of Ishmael’s sons was named Massa (Gn 25:14). Ascribing this passage to a non-Jewish writer was an attempt to show that the plain truth of Scripture is evident to the pious of any nation, or perhaps suggesting that Agur was a proselyte. However, this is highly conjectural and not based on the clearest meaning of the Hebrew. 6 It is best to identify Agur as a Jewish sage presenting these truths.
Agur further identiﬁes his words as a prophetic message. They are an “oracle” (ne’um, “utterance, declaration, revelation”). The genitive which follows is usually the name of the Lord, Yahweh (“the declaration or oracle of Yahweh”) or occasionally, a synonym for God’s name (cf. Isa 1:24; 19:4). Therefore this phrase describes direct words from the Lord.7 This word is used with a human in only four places in the OT. The ﬁrst two refer to an oracle of Balaam (Nm 24:3,
15), the third identiﬁes an oracle of David (2Sm 23:1), and the fourth is here in Prv 30:1 where it says of Agur, “the man’s oration.” The Hebrew word ne’um should be translated “oracle” and indicates a prophetic oracle. Therefore, these words of Agur are not a simple collection of wise sayings, but rather in his opening words, he declares that what follows is a prophetic message. This is evident by his use of these two speciﬁc Hebrew words for a divine utterance. Moreover, the other three similar usages of ne’um introduced a messianic prediction, as does Agur’s oracle here. This obviously becomes important in light of the riddle regarding the Son in Prv 30:4b.
As the passage begins, two individuals are speciﬁcally addressed. First is “Ithiel,” a name meaning “with me is God.” Nothing is known about this individual, but Ithiel is the name of a Benjamite who returned from the exile with Nehemiah (Neh 11:7). Next “Ucal,” a name meaning “I am strong” or “I am consumed,” is likewise unknown beyond this passage. Their names suggest they were seriously seeking to know the Lord. Their exact relationship to Agur is not given, but perhaps they were his sons, disciples, or students. His message was directed to them, but also it was universal in scope, as is all Scripture. However, if the words ithiel and ucal are not considered names, but are combined with a diﬀerent word division in the MT, with diﬀerent vowel points, the verse is translated as: “I am weary, God, but I can prevail” or “I am weary, O God, and worn out” (NIV, NLT, ESV). This reading is primarily an attempt to deal with a diﬃcult phrase and make it an introduction to Agur’s description of himself, “I’m the least intelligent of men” (v. 2). This “weary” phrase does not seem as likely a translation of the Hebrew as simply Agur’s address to the men Ithiel and Ucal (as it is translated in HCSB, NASB, KJV, NKJV). 8
Agur not only describes himself as “least intelligent of men,” he also goes on to describe himself as a man who lacks “ability to understand” (v. 2). He is thus pointing out the need for divine revelation. Most translations continue this negative description as: “I have not gained wisdom, and I have no knowledge of the Holy One” (v. 3). This, however, is not the literal reading of the Hebrew text, which should be translated, “but I do possess knowledge of the Holy One.”9 Although Agur has not gained wisdom, the last half of verse indicates he does have knowledge of the Holy One as demonstrated by the questions he raises.
Agur may lack wisdom, but he is committed to know “the Holy One,” a name for the Lord used here as well as in Prv 9:10. This phrase “the Holy One” is a shortened form of the divine title of the “Holy One of Israel” frequently found in the OT, with 25 of those uses in Isaiah. Isaiah 40:25 presents a similar question regarding the work of the Holy One (cf. Ps 71:22; Isa 1:4; 12:6; 41:14; 43:3; 60:9). This name for God highlights His unique character, since He alone is “glorious in holiness” (Ex 15:11; Rev 15:4). He is supreme in wisdom, power, authority, purity, and perfection. Agur refers to his knowledge of the Holy One (cf. Prv 2:5) and displays its signiﬁcance by raising the profound questions which follow in v. 4. By using two sets of rhetorical questions, he will draw out a strong conclusion.
THE “WHO?” QUESTIONS (PROVERBS 30:4A)
After Agur declares his knowledge of the Holy One, he asks four questions or riddles to provoke the reader to greater understanding. Riddles are a type of word puzzle often used in Scripture as a test of wisdom or to disclose important truth in a thought-provoking manner (Prv 1:6; 30:18-23; Jdg 14:12-14). The ﬁrst four questions are in an anaphoric style, each one beginning with the same word, “Who,” and draw the reader to reach a clear conclusion at the end. All of the questions are answered directly elsewhere in Scripture. These questions are reminiscent of the lessons the Lord taught Job from the whirlwind (Job 38–41), asking questions such as: “Who ﬁxed [the] dimensions [of the earth]?”; “Who enclosed the sea behind doors?”; “Who cuts a channel for the ﬂooding rain?” (Job 38:5, 8, 25). The implied answer to all these questions to Job is, “God alone.” Agur’s questions are likewise parallel to a poetic declaration of God’s greatness posed in the form of a series of questions and statements, for example: “Who has measured the waters in the hollow of his hand … Who has gathered the dust of the earth in a measure” (Isa 40:12). Then the prophet Isaiah supplies the answer to his series of questions: “God is enthroned above …” (Isa 40:22).
The ﬁrst “who?” question, “Who has gone up to heaven and come down?” is an allusion to Dt 30:12. The question is not just who has gone up, or perhaps the answer might be Elijah (2Kg 2:1-18). However, the prophet did not go up and come down with divine wisdom. The Lord God alone is the One who has done this, as He is portrayed in Ps 68, descending from heaven and ascending to His throne in Zion (esp. vv. 17-21; see also Ps 47 and Jn 3:13).
The second “who?” question, “Who has gathered the wind in His hands?” is answered in Amos, “He is here: the One who forms the mountains, creates the wind” (Am 4:13). The psalmist also says, “He … brings the wind from His storehouses” (135:7; cf. Jer 10:13). No one but God has this power.
The third “who?” question, “Who has bound up the waters in a cloak?” is similar to the Lord’s query of Job: “Who enclosed the sea behind doors … when I made the clouds its garment and thick darkness its blanket?” (Job 38:8-9, see also Job 26:8; 37:11). It is also parallel to Isaiah’s inquiry: “Who has measured the waters in the hollow of His hand?” (40:12). Only God has the power to collect water into rain clouds, as a cloak. Grisanti observes that “God’s sovereignty is often emphasized by means of his control over water [cf. Gn 1:9-10; chaps 6-9; Ps 104:6-7, 10-13; Am 5:8].” 10
The fourth “who?” question, “Who has established all the ends of the earth?” is also parallel to the Lord’s question of Job: “Where were you when I established the earth?” (Job 38:4-5). Here the idea is establishing a ﬁxed boundary of the earth by separating the land from the waters and setting a boundary for the sea (Job 38:10-11; Prv 8:29; Ps 104:9; Jer 5:22). This work is unique to the Lord, and found throughout the Scriptures, beginning in the Genesis creation account (Gn 1:1; Ps 104:5; Isa 45:18). God alone “established the earth, and it stands ﬁrm” (Ps 119:90).
The phrase “ends of the earth” is frequently used as a synecdoche indicating He has created, and has dominion over, everything in the world (Dt 30:4; 1Sm 2:10; Job 28:24; 37:3; Ps 2:8). The Lord’s dominion as Creator is further indicated by the chiastic pattern of these four “who?” questions. The ﬁrst and the fourth questions compose a merism of “heaven” (“Who has gone up to heaven?”) and “earth” (“Who has established the earth?”). The center two questions concerning “wind” and “water” reﬂect the Lord’s daily sustaining care of all of His creation.11 Thus the four “Who?” questions encompass the idea of the Lord being the powerful creator and sustainer of everything between heaven and earth.
THE “NAME” QUESTIONS (PROVERBS 30:4B)
The “What-is-His-name?” questions at the end of v. 4 are a further request for an answer to the “Who?” questions earlier in the verse. It is necessary to understand that the request for the name in this instance is more than a demand for identiﬁcation. The divine name is an expression of the character of God by which He reveals Himself (Ex 3:13-15; 34:5-7). Throughout the Bible, He has presented Himself with many identifying names (e.g., God Most High/El Elyon, Ps 7:17; God who Sees/El Roi, Gn 16:14; God Almighty/El Shaddai, Ps 91:1; LORD/Yahweh, Ex 3:13-14). Taken as a whole, the collected names of God in the Scriptures bring to light His attributes and nature. Often the Lord’s character and His work are identiﬁed by His “name” (e.g., Ex 20:7; Lv 19:12; Ps 30:4; Prv 18:10; Isa 26:13; Mic 4:5; Zch 10:12). The essence of the Lord’s character is focused in His name, and reveals His power, authority, and holiness. God is identiﬁed as “Holy One” (30:3), and His attributes described in 30:4a are extensive.
The answer to the ﬁrst “What-is-His-name?” question is straightforward. A close look at the characteristics of the four “who” questions reveals a clear answer: the Lord alone.12 The question echoes the foundational question of Scripture asked by Moses—“What is His name?” (Ex 3:13) and “can produce but one answer—‘Yahweh.’”13 The early rabbinic writings also understood this to be God, and they respond to these questions, “His name is the Lord.”14 The answer is found intertextually in the Scriptures and is particularly clear in the parallel ideas of Job, where the Lord asks him questions that demand the answer: not you, Job, or any man, but God alone is the all-powerful creator and sustainer of life. This pattern of “who” with an implied answer of “the LORD” has a remarkable parallel to the hymnic refrain, “The LORD of Hosts is His name” (cf. Ex 15:3; Isa 48:2; Jer 10:16; 31:35; 32:18; 33:2; Am 4:13; 5:8, 27; 9:6). 15
The second question (“what is the name of His Son?”) is a more challenging inquiry. It is linked with the ﬁrst name request, and “since ‘God’ is the only possible answer to that question, it is striking that the text speaks of his ‘son.’”16 Although this question is frequently glossed over by commentators, it is essential to understanding the passage. The answer lies at the heart of solving the riddle: What is the name of His Son in this passage? Several identities have been suggested as the answer to this puzzling question.17
First, perhaps the weakest possibility is that it refers to Agur’s sons, Ithiel and Ucal. This is based on the lexical presupposition that in Proverbs “son” refers to the son being taught by his father (Prv 1:8; 2:1; 3:1; 5:1; 6:20). There are two problems with this view. First, although Agur identiﬁes Ithiel and Ucal, they are not identiﬁed as his sons. Furthermore, the question of the son’s identity is not linked to Agur, but to the Lord, the One who is described in the four “Who?” questions.
Second, the people of Israel have been suggested as the name of the son. This links the name of the son with that of the Lord, as Israel is related to Him. At the time of the exodus, Israel is called God’s ﬁrstborn son (Ex 4:22). Israel is often called the son of God throughout the OT (e.g., Dt 14:1; 32:5-6, 19; Isa 43:6; 45:11; Jer 3:19). The problem with seeing the people of Israel as the answer to the riddle of the name of the Son is that the people of Israel are a group, whereas the question of the name of the Son seems to be demanding an individual person. Jewish interpreters wrestled with this verse by understanding the noun as plural, rather than singular, identifying son as “the children of Israel” or “the name of his sons.” This is the LXX translation, as well as Midrash Yalkut Shimoni,18 but does not seem true to the question of the name of the son as an individual.
Third, the son has been identiﬁed as the demiurge, based on the description of God in Prv 30:4. Understood thus, the son is not God, but is somehow involved in the creation, having been created by God. A similar idea is to identify the son as the LXX concept of logos (Ps 33:6) but not fully God.19
Fourth, it has been suggested that this individual is an ideal son. He is a son who gains wisdom from his father who teaches him the Scriptures as the source of divine knowledge and understanding. This is a good general description of any individual who has a right relationship with the Lord and applies the Word of God to his (or her) life, as Prv 9:10-11 teaches; however, it seems to fall far short of the urgent question regarding the name of the son.
A clearer understanding of the identity of the Son is found by considering his relationship to the One identiﬁed as the answer to the ﬁrst “name” question, the Lord. His name and the name of His Son suggest a unique relationship between the two, and a hint at the divine quality of the Son.20
The book of Proverbs provides a helpful insight into the identity of the Son in the personiﬁcation of wisdom passage (Prv 8:22-31). In the wisdom passage, God’s creative activity is described, similar to Prv 30:4a, and wisdom is present with Him “from the beginning” (8:22-23), at His side as a “skilled craftsman.” This innertextual connection further suggests the relationship between the Lord and this Son. Thus, there is a tradition of understanding His name and His Son’s name as alluding to a Trinitarian understanding of God.21
The implied answer to the ﬁrst question is the Lord, the Creator of all. As such, there is an implied dynamic relationship between that One and the Son in the second “name” question. Linking the Lord as Creator with the Son raises the implication of the role of the Son in creation. The personiﬁcation of wisdom is linked with creation in Prv 8. A close textual study of Prv 8 suggests that Wisdom should be understood as eternal, not created.22 Thus, clues are being revealed to solve the riddle of the Son. Delitzsch points out that the writer of Proverbs “attributes an existence preceding the creation of the world, he thereby declares her to be eternal, for to be before the world is to be before time.”23
Targum Neoﬁti (TN), a pre-Christian rabbinic Aramaic paraphrase of the Bible, provides an insight into the role of Wisdom in creation. Linking Prv 30:4 with Gn 1:1, TN reads “In the beginning, with wisdom, the Son of Yahweh created the heavens and the earth.” The prophet Jeremiah also says God established the world by His wisdom (Jer 10:12; 51:15), as does Psalms (Ps 104:24). Shepherd refers to the linkage of Prv 30:4 and Gn 1:1 and says, “The Targum also ﬁnds support within the book of Proverbs for its understanding of the Son’s role in creation.”24
There is a remarkable comment at the end of 30:4. After asking for “His name” and “the name of His Son,” the verse poses an interesting inquiry—“if you know?” (HCSB). This phrase, however, is more likely translated as a positive statement based on the asseverative use of ki, indicating certainty. 25 A better translation would read: “surely you know” (ESV, NIV, NASV, YLT), as the same phrase is found in Job 38:5 as “Certainly you know.” As in the questions raised in Job, the identity of God is implied as an answer to this question regarding the Son. Based on the reference to the Son, the link to the Creator and the parallelism for His name “Christian interpreters have understood this to be a reference to the Son of God (a subtle anticipation of the full revelation of the NT).”26
THE PURITY OF SCRIPTURE AND THE RIDDLE OF THE SON (30:5-6)
The passage concludes by pointing to Scripture as the source of the answer to all these questions. It is from the understanding of Scripture that the answer is surely known (30:5a). The verse aﬃrms that “Every word of God is pure” (tserupah), meaning “ﬂawless,” a term used to describe the purifying of metal by the smelting process (cf. Isa 1:25; 48:10; Jer 9:7). Thus, every word of Scripture is trustworthy, and has stood the test, and is the source of knowledge by which God, the Holy One, is known (cf. Pss. 119:89, 142, 160). The source of this truth is God, who is linked here with His Son. Ecclesiastes, another of the wisdom books, identiﬁes the words of wisdom as being given by “one Shepherd,” a messianic title used by Ezekiel (Ecc 12:11; Ezk 34:23; 37:24).
The passage then illustrates the reliability of Scripture. First, it points to God and His word as “a shield,” a defender who protects His faithful ones; this is a familiar description (e.g., Ps 3:3; Prv 2:7). Proverbs 30:5 makes an intertextual reference that is almost a direct quote of David’s aﬃrmation of the reliability of the Lord’s word (2Sm 22:31).
Next, God’s word is a “refuge,” an image used earlier as “the name of [the Lord] is a strong tower” to which the righteous run and are safe (Prv 18:10). Taking refuge in the Lord means to trust in Him by obedience to His word in every circumstance of life.
More signiﬁcant, in light of the riddle of the name of the Son, is the connection of “refuge” in Prv 30:5 to Ps 2, a key messianic text. That Psalm speaks of “the LORD and His Anointed (Messiah)” and identiﬁes Him, the Anointed One (2:2), as “You are My Son” (2:7), an important correlation to the “name” questions of Prv 30:4b. Psalm 2 concludes with the demand that homage be given to the Son, resulting in blessing to “all those who take refuge in Him” (Ps 2:12). Thus, Prv 30:4-5 is illustrated and the identity of the Son brought into focus by Ps 2.
This section ends with a warning not to “add to His words” or “you will be proved a liar” (30:6). This echoes the words of Moses (Dt 4:2; 12:32), as well as the closing words of the NT (Rev 22:18-19). So the passage concludes with a stern emphasis on the importance of the lesson regarding the identity of the Son.
Thus, taking all the evidence together, the name of the Son is the Messiah. As Gill remarks, “This Scripture is a proof of Christ’s being the eternal Son of God; of his equality with his divine Father as such, their name and nature being alike ineﬀable; of his co-existence with his Father as such; and of his omnipresence and omnipotence, expressed by the phrases here used of ascending and of his distinct personality from the Father; the same question being distinctly put of him as of the Father.”27
Considering the question of the “name of His Son” in the context of Prv 30:1-6, it is best to see this as a reference to the Messiah. The identity of the Son is not a matter of human biological relationships, speaking of father as older and the begetter of the young son. Instead it should be understood as the Son of God as one of the divine persons, coexistent with the Father from eternity (Mic 5:2). This, as Cooper points out, is the view of the inspired writer of Prv 30:4.28 This text does not give a full-orbed description of the Lord Jesus revealed in the NT as drawn from a broad base of Messianic prediction and proﬁle throughout the whole Tanakh (OT). However, a careful reading of the passage does provide a cogent answer to the riddle of His Son’s identity. He is the Messiah, whose personal name is revealed in the NT as Jesus (Mt 1:21).
1. See B. Leventhal’s article in this Handbook, “Messianism in Proverbs.”
2. J. Sailhamer, NIV Compact Bible Commentary (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994), 350.
3. For a thorough discussion of the identity of Agur, see Bruce Waltke, The Book of Proverbs: Chapters 15–31. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2005), 465.
4. A. Cohen, Proverbs, The Soncino Books of the Bible (London: Soncino Press, 1980), 200.
5. Waltke, Book of Proverbs, 465, fn 89.
6. A. Cohen, Proverbs, 200.
7. S. R. Driver, Notes on the Hebrew Text of Samuel (Winona Lake, IN: Alpha Publications, repr. 1984; Oxford 1889), 356.
8. Waltke, Book of Proverbs, 455, 467–68. For a more detailed discussion of this issue see Waltke’s comments in his footnotes 9, 100, and 101.
9. Sailhamer, NIV Compact Bible Commentary, 354. See also The Jewish Study Bible (Oxford: JPS, 2004), note on Prv 30:3.
10. M. A. Grisanti, New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology, 2:929, s.v. mayim.
11. Waltke, Book of Proverbs, 471–72.
12. R. K. Harrison, “Proverbs” in Baker Commentary on the Bible, ed. W. A. Elwell, (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1989), 429.
13. J. Pauls, “Proverbs 30:1–6, ‘The Words of Agur’ as Epistemological Statement” (ThM thesis, Regents College, 1998), 117; quoted from Waltke, The Book of Proverbs, 473.
14. B. L. Visotzky, Midrash on Proverbs (Yale University Press, 1992), 118.
15. J. L. Crenshaw, Hymnic Aﬃrmation of Divine Justice (Society for Biblical Literature, Dissertation Series 24: Missoula: Scholars, 1975), 75–92.
16. D. A. Garrett, “Proverbs” in Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, The New American Commentary, (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1993) 237.
17. C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, “Proverbs” in Commentary on the Old Testament, vol. 6 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980), 279.
18. Visotzky, Midrash on Proverbs, 118.
19. NET Bible 30:4. fn 2, 1144.
20. Keil and Delitzsch “Proverbs” in Commentary on Old Testament, 277.
21. D. J. Treier, Proverbs & Ecclesiastes, Brazos Theological Commentary on the Bible (Grand Rapids: Brazos Press, 2011), 106–107.
22. One essential translation issue is that the Hebrew verb kanah should be translated “begotten” not “made” in Prv 8:22. See Seth Postell’s article in this Handbook—“The Messiah: Personiﬁcation of Divine Wisdom.”
23. C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, The Pentateuch, Commentary on the Old Testament, vol. 1 (Peabody: Hendrickson, 1966), 133.
24. M. A. Shepherd “Targums, the New Testament, and Biblical Theology of the Messiah,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society (51:1, March 2008), 51.
25. The absolute certainty with which a result is to be expected is frequently emphasized by the insertion of kiy. Gesenius, Kautzsch, Cowley, Advanced Hebrew Grammar, Title, Gesenius Hebrew Grammar. W. Gesenius, Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar, ed. E. Kautzsch and A. E. Cowley, 2nd English ed. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982), 498.
26. A. P. Ross, “Proverbs,” Expositor’s Bible Commentary, vol. 5, ed. F. E. Gaebelein (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1991), 1119–20.
27. J. Gill “Proverbs” in Exposition of the Whole Bible, www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/gills-exposition-of-thebible/proverbs-30-4.html (accessed February 9, 2019).
28. D. L. Cooper, The God of Israel, Messianic Series Number One (Los Angeles: Biblical Research Society, 1945), 63–64.